# Dispersion Model (One parameter model

)

• Also used to describe nonideal tubular reactors
• Presence of axial dispersion that is governed by Fick’s Law of
diffusion(
dz
dC
A D
c a
− ) and bulk flow (UA ) C
c

The molar flow rate of tracer ( ) by both convection and dispersion is:
T
F

T c
T
c a T
C UA
dz
dC
A D F + − =

A mole balance on the inert tracer T gives:

dt
dC
A
dz
dF
T
c
T
= −

Substituting and dividing by
c
A

dt
dC
dz
UC d
dz
C d
D
T T T
a
= −
) (
2
2

1
For laminer pipe flow

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
− =
2
1 2 ) (
R
r
U r u

The convective-diffusion equation for a solute or tracer transport in both axial and

| |
(
¸
(

¸

+ = +
2
2
) / ( 1
) (
dz
c d
dr
dr dc r d
r
D
dz
dc
r u
dt
dc
AB

where is the solute concentration at a particular , and c r z t

For an observer moving with the fluid we change the variable to and z
*
z

Ut z z − =
*

A value of corresponds to an observer moving with the fluid on the centre
line. Using chain rule we obtain
0
*
= z

| |
(
¸
(

¸

+ = − +
2
*
2
*
) / ( 1
] ) ( [
dz
c d
dr
dr dc r d
r
D
dz
dc
U r u
dt
dc
AB

2
As we want to know the concentrations and conversions at the exit, we are only
interested in the average axial concentration C and is given by

=
R
rdr t z r c
R
t z C
0
2
2 ) , , (
1
) , ( π
π

The partial differential equation describing the variation of the average axial
concentration with time and distance is

2
*
2
*
*
dz
C d
D
dz
C d
U
dt
C d
= +

where is the Aris-Taylor dispersion coefficient:
*
D

AB
AB
D
R U
D D
48
2 2
*
+ =

For laminar pipe flow

*
D D
a
=

Figure 14.5 shows the plot of as a product or Reynolds and
Schmidt numbers
Ud D R U D / ) 2 ( /
* *
=
3

4

5
Experimental Determination of
a
D

Recall

dt
dC
dz
UC d
dz
C d
D
T T T
a
= −
) (
2
2

Convert to dimensionless groups:

,
0 T
T
C
C
= Ψ
L
z
= λ , and
L
tU
= θ

We get:

θ λ λ d
d
d
d
d
d
UL
D
a
Ψ
=
Ψ

Ψ
2
2

L is the reactor length

0 T
C mass of tracer injected, , divided by reactor volume V M

The dimensionless group
UL
D
a
is the reactor’s Dispersion number, the inverse of
the Peclet number, .
r
Pe

Rewriting

θ λ λ d
d
d
d
d
d
Pe
r
Ψ
=
Ψ

Ψ
2
2
1
………(P)

6

For closed-closed vessel, there is no dispersion or radial variation in
concentration either upstream (closed) or downstream (closed):

(Danckwerts) Boundary Conditions:

At 0 . 1 = λ
1
) , 0 ( 1
= = Ψ +
Ψ

TO
T
r
C
t C
d
d
Pe λ

At 0 . 1 = λ 0 =
Ψ
λ d
d

The dimensionless equation (P) has been solved numerically for a pulse
injection and the resulting dimensionless effluent tracer concentration, , as a
function of θ is shown in Figure 14-9.

Ψ
7

The results

) 1 (
2 2
2 2
2
r
Pe
r r m
e
Pe Pe t

− − =
σ

Obtain σ and t for the RTD and then use the above equation to determine
m r
Pe
8
Open-Open Vessel Boundary Conditions

• Experiment carried out in a section of a long pipe

τ
(
¸
(

¸

+ =
r
m
Pe
2
1 t

2
r
r
2
m
2
Pe
8
Pe
2
t
+ =
σ

9
10

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