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DeterminationofanEquilibriumConstant,Keq Prelab

March29,2014

Introduction

Chemicalequilibriumisanimportantphenomenonasitoccursinreversiblereactions.Onestudy lookedatanewmethodofequilibriumconstantandenthalpyofreactionofhydrogenbondformation. Thiscanhelpusunderstandpolymersfurther.1Anothergroupresearchedtheequilibrium thermodynamicsofmetaladsorptionontobacterialsurfaceswhichhelpsusunderstandbacterial surfaces.2Thethermalconductivityofamixtureofgasesinachemicalequilibriumisalsoimportant becauseitcanhelpestimateheattransferindifferentsystems.3 ThepurposeofthislabistouseBeerslawtomeasuretheequilibriumconcentrationofa complexion.WithBeerslaw,wecanfindthechangeandequilibriumconcentrationstoplugintothe Keqequationtogettheequilibriumconstantfortheformationofacertainreaction. Thereactioninthislabisasshownbelow: Fe3+(aq)+HSCN(aq)H+(aq)+FeSCN2+(aq) Chemicalequilibriaisaphenomenonwheretheconcentrationsofreactantsandproductschange untiltheyreachastablestate.Inotherwords,thereactionmoveslefttorightuntilitreachesapoint whereitseemstostabilize.Itisimportanttonotethatthereactionneverstopsandproductsand reactantsareconstantlycreated.Achemicalequilibriumisjustthepointwheretherateofchangeofthe forwardandbackwardsreactionsarethesame. Withachemicalequilibriumcomesanequilibriumconstant.Theequilibriumconstantisalways equaltotheproductoftheconcentrationoftheproductsovertheproductoftheconcentrationofthe reactants.Ageneralformisgivenbelow.Withthereaction:

aA+bBcC+dD becomestheform
] [D] K eq = [[C A]a[B]b
c d

Theequilibriumconstantexpressionforthisspecificexperimentusedtocalculatetheconstantis givenbelow:
][FeSCN ] K eq = [[H Fe3+][HSCN ]
+ 2+

Theinitialmolarconcentrationscanbeeasilycalculatedfromdilutioncalculations.Thisissimply donebycalculatingthenewmolesperliterfromknownstocksolutions.Fromtheinitialconcentrations ofFe3+andHCN,theequilibriumconcentrationsofallthereactantsandproductscanbecalculated.A tablebelowshowsthesetupofhowtocalculateeachsubstance INITIAL CHANGE EQUILIBRIUM X Z XZ Y Z YZ [H+]init +Z [H+]init+X 0 +Z Z

FeSCN2+isayelloworangishcoloredwheninsolution.Thisallowsaspectrophotometertobe usedtocalculatetheconcentrationofitinsolution.Forthespectrometertobecalibrated,the equilibriumreactionabovewillberuntocompletionforaknownconcentrationofFeSCN2+.A spectrophotometerworksbypassinglightthroughsomesample.Dependingonthesample,adifferent amountoflightisabsorbedandthespectrophotometermeasuresthedifferencebetweenthelightpassed throughwiththeinitiallight.Thespectrophotometercalculatestheequationbelow: log(%T/100)=Abs TheconstantcanbecalculatedfromBeerslaw: A=ebc

WhereAisabsorbance,eisthemolarabsorptivity,bisthepathlength,andcistheconcentrationofthe sample.Aplotofabsorbancevsconcentrationcanbegraphed,whichshouldbealineargraphwith slopee,themolarabsorptivityconstant.

Reagent HNO3

MolarMass (g/mol) 63.01

Density (g/mL) 1.51

Hazards Veryhazardousincaseofskincontact(corrosive,irritant, permeator),ofeyecontact(irritant,corrosive),of ingestion,.Slightlyhazardousincaseofinhalation(lung sensitizer).Liquidorspraymistmayproducetissue damageparticularlyonmucousmembranesofeyes,mouth andrespiratorytract Causeseyeirritation.Causesskinirritation.Maycause centralnervoussystemdepression,kidneydamage,and liverdamage. potentiallyfatalifinhaledorswallowed,respiratorytract irritation,eyeirritation none

Fe(NO3)3

241.86

1.68

HCN H2O

27.03 18.01

.687 1.00

MaterialsandMethods

Therearesolutionsof.5MHNO3,.2MFe(NO3)3and6*104MHSCN.Usepipetsand volumetricflasks,preparesolution#1.Setspec20to300599nm.Usethewavelengthdialtosetthe wavelengthto447nm.Makesurethespec20hasproperlywarmedupfor15minutespriortousage. Setspec20toread%T.Set%Tto0withnothinginsidethecuvetteholder.Placethefirstsample,.5 MHNO3,ablank,intothespectrophotometer.Adjustuntil%Treads100.Measuretheabsorbanceof eachsolutions.Repeatwithdifferentconcentrations.

QuestionstoConsider

1.Theequilibriumconstantofthereactionbelowwillbecalculatedthroughthemeasuringofinitialand finalconcentrationsofthereactantsandproducts: Fe3+(aq)+HSCN(aq)H+(aq)+FeSCN2+(aq) TheKeqwillbecalculatedusingtheexpression:


][FeSCN ] K eq = [[H Fe3+][HSCN ]
+ 2+

2.Beerslawmeasuresandrelatestheabsorbanceoflightthroughwhatevermaterialittravelsthrough. Thelawisgivenbelow A=ebc Aisabsorbance eisthemolarabsorptivityinliterspermolecm bisthepathlengthincm cistheconcentrationofthecompoundinmolesperliter

3.Theinitialconcentrationsarecalculatedfromtheinitialmolaritiesofthecompoundmixedtogether. TheequilibriumconcentrationwillbemeasuredwithBeerslawusingthespec20tomeasurethe absorbanceofdifferingconcentrations.

4.Theplotofthegraphisabsorbancevsconcentrationbecausetheplotisastraightlinewiththeslope

beingthemolarabsorptivity.Thepathlengthis1whichleadstocbeingtheindependentvariableandA beingthedependentvariablewhichleaveseastheslopeofthestraightlineofthefunction.Inthelab, differentinitialconcentrationsareusedtoplotdifferentpointsandthenabestfitstraightlineisdrawn betweentheexperimentalpointswhichequatethefunctionforBeerslawwhichallowsthecalculation ofthemolarabsorptivitythroughtheslopetobedone

5.Fe3+(aq)+HSCN(aq)H+(aq)+FeSCN2+(aq)
][FeSCN ] K eq = [[H Fe3+][HSCN ]
+ 2+

References

1.BrandaniV.Acontinuouslinearassociationmodelfordeterminingtheenthalpyofhydrogenbond formationandtheequilibriumassociationconstantforpurehydrogenbondedliquids1999.164169. 2.Fein,JeremyB..Achemicalequilibriummodelformetaladsorptionontobacterialsurfaces .Geochemica2004.33193328 3.Butler,JamesN.ThermalConductivityofGasMixturesinChemicalEquilibrium.AmericanChemical Society.2004.201208. 4.AnIntroductiontoChemicalSystemsintheLaboratory.Halies,HaydenMcNeilPlymouth, Michigan2014..