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ISBN 978-0-626-24796-6

SANS 3001-GR53:2010
Edition 1

SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Civil engineering test methods Part-GR53: Determination of the unconfined compressive strength of compacted and cured specimens of cementitiously stabilized materials

Published by SABS Standards Division 1 Dr Lategan Road Groenkloof Private Bag X191 Pretoria 0001 Tel: +27 12 428 7911 Fax: +27 12 344 1568 www.sabs.co.za SABS

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SANS 3001-GR53:2010 Edition 1


Table of changes Change No. Date

Scope

Acknowledgement
The SABS Standards Division wishes to acknowledge the valuable assistance of the Committee of Transport Officials (COTO), and the South African National Roads Agency Limited (SANRAL).

Foreword
This South African standard was approved by National Committee SABS SC 59E, Construction standards Road pavement materials and testing, in accordance with procedures of the SABS Standards Division, in compliance with annex 3 of the WTO/TBT agreement. This document was published in August 2010. This document supersedes TMH1 method A14:1986 (second edition). SANS 3001 consists of various parts under the general title Civil engineering test methods. Parts GR of the SANS 3001 series contain methods for testing gravels, sands and soils. Annex A is for information only.

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SANS 3001-GR53:2010 Edition 1

Introduction
This part of SANS 3001 is used to check the quality of cementitiously stabilized materials proposed for and used as construction materials. The test method is based on the South African TMH1 series used over the last 50 years. "Stabilization" is the commonly used term that covers methods used to enhance the engineering strength properties of road construction materials. The unconfined compressive strength test is used to assess the effect of cementitious stabilizing agents (usually cement or hydrated lime) on the strength of materials. Unconfined compressive strength data may be used a) as a guide for determining the most effective stabilizing agent for a particular type of material, b) to determine the stabilizer content that is required to achieve the specified strengths, or c) as a production or acceptance control measure, to check the unconfined compressive strength of stabilized materials from samples taken in the field. Apparatus dimensions that are critical to the outcome of the method or procedure are given with a tolerance. All other dimensions are nominal and should be considered fit for purpose. Existing apparatus that conforms to the requirements of TMH1 may be used in this method until it is no longer fit for purpose. This part of SANS 3001 forms part of a set of tests for stabilized materials which include the following: laboratory mixed maximum dry density (see SANS 3001-GR 31); preparation, compaction and curing of test specimens, laboratory mixed (see SANS 3001-GR50); preparation, compaction and curing of test specimens, field mixed (including maximum dry density) (see SANS 3001-GR51); preparation of field cores (see SANS 3001-GR52); unconfined compressive strength (see SANS 3001-GR53); and indirect tensile strength (see SANS 3001-GR54). This part of SANS 3001 is classified as Group: B, Rating: 1, Activity: GR, in accordance with the requirements of the Construction Education and Training Authority (CETA).

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SANS 3001-GR53:2010 Edition 1

Contents
Page Acknowledgement Foreword Introduction 1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................... 2 Normative references.............................................................................................................. 3 Definitions ............................................................................................................................. 4 Apparatus................................................................................................................................ 5 Preparation and curing............................................................................................................ 6 Procedure................................................................................................................................ 7 Calculations............................................................................................................................. 8 Test report............................................................................................................................... Annex A (informative) Example of the calculation method ....................................................... Bibliography ............................................................................................................................... 3 3 3 4 5 5 5 6 7 8

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SANS 3001-GR53:2010 Edition 1

Civil engineering test methods Part-GR53: Determination of the unconfined compressive strength of compacted and cured specimens of cementitiously stabilized materials

1 Scope
This part of SANS 3001 applies to cementitiously stabilized material (crushed stone, gravel, sand and soil) and describes a method to determine the unconfined compressive strength of test specimens that have been prepared, compacted and cured in accordance with SANS 3001-GR50, SANS 3001-GR51, or SANS 3001-GR52.

2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. Information on currently valid national and international standards can be obtained from the SABS Standards Division. SANS 3001-GR50, Civil engineering test methods Part GR50: Preparation, compaction, and curing of specimens of laboratory mixed cementitiously stabilized materials. SANS 3001-GR51, Civil engineering test methods Part GR51: Sampling, preparation, compaction and curing of field mixed freshly cementitiously stabilized materials including the determination of the maximum dry density and optimum moisture content. SANS 3001-GR52, Civil engineering test methods Part GR52: Sampling and preparation of cored specimens of field compacted, matured, stabilized material. SANS 3001-PR1, Civil engineering test methods Part PR1: Determination of uncertainty of measurement, repeatability, reproducibility and bias.

3 Definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following definitions apply. 3.1 acceptable acceptable to the authority administering this standard, or to the parties concluding the purchase contract, as relevant

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SANS 3001-GR53:2010 Edition 1


3.2 cementitious stabilizing agent chemical materials, such as cement, hydrated lime, blends of cement or lime and cementitious extenders that are used to develop compressive and tensile strength when mixed with materials 3.3 maximum dry density MDD dry density value of the material tested, determined by the peak of the laboratory compaction versus moisture content curve using the specified compaction effort 3.4 optimum moisture content OMC moisture content at which the maximum dry density (MDD) is achieved 3.5 soil fine natural particles of silt and clay size 3.6 stabilization process of adding and mixing a cementitious stabilizing agent with road construction material to develop strength 3.7 unconfined compressive strength UCS stress at failure generated by the load required to crush a cylindrical specimen of height 127 mm and of diameter 152 mm to total failure at a load application rate of 150 kN/min

4 Apparatus
4.1 Compression testing machine, capable of applying a force of at least 100 kN at a rate of
loading of 150 kN/min. The machine is equipped with a force indicating device. The force indicating device is checked regularly against the calibrated steel spring (see 4.3) with a deviation of not more than 5 % from the reference readings.
NOTE The steel spring check is intended as a simple frequent routine control and does not replace the required regular calibration of the compression testing machine.

4.2 Force indicating device, capable of measuring a force of at least 100 kN, and reading to the
nearest 1 kN. Where a proving ring is used the calibration takes into account the rate of loading (response time).

4.3 Steel coil spring, capable of carrying a force of at least 50 kN, for routine checking of the
compression testing machine, or the proving ring. The spring is regularly calibrated by an accredited testing facility.
NOTE A calibrated load cell or proving ring may be used instead of the spring.

4.4 Water bath, of depth at least 150 mm, thermostatically controlled, containing water maintained
at a temperature range of 22 C to 25 C.

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SANS 3001-GR53:2010 Edition 1

5 Preparation and curing


Prepare, and when applicable, cure the test specimens as described in test methods SANS 3001-GR50, SANS 3001-GR51, or SANS 3001-GR52.

6 Procedure
6.1 Remove the specimen from the container and submerge in the water bath for a period of
4 h 10 min.
NOTE When required, this step is omitted. The test report should clearly record that the specimen was tested un-soaked.

6.2 Remove the specimen from the water and crush to total failure in the compression testing machine by applying a force to the flat faces of the specimen at a rate of 150 kN/min (this approximates to a rate of 140 kPa/s for 152 mm diameter specimens). Record the maximum force achieved to the nearest 1 kN.
NOTE Core specimens with other dimensions are also tested using this load application rate. The results of core tests should be reported, clearly noting the core dimensions.

7 Calculations
NOTE An example of the calculation method is given in annex A.

7.1 Calculation of the unconfined compressive strength (UCS)


Calculate the UCS of the specimen to the nearest 0,01 MPa, using the following equation: Ucs =

( r )
2

1 000 F

where UCS is the unconfined compressive strength, expressed in megapascals (MPa); F r is the force required to crush the specimen, expressed in kilonewtons (kN); is the radius of the specimen face, expressed in millimetres (mm).

NOTE The following equation may be used when 152 mm diameter specimens are tested:
Ucs =
F 18,15

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SANS 3001-GR53:2010 Edition 1 7.2 Calculation of the sigma- and E-values


7.2.1 To determine the sigma () value and the required precision E-value (single-sided limit and precision category (PV) precision variable), for the statistical analysis of the uncertainty of the test results, as described in SANS 3001-PR1, use the equations in 7.2.2 and 7.2.3. 7.2.2 The sigma-value is calculated as follows:
= 0,85

7.2.3 The E-value is calculated as follows:


E = 0,52
NOTE The uncertainty of the test method also depends on the material type and stabilizing agent.

8 Test report
Report the following results on an acceptable form: a) the date tested; b) the curing method used; c) the maximum density and optimum moisture content (OMC); d) the average of the UCS results that make up each set, expressed in megapascals (MPa), to two decimal places; e) the average dry density and percentage compaction relative to maximum density of each set; and f) when appropriate, the dimensions of the core or the fact that the specimen was not soaked.

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SANS 3001-GR53:2010 Edition 1

Annex A
(informative)

Example of the calculation method (see clause 7) A.1 General


Use the following information to calculate A.2: F = 56 kN; r = 76 mm.

A.2 Calculation
Calculate the UCS of each specimen to the nearest 0.01 MPa, using the following equation: Ucs =

( r )
2

1 000 F

1 000 56

( 76 )
2

= 3,09 MPa.

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SANS 3001-GR53:2010 Edition 1

Bibliography
Portland Cement Association, Soil Cement: Laboratory Handbook. 1965. TMH1, Standard methods of testing road construction materials.

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