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PROBLEMS

2.1 Two forces P and Q are applied as shown at point A of a hook

support. Knowing that P 5 75 N and Q 5 125 N, determine graphically the magnitude and direction of their resultant using (a) the parallelogram law, (b) the triangle rule.
2.2 Two forces P and Q are applied as shown at point A of a hook
A

support. Knowing that P 5 60 lb and Q 5 25 lb, determine graphically the magnitude and direction of their resultant using (a) the parallelogram law, (b) the triangle rule.
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35

2.3 The cable stays AB and AD help support pole AC. Knowing that the

tension is 120 lb in AB and 40 lb in AD, determine graphically the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the forces exerted by the stays at A using (a) the parallelogram law, (b) the triangle rule.
A

Fig. P2.1 and P2.2

A B 10 ft 40 60 3 kN

2 kN B 8 ft Fig. P2.3 C 6 ft D Fig. P2.4 300 lb b

2.4 Two forces are applied at point B of beam AB. Determine graphi-

cally the magnitude and direction of their resultant using (a) the parallelogram law, (b) the triangle rule.
2.5 The 300-lb force is to be resolved into components along lines a-a9

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a'

and b-b9. (a) Determine the angle a by trigonometry knowing that the component along line a-a9 is to be 240 lb. (b) What is the corresponding value of the component along b-b9?
2.6 The 300-lb force is to be resolved into components along lines a-a9

b' Fig. P2.5 and P2.6

and b-b9. (a) Determine the angle a by trigonometry knowing that the component along line b-b9 is to be 120 lb. (b) What is the corresponding value of the component along a-a9?
2.7 Two forces are applied as shown to a hook support. Knowing that

50 N 25 a P Fig. P2.7

the magnitude of P is 35 N, determine by trigonometry (a) the required angle a if the resultant R of the two forces applied to the support is to be horizontal, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R .
Answers to all problems set in straight type (such as 2.1) are given at the end of the book. Answers to problems with a number set in italic type (such as 2.4) are not given.

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26

Statics of Particles

2.8 For the hook support of Prob. 2.1, knowing that the magnitude of

P is 75 N, determine by trigonometry (a) the required magnitude of the force Q if the resultant R of the two forces applied at A is to be vertical, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.
2.9 A trolley that moves along a horizontal beam is acted upon by two

15 1600 N

forces as shown. (a) Knowing that a 5 25, determine by trigonometry the magnitude of the force P so that the resultant force exerted on the trolley is vertical. (b) What is the corresponding magnitude of the resultant?
2.10 A trolley that moves along a horizontal beam is acted upon by two
a P

Fig. P2.9 and P2.10

forces as shown. Determine by trigonometry the magnitude and direction of the force P so that the resultant is a vertical force of 2500 N.
2.11 A steel tank is to be positioned in an excavation. Knowing that

a 5 20, determine by trigonometry (a) the required magnitude of the force P if the resultant R of the two forces applied at A is to be vertical, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.

425 lb 30

P a

Fig. P2.11 and P2.12

2.12 A steel tank is to be positioned in an excavation. Knowing that

the magnitude of P is 500 lb, determine by trigonometry (a) the required angle a if the resultant R of the two forces applied at A is to be vertical, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.
2.13 For the hook support of Prob. 2.7, determine by trigonometry

(a) the magnitude and direction of the smallest force P for which the resultant R of the two forces applied to the support is horizontal, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.
2.14 For the steel tank of Prob. 2.11, determine by trigonometry

(a) the magnitude and direction of the smallest force P for which the resultant R of the two forces applied at A is vertical, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.
2.15 Solve Prob. 2.2 by trigonometry. 2.16 Solve Prob. 2.3 by trigonometry. 2.17 Solve Prob. 2.4 by trigonometry.

2.18 Two structural members A and B are bolted to a bracket as shown.

Knowing that both members are in compression and that the force is 15 kN in member A and 10 kN in member B, determine by trigonometry the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the forces applied to the bracket by members A and B.
2.19 Two structural members A and B are bolted to a bracket as shown.

2.7 Rectangular Components of a Force. Unit Vectors

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40

20

Knowing that both members are in compression and that the force is 10 kN in member A and 15 kN in member B, determine by trigonometry the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the forces applied to the bracket by members A and B.
2.20 For the hook support of Prob. 2.7, knowing that P 5 75 N and

a 5 50, determine by trigonometry the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the two forces applied to the support.

Fig. P2.18 and P2.19

2.7

RECTANGULAR COMPONENTS OF A FORCE. UNIT VECTORS

In many problems it will be found desirable to resolve a force into two components which are perpendicular to each other. In Fig. 2.18, the force F has been resolved into a component Fx along the x axis and a component Fy along the y axis. The parallelogram drawn to obtain the two components is a rectangle, and Fx and Fy are called rectangular components.
y y F Fy Fx x O Fig. 2.19 F

Fy O Fig. 2.18

x Fx

The x and y axes are usually chosen horizontal and vertical, respectively, as in Fig. 2.18; they may, however, be chosen in any two perpendicular directions, as shown in Fig. 2.19. In determining the rectangular components of a force, the student should think of the construction lines shown in Figs. 2.18 and 2.19 as being parallel to the x and y axes, rather than perpendicular to these axes. This practice will help avoid mistakes in determining oblique components as in Sec. 2.6.
The properties established in Secs. 2.7 and 2.8 may be readily extended to the rectangular components of any vector quantity.

PROBLEMS
2.21 and 2.22

Determine the x and y components of each of the


y 800

forces shown.

y 28 in. 84 in.

Dimensions in mm O 424 N 900

800 N

96 in. 600 x

50 lb 29 lb O 51 lb

80 in.

408 N

x 90 in.

560 Fig. P2.21

480 Fig. P2.22

48 in.

2.23 and 2.24

Determine the x and y components of each of the


y y 60 lb 25 x 60 50 50 lb Fig. P2.23 40 lb Fig. P2.24 150 N 35 30 40 x 120 N 80 N

forces shown.

2.25 Member BD exerts on member ABC a force P directed along

line BD. Knowing that P must have a 300-lb horizontal component, determine (a) the magnitude of the force P, (b) its vertical component.
C 35 D

B A Q Fig. P2.25

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34

Statics of Particles

A B Q 60 C 50

D Fig. P2.26

2.26 The hydraulic cylinder BD exerts on member ABC a force P


B

directed along line BD. Knowing that P must have a 750-N component perpendicular to member ABC, determine (a) the magnitude of the force P, (b) its component parallel to ABC.
2.27 The guy wire BD exerts on the telephone pole AC a force P
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directed along BD. Knowing that P must have a 120-N component perpendicular to the pole AC, determine (a) the magnitude of the force P, (b) its component along line AC.
2.28 The guy wire BD exerts on the telephone pole AC a force P directed

C Fig. P2.27 and P2.28

along BD. Knowing that P has a 180-N component along line AC, determine (a) the magnitude of the force P, (b) its component in a direction perpendicular to AC.
2.29 Member CB of the vise shown exerts on block B a force P directed

along line CB. Knowing that P must have a 1200-N horizontal component, determine (a) the magnitude of the force P, (b) its vertical component.
2.30 Cable AC exerts on beam AB a force P directed along line AC.
l

C l 55 A Fig. P2.29 55 B

Knowing that P must have a 350-lb vertical component, determine (a) the magnitude of the force P, (b) its horizontal component.
C 55 A B Q

Fig. P2.30

2.31 Determine the resultant of the three forces of Prob. 2.22.


a 30 200 N 150 N Fig. P2.35 a

2.32 Determine the resultant of the three forces of Prob. 2.24.


100 N

2.33 Determine the resultant of the three forces of Prob. 2.23. 2.34 Determine the resultant of the three forces of Prob. 2.21. 2.35 Knowing that a 5 35, determine the resultant of the three forces

shown.

2.36 Knowing that the tension in cable BC is 725 N, determine the

2.9 Equilibrium of a Particle

resultant of the three forces exerted at point B of beam AB.


840 mm C L = 1160 mm 800 mm

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B A 5 3 500 N Fig. P2.36 4 5

13 12 780 N 120 lb

80 lb

60 lb a'

2.37 Knowing that a 5 40, determine the resultant of the three forces

shown.
2.38 Knowing that a 5 75, determine the resultant of the three forces

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shown.
2.39 For the collar of Prob. 2.35, determine (a) the required value of

Fig. P2.37 and P2.38

a if the resultant of the three forces shown is to be vertical, (b) the corresponding magnitude of the resultant.
2.40 For the beam of Prob. 2.36, determine (a) the required tension in

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cable BC if the resultant of the three forces exerted at point B is to be vertical, (b) the corresponding magnitude of the resultant.
2.41 Determine (a) the required tension in cable AC, knowing that
25 35 50 lb B 75 lb

the resultant of the three forces exerted at point C of boom BC must be directed along BC, (b) the corresponding magnitude of the resultant.
2.42 For the block of Probs. 2.37 and 2.38, determine (a) the required

value of a if the resultant of the three forces shown is to be parallel to the incline, (b) the corresponding magnitude of the resultant.

Fig. P2.41

2.9

EQUILIBRIUM OF A PARTICLE

In the preceding sections, we discussed the methods for determining the resultant of several forces acting on a particle. Although it has not occurred in any of the problems considered so far, it is quite possible for the resultant to be zero. In such a case, the net effect of the given forces is zero, and the particle is said to be in equilibrium. We thus have the following definition: When the resultant of all the forces acting on a particle is zero, the particle is in equilibrium. A particle which is acted upon by two forces will be in equilibrium if the two forces have the same magnitude and the same line of action but opposite sense. The resultant of the two forces is then zero. Such a case is shown in Fig. 2.26.

100 lb A 100 lb Fig. 2.26

PROBLEMS
2.43 Two cables are tied together at C and are loaded as shown. Know-

ing that a 5 20, determine the tension (a) in cable AC, (b) in cable BC.
2.44 Two cables are tied together at C and are loaded as shown. Deter-

40 C

mine the tension (a) in cable AC, (b) in cable BC.


200 kg A Fig. P2.43

50 C

500 N

30

B Fig. P2.44

A 45 C

25

2.45 Two cables are tied together at C and are loaded as shown. Know-

ing that P 5 500 N and a 5 60, determine the tension in (a) in cable AC, (b) in cable BC.
2.46 Two cables are tied together at C and are loaded as shown. Deter-

P Fig. P2.45

mine the tension (a) in cable AC, (b) in cable BC.

B 75

75 A

200 kg Fig. P2.46

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Statics of Particles

2.47 Knowing that a 5 20, determine the tension (a) in cable AC, (b) in

rope BC.

A 5 C 1200 lb Fig. P2.47 B

2.48 Knowing that a 5 55 and that boom AC exerts on pin C a force

directed along line AC, determine (a) the magnitude of that force, (b) the tension in cable BC.
2.49 Two forces P and Q are applied as shown to an aircraft connection.

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20 300 lb

Knowing that the connection is in equilibrium and that P 5 500 lb and Q 5 650 lb, determine the magnitudes of the forces exerted on the rods A and B.

FA A A Fig. P2.48

FB B

50

40 P FB B C A FA D FD 3 FC Fig. P2.49 and P2.50

2.50 Two forces P and Q are applied as shown to an aircraft connection.

Knowing that the connection is in equilibrium and that the magnitudes of the forces exerted on rods A and B are FA 5 750 lb and FB 5 400 lb, determine the magnitudes of P and Q.
2.51 A welded connection is in equilibrium under the action of the four

forces shown. Knowing that FA 5 8 kN and FB 5 16 kN, determine the magnitudes of the other two forces.
2.52 A welded connection is in equilibrium under the action of the four

Fig. P2.51 and P2.52

forces shown. Knowing that FA 5 5 kN and FD 5 6 kN, determine the magnitudes of the other two forces.

2.53 Two cables tied together at C are loaded as shown. Knowing that Q 5

Problems

60 lb, determine the tension (a) in cable AC, (b) in cable BC.
2.54 Two cables tied together at C are loaded as shown. Determine the
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range of values of Q for which the tension will not exceed 60 lb in either cable.
2.55 A sailor is being rescued using a boatswains chair that is suspended
30 P = 75 lb 30 60 C

from a pulley that can roll freely on the support cable ACB and is pulled at a constant speed by cable CD. Knowing that a 5 30 and b 5 10 and that the combined weight of the boatswains chair and the sailor is 900 N, determine the tension (a) in the support cable ACB, (b) in the traction cable CD.
D A C B B

Q Fig. P2.53 and P2.54

Fig. P2.55 and P2.56

2.56 A sailor is being rescued using a boatswains chair that is suspended

from a pulley that can roll freely on the support cable ACB and is pulled at a constant speed by cable CD. Knowing that a 5 25 and b 5 15 and that the tension in cable CD is 80 N, determine (a) the combined weight of the boatswains chair and the sailor, (b) the tension in the support cable ACB.
2.57 For the cables of Prob. 2.45, it is known that the maximum allow-

able tension is 600 N in cable AC and 750 N in cable BC. Determine (a) the maximum force P that can be applied at C, (b) the corresponding value of a.
2.1 m 2.1 m B

2.58 For the situation described in Fig. P2.47, determine (a) the value

of a for which the tension in rope BC is as small as possible, (b) the corresponding value of the tension.
2.59 For the structure and loading of Prob. 2.48, determine (a) the

value of a for which the tension in cable BC is as small as possible, (b) the corresponding value of the tension.
2.60 Knowing that portions AC and BC of cable ACB must be equal,

determine the shortest length of cable that can be used to support the load shown if the tension in the cable is not to exceed 870 N.

1200 N Fig. P2.60

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Statics of Particles

2.61 Two cables tied together at C are loaded as shown. Knowing

that the maximum allowable tension in each cable is 800 N, determine (a) the magnitude of the largest force P that can be applied at C, (b) the corresponding value of a.
A B 50

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a P

x B

Fig. P2.61 and P2.62

2.62 Two cables tied together at C are loaded as shown. Knowing that

the maximum allowable tension is 1200 N in cable AC and 600 N in cable BC, determine (a) the magnitude of the largest force P that can be applied at C, (b) the corresponding value of a.
C 50 lb P A Fig. P2.63 and P2.64 B 20 in.

2.63 Collar A is connected as shown to a 50-lb load and can slide on a

frictionless horizontal rod. Determine the magnitude of the force P required to maintain the equilibrium of the collar when (a) x 5 4.5 in., (b) x 5 15 in.
2.64 Collar A is connected as shown to a 50-lb load and can slide on a

frictionless horizontal rod. Determine the distance x for which the collar is in equilibrium when P 5 48 lb.
2.65 A 160-kg load is supported by the rope-and-pulley arrangement

P A

shown. Knowing that b 5 20, determine the magnitude and direction of the force P that must be exerted on the free end of the rope to maintain equilibrium. (Hint: The tension in the rope is the same on each side of a simple pulley. This can be proved by the methods of Chap. 4.)
2.66 A 160-kg load is supported by the rope-and-pulley arrangement

shown. Knowing that a 5 40, determine (a) the angle b, (b) the magnitude of the force P that must be exerted on the free end of the rope to maintain equilibrium. (See the hint for Prob. 2.65.)
2.67 A 600-lb crate is supported by several rope-and-pulley arrange-

ments as shown. Determine for each arrangement the tension in the rope. (See the hint for Prob. 2.65.)
160 kg Fig. P2.65 and P2.66 T T T T

(a) Fig. P2.67

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

2.68 Solve parts b and d of Prob. 2.67, assuming that the free end of

the rope is attached to the crate.


2.69 A load Q is applied to the pulley C, which can roll on the cable ACB.

2.12 Rectangular Components of a Force in Space

45

The pulley is held in the position shown by a second cable CAD, which passes over the pulley A and supports a load P. Knowing that P 5 750 N, determine (a) the tension in cable ACB, (b) the magnitude of load Q.
2.70 An 1800-N load Q is applied to the pulley C, which can roll on the

A 25 D 55 P C

cable ACB. The pulley is held in the position shown by a second cable CAD, which passes over the pulley A and supports a load P. Determine (a) the tension in cable ACB, (b) the magnitude of load P.

Fig. P2.69 and P2.70

FORCES IN SPACE
2.12 RECTANGULAR COMPONENTS OF A FORCE IN SPACE
The problems considered in the first part of this chapter involved only two dimensions; they could be formulated and solved in a single plane. In this section and in the remaining sections of the chapter, we will discuss problems involving the three dimensions of space. Consider a force F acting at the origin O of the system of rectangular coordinates x, y, z. To define the direction of F, we draw the vertical plane OBAC containing F (Fig. 2.30a). This plane passes through the vertical y axis; its orientation is defined by the angle f it forms with the xy plane. The direction of F within the plane is defined by the angle uy that F forms with the y axis. The force F may be resolved into a vertical component Fy and a horizontal component Fh; this operation, shown in Fig. 2.30b, is carried out in plane OBAC according to the rules developed in the first part of the chapter. The corresponding scalar components are Fh 5 F sin uy (2.16) Fy 5 F cos uy But Fh may be resolved into two rectangular components Fx and Fz along the x and z axes, respectively. This operation, shown in Fig. 2.30c, is carried out in the xz plane. We obtain the following expressions for the corresponding scalar components: Fx 5 Fh cos f 5 F sin uy cos f (2.17) Fz 5 Fh sin f 5 F sin uy sin f The given force F has thus been resolved into three rectangular vector components Fx, Fy, Fz, which are directed along the three coordinate axes. Applying the Pythagorean theorem to the triangles OAB and OCD of Fig. 2.30, we write 2 F2 5 ( OA ) 2 5 ( OB ) 2 1 ( BA ) 2 5 F2 y 1 Fh 2 2 2 2 2 Fh 5 ( OC ) 5 ( OD ) 1 ( DC ) 5 Fx 1 F2 z Eliminating F2 h from these two equations and solving for F, we obtain the following relation between the magnitude of F and its rectangular scalar components:
2 2 F 5 2 F2 x 1 Fy 1 Fz

y B A x C z (a)

y O

y B Fy O Fh C z (b) F A x

y B Fy O Fz E (c) Fh C Fx D x

(2.18)
Fig. 2.30