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# Physics Revision (Chapters 22- 26 +5.

4) PowerPoint Slides: Ohms Law- The relationship between current and potential in a metal is one of the most important ones in all electricity. The current flowing through a conductor is proportional to the potential across the conductor. Potential (V) Potential is proportional to current ( ).

Current (A) Ohms Law: V=RI R = Resistance; it is the gradient of the V vs I graph UNIT: ohm () The steeper the graph the more resistance. Steeper graph means we need more potential to get the same current. Thus resistance is a measure of how hard it is for current to flow through substances. Conductors have low resistance. Insulators have high resistance. Current will flow where it has less resistance.

## New Century Physics Text Book (page 466-470) =

* Q=nqvt

UNIT: ampere (A) An electric circuit must be a completed closed loop path. Open Circuit- Charges flow form the battery through the conductors to the light bulb and deliver the energy given to the battery. Short Circuit- If battery terminals are connected directly together without the circuit containing a device such as a light bulb to restrict the amount of charge flowing. Conventional Current- Motion of positive charges from positive to negative. Electron flow- Direction of actual electron particle motion in a conductor from negative to positive. Direct Current (DC)- When electric charge flows from the source of charge around a circuit in the one direction. The magnitude and direction of the flow is constant over time. Alternating Current (AC)- An electric generator device involving rotating coils of wire in a magnetic field will produce electric currents that vary both magnitude and direction many times per second. Thus, indicating oscillating current flow. Page | 1

1 , =

## UNIT: m (Ohm Metre) = 2 =

2

Electric Power = =

Joules Law- The power output of a device is equal to the product of the current through and the potential across the device. Some of this energy is lost to less useful types of energy. So Joules Law gives us the maximum useful power output. Combining Joules Law with Ohms Law

New Century Physics Text Book (page 474-476, 487-488) The magnitude of current through a conductor is proportional to the drift velocity of electrons through it. Electrical Resistance- Opposition to the flow of electric current that any conductor produces. Simple Experimental Circuit:

Page 487- When an electric current flows through a resistor, thermal heat is produced. Electrical energy is being converted to thermal energy within the resistor and forms the basis of any electric appliance designed to produce heat.

Electrical Power- The rate of energy transfer or the rate of which electrical work is done. =

UNIT: For electrical energy usage in domestic and industrial situations- kWh (kilowatt-hour)

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PowerPoint Slides: Magnetic Field Patterns- B is the symbol for magnetic field UNIT: Tesla (T) Dotted Symbol ()- Denotes the movement of the charges or vector force, directly out of the page. Cross Symbol (X)- Denotes the movement of charges or vector force, directly into the page. New Century Physics Text Book (page 548-556) Permanent Magnet- Any material able to keep its magnetic properties for a long time. 3 substances influenced by magnets: 1. 2. 3. Diamagnetic Substances- Very weakly repelled by magnets. Most substances such as glass, copper, gold, and bismuth. Manganese, aluminium, and platinum. Nickel and Cobalt. Paramagnetic Substances- Very weakly attracted by magnets. Ferromagnetic Substances- Very strongly attracted to magnets.

Law of Magnetic Poles- Unlike poles attract while like poles repel. Induced Magnet- When a piece of magnetic material touches or is brought near to the pole of a permanent magnet, it becomes a magnet itself. But once separated, its magnetic attraction properties will be lost again. Example: Paperclip

Induced Poles-

PowerPoint Slides: Oersteds Experiment- The direction of the field is given by the Right Hand Screw rule: Thumb in the straight direction and fingers curve in the curves direction. Field depends on the amount of current, how far from the wire and the stuff between the wire and where we measure the field. Current direction is important!

= 2

is the permeability of the substance between the wire and the place where the field is measured.

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B for Coil- A coil is a loop with a diameter much greater than its length.

## (Direction is given by Right Hand Screw rule)

Therefore: B for Wire: B for Coil: B for Solenoid: Circle Straight Line Straight Line

Circumference
Diameter Length

= =

New Century Physics Text Book (page 557-560) Magnetic Constant (k)- 2.0 107 2 Vector magnitude of the magnetic field- =
2

B for Coil- =

## where r is the coil radius.

2

B for Solenoid- =

## where N is the number of turns.

The solenoid can be made into an electromagnet if the hollow core contains a magnetically soft material.

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