You are on page 1of 22

Note: Please read the Important Instructions and Disclaimer file before solving the MCQs 14.

RADIOACTIVITY
1) An electric field cannot deflect A) X-rays B) particle C) neutrons D) rays Which of the following is not emitted by a radioactive substance? A) particles B) positron C) proton D) neutron Which rays contain (positive) charged particle A) rays B) rays C) rays D) Xrays The particles or radiation emitted in the nuclear reaction A A A -4 Z-1RA-4 will be respectively, ZX Z+1Y Z-1R A) , , B) , , C) , , D) , , Which rays are not deflected in electric and magnetic fields A) Xrays B) rays C) rays D) none of these The half life of radium is about 1600 years. Of 100 g of radium existing now, 25 g will remain unchanged after A) 4800 years B) 6400 years C) 2400 years D) 3200 years

2)

3)

4)

5)

6)

7)

A radioactive element ZXA emits an particle and changes into A A) Z 2Y A4 B) ZY A4 C) Z 2Y A D) Z + 2Y A radioactive element X with a half life of 2 hours decays giving a stable element Y. After a time of t hours ratio of X to Y atoms is 1 : 7, then the value of t is A) 4 B) 6 C) Between 4 and 6 D) 14 An electric field can deflect A) X rays B) Neutrons C) particle D) Gamma rays The antiparticle of electron is A) Positron B) Proton C) particle D) particle Plutonium decays with half life of 24000 years. If plutonium is stored for 72000 years, the fraction of it that remains is A) 1 /8 B) 1 /3 C) 1 /4 D) 1 /2 B210 has a half life of 5 days. The time taken for seven-eighth of a sample to decay is A) 3.4 days B) 10 days C) 15 days D) 20 days A radioactive substance has a half life of four months. Three fourths of the substance will decay in A) 3 months B) 4 months C) 8 months

8)

9)

10)

11)

12)

13)

D)

12 months

14)

The half life of radon is 3.8 days. After how many days will only one twentieth of a radon sample be left over? A) 15.45 days B) 10.00 days C) 16.45 days D) 18.01 days The percentage of the original quantity of a radioactive material left after five half lives is approximately A) 1% B) 3% C) 5% D) 20 % The half life of radium is 1600 years. The fraction of a sample of radium that would remain undecayed after 6400 years is A) 1/ 2 B) 1/ 4 C) 1/ 8 D) 1/ 16 A sample of a radioactive substance has 106 nuclei. Its half life is 20 seconds. The number of nuclei that will be left after 10 seconds is approx. A) 1 105 B) 2 105 C) 7 105 D) 8 105 Nuclear fusion is possible A) only between light nuclei B) only between heavy nuclei C) between both light and heavy nuclei D) only between nuclei which are stable against -decay When a hydrogen bomb explodes, which of the following is used? A) fission B) fusion C) neither of two D) both

15)

16)

17)

18)

19)

20)

If in a nuclear fusion process the masses of the fusing nuclei be m1 and m2 and the mass of the resultant nucleus be m3, then A) m3 = m1 + m2 B) m3 = m1 m2 C) m3 < (m1 + m2) D) m3 >(m1 + m2) If M is the atomic mass, A is the mass number then (M A)/A is called A) binding energy B) Fermi energy C) Mass defect D) packing fraction Which of the following is the best nuclear fuel A) Thorium 236 B) Plutonium 239 C) Uranium 236 D) Neptunium 239 Of the following materials, the good moderator is A) Cadmium B) Graphite C) Helium D) Ordinary water The mean binding energy per nucleon in the nucleus of an atom is nearly A) 8 eV B) 8 KeV C) 8 MeV D) 8 GeV The process of fusion is used in the construction of A) an atom bomb B) a hydrogen bomb C) an ordinary bomb D) a neutron bomb The energy released when 1 a.m.u. of mass is completely converted into energy is A) 1 MeV B) 391 MeV C) 931 MeV D) 106 MeV

21)

22)

23)

24)

25)

26)

27)

11 11 6C 5Be

In the nuclear process + e+ X; X stands for A) neutron B) neutrino C) antineutrino D) photon In a nuclear reaction which of the following is conserved A) Momentum only B) Charge only C) Sum of mass and energy only D) All the above The end product of the decay of 90 Th232 is 82Pb208. The number of alpha and beta particles emitted are A) 3, 3 B) 6, 4 C) 6, 0 D) 4, 6 If the total binding energies of 1H2, 2He4, 26Fe56 and 92U235 nuclei are 2.22, 28.3, 492 and 1786 MeV, identify the most stable nucleus out of the following 56 A) 26Fe 2 B) 1H 235 C) 92U 4 D) 2He The mass defect per nucleon is called A) binding energy B) packing energy C) ionization energy D) excitation energy The nuclear model of atom was proposed by A) J.J.Thomson B) E. Rutherford C) Neils Bohr D) Sommerfield Rutherfords experiments on alpha particle scattering showed that the atomic nucleus A) is positively charged B) is neutral C) contains electrons D) is porous

28)

29)

30)

31)

32)

33)

34)

If 10% of a substance decays in 10 days, then approximate percentage of substance left after 24 days is A) 78 B) 70 C) 75 D) 80 Half life of a substance is 20 minutes. What is the time between 33% decay and 67 % decay? A) 20 minutes B) 25 minutes C) 30 minutes D) 40 minutes. At a given time there are 25% undecayed nuclei in a sample. After 10 seconds number of undecayed nuclei reduces to 12.5%. Then mean life of the nuclei will be about A) 10 sec B) 15 sec C) 20 sec D) 22 sec 90 % of a radioactive sample is left undisintegrated after time has elapsed, what percentage of initial sample will decay in a total time 2 ? A) 38 % B) 19% C) 9% D) 62 % A radio-active element has half life of 15 yrs. What is the fraction that will decay in 30 yrs. A) 0.25 B) 0.50 C) 0.75 D) 0.85 A radioactive material decays by simultaneous emission of two particles with respective half lives 1620 and 810 years. The time in years, after which onefourth of the material remains is A) 1080 B) 2340 C) 3240 D) 4860

35)

36)

37)

38)

39)

40)

A radioactive material decays by simultaneous emission of two particles with respective half lives T1and T2 .The effective half life of material is A) T1T2 B) C) D)

T1 T2 T1 .T2 T1 T2 T1 T2 2

41)

Which of the following radiations has the least wave length? A) rays B) rays C) Xrays D) rays A radioactive sample at any instant has a disintegration rate of 5000 disintegrations per minute. After 5 minutes, the rate is 1250 disintegrations/min. Then decay constant (per minute) is A) 0.2 ln 2 B) 0.1 ln 2 C) 0.8 ln 2 D) 0.2 ln 4 As the mass number A increases, which of the following quantities related to a nucleus does not change? A) binding energy B) density C) volume D) mass In which of the following decays does the element not change? A) decay B) -decay C) + -decay D) decay Which of the following are electromagnetic waves? A) rays B) beta-minus rays C) beta-plus rays D) rays

42)

43)

44)

45)

46)

Magnetic field does not cause deflection in A) gamma rays B) beta-minus rays C) beta-plus rays D) alpha rays The half life of I131 is 8 days. Given a sample of I131 at time t = 0, we can assert that A) no nucleus will decay before t = 4 days B) no nucleus will decay before t = 8 days C) all nuclei will decay before t = 16 days D) a given nucleus may decay after t = 0 In any nuclear reaction the reactants and the resultants must always be in conformity with the law of conservation of A) energy alone B) charge number alone C) mass number alone D) both charge and mass number Choose the WRONG statement. A) The nuclear force becomes weak if the nucleus contains too many protons compared to the number of neutrons. B) The nuclear force becomes weak if the nucleus contains too many neutrons compared to the number of protons. C) Nuclei with atomic number greater than 82 show a tendency to disintegrate. D) The nuclear force becomes very strong if the nucleus contains a large number of nucleons. What is particle in the following nuclear reaction? 9 4 12 Be + He C+ 4 2 6 A) Electron B) Proton C) Neutron D) Photon

47)

48)

49)

50)

51)

When aluminium is bombarded with fast neutrons, it changes into sodium with emission of particle according to the equation 24 27 A1 + 01 n N a + 13 11 What is x? A) electron B) proton C) neutron D) alpha- particle

52)

Graphite and heavy water are two common moderators used in a nuclear reactor. The function of the moderator is A) to slow down the neutrons to thermal energies B) to absorb the neutrons and stop the chain reaction C) to cool the reactor D) to control the energy released in the reactor Cadmium rods are used in a nuclear reactor for A) slowing down fast neutrons B) speeding up slow neutrons C) absorbing neutrons D) regulating the power level of the reactor. How much energy is released when one amu is wholly converted into energy? A) 1 MeV B) 200 MeV C) 931 MeV D) 10 6 MeV In the equation 27 4 30 A1 + He P+X, 13 2 15 The correct symbol for X is A) B) C) D)
0 1 1 1

53)

54)

55)

H He n

4 2

1 0

56)

Choose the WRONG statement. A thermonuclear fusion reactor is better than a fission reactor for the following reason: A) For the same mass of substances involved, a fusion reaction releases much more energy than a fission reaction. B) A fusion reaction can be much more easily controlled than a fission reaction. C) A fusion reaction produces almost no radioactive waste. D) The fuel required for fusion is readily available in abundance from seawater. Which of the following particles can be added to the nucleus of an atom without changing its chemical properties? A) Electrons B) Protons C) Neutrons D) Alpha Particles The average number of neutrons released by the fission of one uranium atom is A) 1 B) 2 C) 2.5 D) 3 What A) B) C) D) What A) B) C) D) is the main source of energy of the sun? Gravitational energy liberated during the slow contraction of the sun. Combustion of pure carbon present in the sun Nuclear fission of heavier unstable elements in the sun Nuclear fusion of lighter elements in the sun. is the rest mass energy of an electron? 1 eV 0.51 MeV 931 MeV none of these

57)

58)

59)

60)

61)

The chemical behaviour of an atom depends upon A) the number of electrons orbiting around its nucleus B) the number of protons in its nucleus C) the number of neutrons in its nucleus D) the number of nucleons in its nucleus.

62)

After two hours 1/16th of the initial amount of a certain radioactive isotope remains undecayed. The half life of the isotope is A) 15 min B) 30 min C) 45 min D) 1 hour The half life of a certain radio isotope is 10 minutes. The number of radioactive nuclei at a given instant of time is 108. Then the number of radioactive nuclei left 5 minutes later would be 10 8 A) 2 B) 104 C) 2 10 7 10 8 D) 2 The half life of Pa-218 is 3 minutes. What mass of a 16 g sample of Pa-218 will remain after 15 minutes? A) 3.2 g B) 2.0 g C) 1.6 g D) 0.5 g A radioactive element X has atomic number Z and atomic mass number A. It decays by the emission of an alpha particle and a gamma ray. The new element is A) B) C) D)
A 2 Z 1 A 4 Z 2
A 1 Z

63)

64)

65)

Y Y Y Y

A 4 Z 2

66)

The radioactive decay of uranium into thorium is represented by the equation


238 92

234 90

Th + x

What A) B) C) D) 67)

is x? an electron proton an alpha particle a neutron

A carbon nucleus emits a particle x and changes into nitrogen according to the equation
14 6

14 7

N+x

What A) B) C) D) 68)

is x? an electron a proton an alpha particle a photon

The radioactive decay of an element X to elements Y and K is represented by the equation


A Z A A 4 A 4 X Z Y Z K Z K 1 1 1

The sequence of the emitted radiations is A) , , B) , , C) , , D) , , 69) The half life of a radioactive substance is 10 days. This means that A) the substance completely disintegrates in 20 days B) the substance completely disintegrates in 40 days C) 1/8 part of the mass of the substance will be left intact at the end of 40 days D) 7/8 part of the mass of the substance disintegrates in 30 days The half-life of a radioactive substance depends upon A) its temperature B) the external pressure on it C) the mass of the substance D) the strength of the nuclear force between the nucleons of its atoms.

70)

71)

Two radioactive sources A and B initially contain equal number of radioactive atoms. Sources A has a half-life of 1 hour and source B has a half-life of 2 hours. At the end of 2 hours, the ratio of the rate of disintegration of A to that of B is A) 1:2 B) 2:1 C) 1:1 D) 1:4 Two radioactive elements X and Y have half-life times of 50 minutes and 100 minutes respectively. Samples X and Y initially contain equal numbers of atoms. After 200 minutes, the ratio Number of undecayed atoms of X is Number of undecayed atoms of Y A) 4 B) 2 C) 1/2. D) 1/4. A uranium nucleus (atomic number 92, mass number 238) emits an alpha particle and the resultant nucleus emits a particle. The atomic and mass numbers respectively of the final nucleus are A) 90,240 B) 90,236 C) 91,234 D) 92,232 Beta rays emitted by a radioactive material are A) electromagnetic radiation B) the electrons orbiting around the nucleus C) charged particles emitted by the nucleus D) neutral particles The equation 4 4 1 H+ 2 He+ + 2e+ + 26 MeV represents
1

72)

73)

74)

75)

A) B) C) D)

-decay -decay fusion fission

76)

What is the number of and particles emitted in the following radioactive decay?
200 90

168 80

A) B) C) D) 77)

8 and 6 6 and 8 8 and 8 6 and 6

When a nucleus emits a photon, what happens to its atomic number and its actual mass? A) Its atomic number and its actual mass remain unchanged B) Its atomic number and its actual mass both decrease C) Its atomic number and its actual mass both increase D) Its atomic number remains the same but its actual mass decreases. In nuclear reactions, there is conservation of A) mass only B) energy only C) momentum only D) mass, energy and momentum. If the half life of a radioactive atom is 2.3 days, its decay constant would be A) 0.1 B) 0.2 C) 0.3 D) 2.3 1 A radioactive substance disintegrates of its initial value in 60 seconds. The 64 half life of the substance is A) 5s B) 10 s C) 30 s D) 20 s Half-lives of two radioactive substances A and B are 20 minutes and 40 minutes respectively. Initially samples A and B have equal number of nuclei. After 80 minutes, the ratio of the remaining number of A and B nuclei is A) 1 : 16 B) 4:1 C) 1:4 D) 1:1

78)

79)

80)

81)

82)

When a -particle is emitted from a nucleus, the neutron-proton ratio A) is decreased B) is increased C) remains the same D) first (A) then (B) The mass number of nucleus is A) always less than its atomic number B) always more than its atomic number C) always equal to its atomic number D) sometimes more and sometimes equal to its atomic number A free neutron decays into a proton, an electron and A) a neutrino B) an antineutrino C) an -particle D) a -particle A radioactive element emitted is A) 4 B) 6 C) 2 D) 1
238 90

83)

84)

85)

X decays into

222 83

Y. The number of -particles

86)

Fast neutrons can easily be slowed down by A) the use of lead shielding B) passing them through water C) elastic collisions with heavy nuclei D) applying a strong electric field
22

87)

Ne nucleus, after absorbing energy, decays into two -particles and an unknown nucleus. The unknown nucleus is A) nitrogen B) carbon C) boron D) oxygen

88)

Binding energy per nucleon versus mass number curve for nuclei is shown in the figure. W, X, Y and Z are four nuclei indicated on the curve. The process that would release energy is

A) B) C) D) 89)

Y 2Z W X+Z W 2Y X Y+Z

Outside a nucleus A) neutron is stable B) proton and neutron are stable C) neutron is unstable D) neither neutron nor proton is stable The mass defect of an atom of mass M, atomic number Z and mass number A is given by M A) A M B) ZA C) (A-Z) mp D) [Zmp+(A-Z)mn+Zme] -M

90)

91)

The average binding energy of a nucleus inside an atomic nucleus is about A) 8 MeV B) 8 eV C) 8 joule D) 8 Erg

92)

The binding energy per nucleon is maximum in the case of 4 A) 2He 56 B) 26Fe 141 C) 56ba 235 D) 92U The mass defect for the nucleus of helium is 0.0303 a.m.u What is the binding energy per nucleus for helium in MeV? A) 28 B) 7 C) 4 D) 1 The binding energy of hydrogen atom is A) 1.0 eV B) Infinite C) -13.6 eV D) Zero After one a and two -emissions A) Mass number reduces by 2 B) Mass number reduces by 4 C) Mass number reduces by 6 D) Atomic number increases by one. Half-life of a radioactive element depends upon A) The amount of element present B) Temperature C) Pressure D) Nature of material The relationship between desintegeration constant ( ) and half life (T) will be log 2 A) = 10 T log e 2 B) = T T C) = log e 2 log e 2 D) = T2

93)

94)

95)

96)

97)

98)

Which of the following represents a -decay ? A A A) zX + z-1Y +a+b A 1 A-3 B) zX + 0 n z-2Y +c A A C) X X + f z z A 0 A D) zX + -1e z-1Y + g The same radioactive nucleus may emit A) Either a or and at a time B) All the three a, and one after another C) All the three a, and simultaneously D) Only a, and simultaneously In nuclear fission process, energy is released, because A) Mass of particles is more than mass of nucleus B) Total binding energy of products formed due to nuclear fission is more than the parent fissionable material C) Total binding energy of products formed due to nuclear fission is less than parent fissionable material D) Mass of some particles is converted into energy A radioactive substance of mass 16 mg reduces to 1 mg after A) 1 half life B) 3 half lives C) 5 half lives D) 4 half lives Number of neutrons in 92U238 atom is A) 92 B) 235 C) 146 D) 327 The nucleus of uranium splits into two fragments which are A) Oppositely charged B) Are electrically neutral C) Fly apart with great velocities at the instant of fission D) Are almost at rest immediately after fission.

99)

100)

101)

102)

103)

104)

If a beam consisting of , and radiations is passed through an electric field perpendicular to the beam, the deflections suffered by the components, in decreasing order, are A) ,, B) , , , C) , , D) , , In a radioactive series, and n 2 A) B) C) D)
238 92

105)

U changes to

206 82

Pb through n 1 decay processes

decay processes, hence n 1 = 8, n 2 = 8 n 1 = 6, n 2 = 6 n 1 = 8, n 2 = 6 n 1 = 6, n 2 = 8

106)

Let u denote one atomic mass unit. One atom of an element of mass number A has mass exactly equal to A u A) for any value of A B) only for A = 1 C) only for A = 12 D) for any value of A provided the atom is stable In a sample of radioactive material, what fraction of the initial number of active nuclei will remain undisintegrated after half of a half-life of the sample ? 1 A) 4 1 B) 2 2 1 C) 2 D) 2 1

107)

108)

Three-fourths of the active nuclei present in a radioactive sample decay in The half-life of the sample is A) 1s 1 B) s 2 3 C) s 4 3 D) s 8

3 s. 4

109)

90% of the active nuclei present in a radioactive sample are found to remain undecayed after 1 day. The percentage of undecayed nuclei left after two days will be A) 85% B) 81% C) 80% D) 79% When the nucleus of an electrically neutral atom undergoes a radioactive decay process, it will remain neutral after the decay if the process is A) an decay B) a - decay C) a decay D) a K-capture process Which of the following assertions are correct? A) A neutron can decay to a proton only inside a nucleus B) A proton can change to a neutron only inside a nucleus C) An isolated neutron can change into a proton. D) An isolated proton can change into a neutron. Two identical nuclei A and B of the same radioactive element undergo decay. A emits a -particle and changes to A. B emits a - particle and then a -ray photon immediately afterwards, and changes to B A) A and B have the same atomic number and mass number. B) A and B have the same atomic number but different mass numbers C) A and B have different atomic numbers but the same mass number. D) A and B are isotopes.

110)

111)

112)

113)

The decay constant of a radioactive sample is . Its half-life is T 1 / 2 and mean life is T. 1 ln 2 A) T 1/ 2 = T= , ln 2 1 B) T 1/ 2 = , T= 1 C) T 1 / 2 = ln2, T= ln 2 D) T 1/ 2 = ,T= ln 2

14. RADIOACTIVITY
Ques. No., 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Answer C C A D B D C D C A A C C C B D C A D C D B B C B C B D B A B B A A A B B C A Ques. No., 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 Answer C D D B A A A D D D C D A D C D D C D D B A B D D B C A B D D C D C C C A D D Ques. No., 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 Answer C B C A D B D B B C C D A B B D B D B C A B D C D C C C C D B C B A B