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DR techniques for corrosion inspection

Projection Radiography application application on on stream stream


common commonresearch researchproject project BASF BASFand andBAM BAM::
computer computerbased basedradiographic radiographic wall wallthickness thicknessmeasurement measurement

contents: contents:

--basic basicprinciples principles --software softwarefor forevaluation evaluation and anddocumentation documentation --corrosion corrosiondepth depthevaluation evaluation --corrosion corrosionmapping mapping
Zscherpel, Alekseychuk, Ewert, BAM VIII.3 Rost, BASF AG, DWF/FZ NDT 2003, BINDT, September 2003, Worcester, U.K.

DR techniques for corrosion inspection

Projection Radiography

Examples on Corrosion and Erosion

Corrosion and Seads

Corrosion

Erosion

Zscherpel, Alekseychuk, Ewert, BAM VIII.3 Rost, BASF AG, DWF/FZ

NDT 2003, BINDT, September 2003, Worcester, U.K.

DR techniques for corrosion inspection

History: radiographic wall thickness evaluation


applied since ca. 1950 nearly no literature until 1980 growing importance in chemical industry caused by onstream application since 1996 projects BASF und BAM for physical studies standardization open (IAEA Draft) BASF drawing from 1954

Zscherpel, Alekseychuk, Ewert, BAM VIII.3 Rost, BASF AG, DWF/FZ

NDT 2003, BINDT, September 2003, Worcester, U.K.

DR techniques for corrosion inspection

classical classicalset-up: set-up:


radiation source, Ir 192

pipe line

film, imaging plate, or flat panel

typical typicalexposure: exposure:


profile line

insulation

Zscherpel, Alekseychuk, Ewert, BAM VIII.3 Rost, BASF AG, DWF/FZ

NDT 2003, BINDT, September 2003, Worcester, U.K.

DR techniques for corrosion inspection

Projection Radiography

Example : distribution station

film

source

on-site exposure, Ir 192


Zscherpel, Alekseychuk, Ewert, BAM VIII.3 Rost, BASF AG, DWF/FZ

radiograph
NDT 2003, BINDT, September 2003, Worcester, U.K.

DR techniques for corrosion inspection

Projection Radiography

visual evaluation of wall thickness

w error sources:
- wrong density range - inaccurate edge detection (unsharpness) - wrong magnification factor
Zscherpel, Alekseychuk, Ewert, BAM VIII.3 Rost, BASF AG, DWF/FZ NDT 2003, BINDT, September 2003, Worcester, U.K.

DR techniques for corrosion inspection

Principle of projection radiography


tangential penetration of pipe wall
f - film focus distance r - outer pipe radius R - outer radius of insulation w - wall thickness projection on detector plane

pipe insulation

w` measured on film
Zscherpel, Alekseychuk, Ewert, BAM VIII.3 Rost, BASF AG, DWF/FZ NDT 2003, BINDT, September 2003, Worcester, U.K.

DR techniques for corrosion inspection

exact magnification correction :

practical approximation :
error [%]

r w' ( f R ) 2 2 f ( ) f R r w=r 2 r w' 1+ ( f R) 2 r 2 f


4 3 2 1 0 2 4 6 f/2r 8 10

program :

R w= 1 f w'

Zscherpel, Alekseychuk, Ewert, BAM VIII.3 Rost, BASF AG, DWF/FZ

NDT 2003, BINDT, September 2003, Worcester, U.K.

DR techniques for corrosion inspection

Projection Radiography film digitisation

PC based wall thickness measurement

imaging plate

flat panel

single program for evalution of all digital images, no size limitation


support for all detectors by external 16 bit LUT tables for linearisation (gray value proportional to radiation intensity)

Zscherpel, Alekseychuk, Ewert, BAM VIII.3 Rost, BASF AG, DWF/FZ

NDT 2003, BINDT, September 2003, Worcester, U.K.

DR techniques for corrosion inspection

Projection Radiography

PC based wall thickness measurement

overview of measurement equipment at BASF :


RT exposure scanner PC protocol

screen/film : film digitisation (16 bit, 300 dpi) RCF + F8 (7% of exposure time of Pb+D7)
Zscherpel, Alekseychuk, Ewert, BAM VIII.3 Rost, BASF AG, DWF/FZ

software for measurement (algorithms) and documentation

data base

NDT 2003, BINDT, September 2003, Worcester, U.K.

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DR techniques for corrosion inspection

16 bit software platform

wtScope.exe

transfer transferof ofimage imageprocessing processingknow-how know-howto toWindows WindowsPC PC (ScanManager (ScanManager1992 1992-1995, -1995,SUN SUNworkstations) workstations)::
--fully fully16 16bit bitdata datadepth depthfor forevaluation evaluationand anddisplay display --unlimited unlimitedimage imagesizes, sizes,limited limitedonly onlyby bymain mainmemory memory(>512 (>512MByte) MByte) --all alldetectors detectors(digitized (digitizedfilm, film,imaging imagingplates, plates,flat flatpanel paneldetectors) detectors) via viaexternal external16 16bit bitLookup LookupTables Tables(LUT) (LUT)linearizable, linearizable,ASCII ASCIItext text --fast fastrekursive rekursivemoving movingaverage averagefiltering filteringfor forarbitrary arbitrarysizes sizesof ofhigh highand and low lowpass passfilters, filters,convolution convolutionwith withvariable variablekernels kernels(ASCII (ASCIItext) text) --sub-sampling sub-samplingfor forimage imagedisplay displaywith withtrue trueaveraging averaging --error errorestimation estimationfor formeasured measuredvalues valuesand andsimple simplegeometric geometriccorrection correction --quick quickdocumentation documentationof ofmeasurements measurementsby byprotocol protocolgeneration generationand and transfer transferto toWord Word --protection protectionof ofapplication applicationby byindividual individualencrypted encryptedlicense licensekeys keys
Zscherpel, Alekseychuk, Ewert, BAM VIII.3 Rost, BASF AG, DWF/FZ NDT 2003, BINDT, September 2003, Worcester, U.K.

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DR techniques for corrosion inspection

Projection Radiography
input exposure parameters
wall thickness result

PC based wall thickness measurement

table with measurement regions tangential wall thickness algorithm

wall thickness deviation in measurement region


Zscherpel, Alekseychuk, Ewert, BAM VIII.3 Rost, BASF AG, DWF/FZ NDT 2003, BINDT, September 2003, Worcester, U.K.

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DR techniques for corrosion inspection

synchronous display of positions in profile and image !

position correction by hand, if algorithm fails !


Zscherpel, Alekseychuk, Ewert, BAM VIII.3 Rost, BASF AG, DWF/FZ NDT 2003, BINDT, September 2003, Worcester, U.K.

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DR techniques for corrosion inspection

Projection Radiography

PC generated measurement protocol

Zscherpel, Alekseychuk, Ewert, BAM VIII.3 Rost, BASF AG, DWF/FZ

NDT 2003, BINDT, September 2003, Worcester, U.K.

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DR techniques for corrosion inspection

Projection Radiography PC based wall thickness measurement


Algorithms : problem: correct detection of wall positions characteristic points, curve fitting, CT reconstr.
max. outer wall of pipe

inner wall of pipe

projected wall thickness w


Zscherpel, Alekseychuk, Ewert, BAM VIII.3 Rost, BASF AG, DWF/FZ NDT 2003, BINDT, September 2003, Worcester, U.K.

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DR techniques for corrosion inspection Comparison of accuracy of PC based algorithms

new wall thickness algorithm with adaptive smoothing for improved detection of inner wall position :
Accuracy DN 200 steel test pipe
0,6 0,4 Abweichung / mm 0,2 0 -0,2 -0,4 -0,6 -0,8 0 2 4 6 8 10 wall thickness / mm BASF alt BASF neu CTPWT
0,6 0,4 0,2 0 -0,2 -0,4 -0,6 -0,8 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 wall thickness / mm BASF alt BASF neu CTPWT

Accuracy DN 150 steel test pipe

Zscherpel, Alekseychuk, Ewert, BAM VIII.3 Rost, BASF AG, DWF/FZ

Abweichung / mm

NDT 2003, BINDT, September 2003, Worcester, U.K.

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DR techniques for corrosion inspection

algorithm detects edges, visual not seeable in image : extension of application range in comparison to visual evaluation
Ir 192, DN200:

11 mm

Co 60, DN300:

14

24 mm
NDT 2003, BINDT, September 2003, Worcester, U.K.

Zscherpel, Alekseychuk, Ewert, BAM VIII.3 Rost, BASF AG, DWF/FZ

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DR techniques for corrosion inspection

local corrosion : wall thickness differences in penetration direction source pipe erosion w-w intensity change, I detector absorption law :

Iw = I0 e -w

-effective absorption coefficient

relative relativemeasurement measurement:: 1. Calibration : 2. Measurement :


Zscherpel, Alekseychuk, Ewert, BAM VIII.3 Rost, BASF AG, DWF/FZ

2 step algorithm

eff = ln ( DREF / DIQI ) / wIQI


w = ln ( DREF / DMESS ) / eff
NDT 2003, BINDT, September 2003, Worcester, U.K.

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DR techniques for corrosion inspection

Projection Radiography

PC based wall thickness measurement

linearization of film curve and (log.) imaging plate scanner by external 16 bit LUT [Log(gray value proportional to radiation dose)]

digitized digitizedfilm, film,step stepwedge, wedge,160 160kV: kV: imaging imagingplate, plate,pipe pipe(DN (DN150), 150),Ir Ir::

Zscherpel, Alekseychuk, Ewert, BAM VIII.3 Rost, BASF AG, DWF/FZ

NDT 2003, BINDT, September 2003, Worcester, U.K.

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DR techniques for corrosion inspection

Measurement of local corrosion


1. Calibration (-eff estimation) test pipe DN 100 x 5,6 mm
pit 1 R3 x 1mm (Tool- / depth) pit 2 R3 x 2 mm pit 3 R3 x 3 mm

LUT for linearisation known wall thickness at reference point known wall thickness at measurement point

reference point

measure point

Zscherpel, Alekseychuk, Ewert, BAM VIII.3 Rost, BASF AG, DWF/FZ

NDT 2003, BINDT, September 2003, Worcester, U.K.

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DR techniques for corrosion inspection

Measurement of local corrosion


2. depth measurement

pitting depth: 3mm

measure point

known wall thickness at reference point (unchanged) result : local penetrated wall thickness in mm (error ca. 0.2 mm)

reference point

Zscherpel, Alekseychuk, Ewert, BAM VIII.3 Rost, BASF AG, DWF/FZ

NDT 2003, BINDT, September 2003, Worcester, U.K.

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DR techniques for corrosion inspection

Projection Radiography

evaluation of corrosion depth in inner third of pipe diameter possible

error < 0,5 mm

Zscherpel, Alekseychuk, Ewert, BAM VIII.3 Rost, BASF AG, DWF/FZ

NDT 2003, BINDT, September 2003, Worcester, U.K.

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DR techniques for corrosion inspection

Projection Radiography G.-R.Tillack, C. Bellon

simulation

separable investigations on influence of : wall thickness radiation source scattered radiation unsharpness
Zscherpel, Alekseychuk, Ewert, BAM VIII.3 Rost, BASF AG, DWF/FZ NDT 2003, BINDT, September 2003, Worcester, U.K.

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DR techniques for corrosion inspection

Simulation:

visual position of edge in image and profile differ !

Zscherpel, Alekseychuk, Ewert, BAM VIII.3 Rost, BASF AG, DWF/FZ

NDT 2003, BINDT, September 2003, Worcester, U.K.

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DR techniques for corrosion inspection

problem : local corrosion in wall, tangential projection

wall thickness on both sides of pipe 5 mm, only profile form differ ! simulation
Zscherpel, Alekseychuk, Ewert, BAM VIII.3 Rost, BASF AG, DWF/FZ NDT 2003, BINDT, September 2003, Worcester, U.K.

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DR techniques for corrosion inspection

median filtering in direction of symmetry : corrosion pit

measurement after mapping :

median filter perpenticular (1x49) >2x flaw size difference image pseudo color representation
Zscherpel, Alekseychuk, Ewert, BAM VIII.3 Rost, BASF AG, DWF/FZ

corrosion 5 mm -> complete wall !


NDT 2003, BINDT, September 2003, Worcester, U.K.

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DR techniques for corrosion inspection

real pipe, inner corrosion, insulated

corrosion mapping after median high pass (gray value prop. penetrated wall thickness, 1x300 points) :
+ 10 mm

- 0 mm - 5 mm

Zscherpel, Alekseychuk, Ewert, BAM VIII.3 Rost, BASF AG, DWF/FZ

NDT 2003, BINDT, September 2003, Worcester, U.K.

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DR techniques for corrosion inspection

corroded pipe with weld

corrosion mapping after median high pass (gray value prop. to penetrated wall thickness 1x200 points) :
+ 5 mm - 0 mm - 5 mm

Zscherpel, Alekseychuk, Ewert, BAM VIII.3 Rost, BASF AG, DWF/FZ

NDT 2003, BINDT, September 2003, Worcester, U.K.

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DR techniques for corrosion inspection

validation

application range, limits for pipe inspection

w L

Ewert, Onel BAM VIII.3

wall thickness

material: steel NDT 2003, BINDT, September 2003, Worcester, U.K.

Zscherpel, Alekseychuk, Ewert, BAM VIII.3 Rost, BASF AG, DWF/FZ

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DR techniques for corrosion inspection

Projection Radiography

Summary

program for PC based routine measurements on images from all radiographic detectors, tangential wall thickness measurement and local corrosion, simple documentation wall thickness range enlarged compared with visual evaluation in projection radiography measurement of corrosion depth (in centre of pipe) 3D simulation tool for case studies on recognibility Corrosion mapping with median high pass along symmetry axis of the pipe allows presentation of wall thickness differences relative to the nominal wall thickness of the pipe

inspection technique not standardised, written practice necessary ! standard development will be started in 2004
Zscherpel, Alekseychuk, Ewert, BAM VIII.3 Rost, BASF AG, DWF/FZ NDT 2003, BINDT, September 2003, Worcester, U.K.

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DR techniques for corrosion inspection

The END

contact : uwez@bam.de

Zscherpel, Alekseychuk, Ewert, BAM VIII.3 Rost, BASF AG, DWF/FZ

NDT 2003, BINDT, September 2003, Worcester, U.K.

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