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How to learn English

1. 2. 3. ". Motivation: Become a person who likes to learn English. Dictionary: Get a good English dictionary. No mistakes: Avoid mistakes. Try to use correct English rom the !eginning. Pronunciation: #earn to pronounce English sounds. #earn to understand phonetic transcription and the phonetic alpha!et. $. %nput: Get English into your head !y reading and listening to lots o English sentences. o &eading o 'ovies o Adventure games (. SuperMemo is a computer program that you can use to learn English. )e have used it or * years and it has helped us a lot.

What is necessary to learn English well?

#earning English re+uires action. ,ou may know all the learning tips- !ut i you don.t start doing things- you will achieve nothing. The act is- i you want to learn to speak English well- you must change your life. /ere are some e0amples o things you will have to do:

read a !ook in English or an hour every day- analy1ing the grammar in sentences and looking up words in an English dictionary listen to an audio!ook or other recording in English- stopping it re+uentlytrying to understand what is !eing said- and trying to imitate the speaker.s pronunciation spend your a ternoon practicing the pronunciation o the English 2r2 sound care ully write an e3mail message in English- using a dictionary or a )e! search every 24 seconds to make sure every word is correct- and taking $ minutes to write one sentence think a!out an English sentence read- wondering i it could say 2a2 instead o 2the2 in the sentence- and trying to ind similar sentences on the )e! to ind out the answer walk down the street and !uild simple English sentences in your head 5talking to yoursel in English a!out the things you see around you6

)hat kind o person would do all these cra1y things7 8nly one kind. The kind of person who enjoys doing them. % you want to learn to speak English well- going to have to !ecome that person. ,ou cannot hate doing these things. /ave you ever heard o a person who !ecame success ul !y doing something he hated7

The pro!lem with learning and teaching English as a oreign language is that all English learners want to speak English well9 however- most learners don't want to

spend time on learning nglish on their own. 5)hich is pro!a!ly why they sign up or English classes and hope their teacher will orce knowledge into their heads.6 This lack o motivation means that learners !asically don.t spend their own time on learning English- and i they do- they don.t do it regularly. :or e0ample- a typical learner might study English phrasal ver!s or 12 hours !e ore an English e0am. /owever- he will not read a !ook in English or 34 minutes every day. /e ;ust doesn.t eel that learning English is pleasant enough- so he will only do it i he has to. The pro!lem is that a huge one3time e ort gives you nothing- while small- everyday activities will give you a lot. % you are one o those learners and don.t eel like practicing the pronunciation o the 2r2 sound or thinking a!out English sentences every day- we have news or you: , going to have to make yoursel want to do these things. %n other words- you.ll have to work on your motivation. :ortunately- there are proven techni+ues to help you with that.

Typical learner vs. motivated learner

<aula is a typical learner of nglish with a generally low level o motivation. =he has occasional moments o high motivation > like the day !e ore her English test or that time when she couldn.t communicate with a oreign customer who called her at work. These kind o situations make her think got to do something a!out my English?2. /owever- they happen very rarely > less than once a month. =o even i she studies +uite intensively 5e.g. or two whole days !e ore an e0am6- the results are poor!ecause she orgets @4A o the things she learned within a month. This is no surprise: The way human memory works- you need to review things all the time9 otherwise you ;ust orget them. Bow let.s look at a different nglish learner: Cudy. Cudy reads a special novel or English learners 5written in simpli ied English6 almost every day or 34 minutes. =he !ought an English3English dictionary and uses it to look up English words whenever she doesn.t understand a sentence in her !ook. %t was hard to study regularly at the !eginning: &eading !ooks and using a dictionary were not 2normal activities2 or her. And every English sentence was a challenge. But now- a ter only two weeks- she can read much aster. )hile reading- she o ten sees words that she has learned in the past two weeks. )hen she recogni1es such a word- she doesn.t have to look it up in a dictionary and she knows she has made good progress. Cudy eels she has learned a lot o English recently- and she is eager to learn more. Every day- she looks orward to reading her !ook. The !ook gives her the chance to use what she has learned 5en;oy her progress6 and to learn even more. Because she reads regularly- she orgets little and her voca!ulary keeps growing. Cudy is on the right track. =he will soon !e a!le to read English3language newspapers and other resources written or native speakers.

Enjoyment leads to better memory

% you en;oy learning English- you will spend more time on it- and you will do it regularly. A high level o motivation will also give you another advantage. %t will !e easier or you to memori1e new words and grammar structures. The reason is that the !rain easily remem!ers in ormation on a su!;ect that you like. 5:or e0ample- some people like history and know everything a!out )orld )ar %%. % you told a 2normal person2 to memori1e all these acts- they could never do it.6 =o en;oyment o learning gives you dou!le !ene its.

Improving your motivation for learning English

%n this article- we share our techni+ues or improving your motivation or learning English as a oreign language. )e used them all the time when we were learning English and we still use them when we need to !oost our motivation in areas other than English.

Imagine yourself in the future

%magine you can talk to native speakers ;ust like you talk in your irst language. %magine other people wanting to speak English as well as you do. %magine the possi!ility o writing e3mail to people rom all over the world. %t is help ul to read an article a!out the advantages o knowing English well. There are two such articles on Antimoon: )hy learn English and English makes you eel good. ,ou should know that it is possi!le to learn English really well. Cust look at other people who have done it.

Remember that you are already good

,ou already know some English reading an article in English right now6. That.s a !ig success? Bow it.s time or more successes. Time to start using power ul methods o e ective learning. Time to gain an impressive knowledge o English.

Remember there is a lot that you don t !now

!ou are good" #ut your nglish pro#a#ly isn't perfect. ,ou pro!a!ly can.t understand English3language TD- read !ooks in English- talk to native speakers easily- write letters without mistakes- etc. ,ou should never think your English is per ect. Even i you are the !est student in your class- always try to ind your weak areas and work on them. )hen learned to speak English well- your pro!lems will !e +uite small: punctuation- rarely

used grammar structures- rare words- understanding 2street language2. &ight nowyour pro!lems are pro!a!ly more !asic: mistakes in pronunciation- small voca!ularygrammar pro!lems with the present per ect tense and conditional structures.

"se your English whenever you can

This is very- very important. The more you use nglish" the more you will want to learn it. Because English is so popular- you can use it everywhere. ,ou can use Google to ind English3language we!sites with interesting in ormation- you can watch American cartoons- you can play adventure games on your computer- you can read interesting !ooks in English- or you can do other things that we write a!out. % you do these things- you will not only have un and learn English. % you see that a new English word lets you understand your avorite TD show 5or communicate with people- or !eat a computer game6- you will want to learn more words. =o you will learn English more- use it more- learn it more- use it more... % you also use e ective learning methods- your English will grow aster than you can imagine.

Tal! to people about English

This is a very simple method- !ut it is very e ective. /ere.s how it works: ,ou usually talk a!out things which interest you. But the opposite is true- too. $f you start talking a#out a #oring su#ject" you will #egin to get interested in it. %magine you are studying a su!;ect that you hate. ,ou are !ored and tired- !ut you have to pass the test tomorrow. % there are people near you- you have two options: you can tell every!ody how much you are su ering or you can tell those people a!out the things learned. % you choose the irst option- you will only eel worse. % you choose the second option- and start a conversation on the 2!oring2 su!;ect- you will !egin to look at it in a totally di erent way. =uddenly it will !ecome a su!;ect worth talking a!out > there ore- an interesting su!;ect. /ow can you !egin such a conversation7 % studying English- you can surprise another person !y talking to himEher in English. =ay 5in English6: %i" $'m studying nglish and $ hate it. 8r you can say 5in your irst language6: %ey" $'ve learned &' nglish words today. Do you know what's the nglish word for ...( % there are no people near you- you can telephone or send an e3mail message to your riend. )hat will your riends say7 <ro!a!ly they won.t !e very interested- !ut it doesn.t matter? The important thing is this: A ter talking a!out English- you will study it with much more passion. Try it.

#ind a friend who is learning English

% you can ind a riend who is learning English and is on a similar level o skill- you will !e in an e0cellent situation:

you will have someone to talk a!out English with. These conversations will increase your interest in English- as e0plained in the previous section. learning English will !e easier- !ecause you will !e a!le to discuss your pro!lems with your riend. you will study English more- !ecause you will want to !e !etter than your riend. :36

,ou should meet your riend regularly. %deally- heEshe should live near you- or go to the same school as you. % you a!solutely can.t ind any!ody willing to learn English with you- you can try to ind some!ody !y e3mail. This is a worse solution: your conversations will pro!a!ly !e less re+uent- and it is di icult to compete with someone who you don.t know well.

$pend some money on learning English

$f you spend your money on something" you will want to use it. :or e0ample- i you !uy an e0pensive tennis racket- you will pro!a!ly go out and play tennis every day. This rule is also true or learning English. % you want to increase your desire to learn English- !uy a new dictionary- an interesting English3language !ook- English3 language ca!le TD- etc. The idea is simple: ,ou paid or it- so you will want to use itand you will improve your English. There is a pro!lem with this method. %t only works or a short time. ,ou usually lose your desire to learn English a ter a ew days. To keep learning- you would have to !uy something every week? /owever- this method is help ul- !ecause it gives you an impulse to start learning. :or e0ample- i you !uy a dictionary o phrasal ver!s- you will pro!a!ly learn some words rom it. Then you should try to use them. :or e0ample- write an e3mail message with these words. This will increase your motivation 5as e0plained !e ore6- and you will learn more.

Read Unlimited Power by %nthony Robbins

Anthony &o!!ins. !ook )nlimited Power* The New Science of Personal +chievement gives e0cellent advice on how to achieve any kind o goal. This !ook has changed the lives o many people- so you might want to take a look at it.

Remember that learning English re&uires action

)e have said this many times. ,ne small action is more powerful than reading hundreds of articles. ,es- we know it is very hard to do things- even i they are good or us. )e humans are la1y creatures. That is why not many people speak English well.

=till- we hope you can do the things we talk a!out in our English learning method > not only read a!out them. ,ou will !e success ul only i you change something a!out your li e. Fon.t put it o . Begin now.

Why you need a good English dictionary

% you get a good English dictionary- you will !e !etter than @4A o English learners. %t.s un!elieva!le- !ut most people 5even people who want to learn English very much6 simply go to a !ookstore and !uy the irst dictionary they see. That is a !ig mistake? A !ad dictionary will give you pro!lems sooner or later > may!e in two months- may!e in one year > and you will have to !uy a good one anyway? %sn.t it !etter to !uy a good dictionary the irst time7 Getting a good English dictionary is important !ecause:

A good dictionary will !e your guide to nglish. %t will teach you new wordshow to pronounce them- and how to use them. %t will help you understand English te0ts. =uccess ul English learners use their dictionaries all the time: when reading !ooks- at English classes- when writing e3mail- when doing homework- when sur ing the )e!. %t is an easy first step in your English3learning program > you only need to spend a little money 5much less than you would pay or an English course6. 8nce made the irst step- it will !e easier or you to do the rest. %t re+uires spending money. ,es- this is a good thing. :36 =pending some o your money on learning English will give you an impulse to keep learning and work towards your goal o mastering English.

How to buy a good English dictionary

Related 'ages E0ample sentences- pictures- use ul and simple de initions in dictionaries An English dictionary is the most important thing you will need when learning English. A good dictionary will help you learn hundreds o new words- improve your pronunciation and grammar. ,ou can read more a!out why it is important to get a good English dictionary in another article.

English(English dictionaries
)hen you think o a dictionary- you usually think o a #ilingual dictionary. :or e0ample- an English3German dictionary or a :rench3English dictionary. There is also another kind o dictionary: an nglish- nglish 5monolingual6 dictionary.

=uch a dictionary is written only in English. English words are not translated- !ut they are de ined or e0plained in English. :or e0ample- i you look up the word critici.e in an English3English dictionary- you will read something like this: to critici.e G to say negative things a!out9 to talk a!out the mistakes o )hy English3English dictionaries are !etter than !ilingual dictionaries:

English de initions are real English phrases with grammar and words. % you read them regularly- you will automatically memori1e the grammar and words. English de initions let you learn more. ,ou will o ten look up a word !ecause it was part o the de inition or another word. :or e0ample- i you look up the word naughty- you will read: % you say that a child is naughty- you think that he or she is !ehaving !adly or is diso!edient. /0ollins 0,1)$2D nglish Dictionary3 % you don.t know the words diso#edient and #ehave- you will have to look them up. =o instead o one word- you will have learned three words?

Fon.t !e a raid o using an English3English dictionary. % you can understand this article- you can de initely understand the de initions in an English3English dictionary.

)ictionaries for learners and for native spea!ers

There are two kinds o English3English dictionaries: dictionaries or learners and dictionaries or native speakers. Dictionaries for native speakers are used !y Americans- Britons- etc. to look up very di icult words- such as tintinna#ulation. Dictionaries for learners are used !y people who are learning English as a second language. Fictionaries or native speakers usually have more words than dictionaries or learners- !ut the de initions are complicated- and there are ewer e0ample sentences. There ore your first dictionary should #e a dictionary for learners. #ater- you will need other dictionaries > or e0ample- a dictionary o phrasal ver!s and a !ig dictionary or native speakers.

$oftware dictionaries
% possi!le- get a so tware dictionary instead o a paper one. /ere are some reasons why:

4uick searching. =o tware dictionaries let you look up words very +uickly. Typing a word on your key!oard is much- much aster than turning pages in a large- heavy !ook. asy copying. % making your own =uper'emo collection or learning English- you can select whole sentences and de initions in the dictionary- and copy them to your new items.

5ecordings. %n many so tware dictionaries- you can listen to recordings which show you how to pronounce a word. &ecordings cannot replace phonetic transcriptions 5see !elow6- !ut they are certainly a use ul eature. More information6clearer layout. <aper dictionaries have limited space- which is why they are printed in a small ont and the layout is very crowded. A computer dictionary has more space- so it can give more in ormation 5e.g. more e0ample sentences6 or it can present the same in ormation in a clearer way 5!igger ont- !lank lines- etc.6.

)hy is +uick searching so important7 Because i you want to learn English well- you should look up lots o words- and a paper dictionary discourages you rom that. ,ou want to look up a word- you look at the huge !ook with 1$44 pages- think 2Ah- never mind2- and you never learn that word. )ith a so tware dictionary- once you see how easy it is- you will start looking up hundreds o words every week. And your English will get a huge !oost. Bote: The advice in this article applies to !oth !ook dictionaries and to so tware dictionaries. /owever- the +uality o a so tware dictionary also depends on other eatures 5e.g. ease3o 3use- so tware speed6- which are not discussed here.

'honetic transcription for every word

A good dictionary must give phonetic transcription or every word. <honetic transcription tells you how to pronounce a word. )ithout it- you can.t say the word properly > you can only read it or write it. The transcription should !e !ased on the %nternational <honetic Alpha!et 5%<A6which is the main phonetic alpha!et used all over the world. /ere is what %<A3!ased phonetic transcription looks like:

/2ongman +ctive Study Dictionary of nglish3 /ere- the phonetic transcription is marked in yellow. %t tells you that image is pronounced like this. 5sound recording in .wav ormat6 'any dictionaries 5especially ones pu!lished in the H=6 use their own phonetic sym!ols 5and not %<A sym!ols6. These are a little hard to use- and we do not recommend them to !eginners. =ome dictionaries give phonetic transcription only or 2the most di icult words2 5usually less than $A o all words6. =uch dictionaries are almost useless to learners- !ecause all English words are di icult i you are not a native speaker. )e do not recommend them. % you want to check i a dictionary uses %<A3!ased transcription- look at the pronunciation sym!ols used in the dictionary and compare them with the %<A sym!ols in our ta!le o phonetic sym!ols.

E*ample sentences for every word

A good dictionary must give e0ample sentences or every word. E0ample sentences are English sentences which contain the word. =ome dictionaries give them a ter the de inition o a word. E0ample sentences are marked in yellow in this picture:

/2ongman Dictionary of nglish 2anguage and 0ulture3 E0ample sentences are not ;ust help ul > they are actually more important than definitions. )hile a de inition tells you the meaning o a word and 5sometimes6 gives you some grammatical in ormation- e0ample sentences have at least three advantages: 1. They let you check i understood the de inition correctly. The meaning o a word can !ecome much clearer i you read a ew sentences with the word. 2. They show you how to use a word in sentences. 'any words 2go with2 certain grammar structures 5e.g. important is o ten used in the phrase 2%t is important to...26 or words 5e.g. weather goes with forecast and not e.g. prediction6. E0ample sentences present this in ormation in a clear way. ,ou can easily imitate them to make your own natural sentences. 3. They program your !rain to produce correct English sentences. % you read an English sentence- there is a good chance that it will stay in your head- and that you will !e a!le to !uild a similar sentence 5or part o a sentence6 to e0press your thoughts another day. =o the more English sentences you read- the more you can produce. 5&ead more a!out why e0ample sentences are so important6

+ther things to loo! for

Simple definitions. The de initions should !e easy to understand. % something can !e simple- it should !e simple. =ee e0ample o a simple dictionary de inition. )seful definitions. % possi!le- the de initions should tell you how to use the word. Generally- longer de initions are !etter- !ecause they give more in ormation. =ee e0ample o a use ul dictionary de inition. 1oth 1ritish and +merican nglish. ,our dictionary should have !oth British and American words. Also- !oth British and American pronunciation should !e given- !ecause !oth are used in today.s world. Phrasal ver#s and idioms. There are special dictionaries or these- !ut every English dictionary should have the most common phrasal ver!s and idioms. Pictures. =ometimes you can understand a picture !etter than a de inition. =ee this e0ample.

How many and how big?

%t is a good idea to have at least two dictionaries: a large one 5a!out this si1e6 to use at home- and a small 5pocket6 one to carry with you. :or e0ample- you can !ring your small dictionary to English classes. %t is an even !etter idea to have at least two large dictionaries. )hat or7 )ell- it.s a!out e0ample sentences. Two e0ample sentences are !etter than one9 our are !etter than two. )ith more e0amples- you have a more complete picture o how a word is used and you can e0press more in English yoursel .

Recommended English dictionaries for learners

:or your irst learner.s dictionary- we recommend the 0ollins 0,1)$2D +dvanced 2earner's nglish Dictionary 5our review o this dictionary6. %t.s a large dictionary with %<A3!ased phonetic transcriptions and great e0ample sentences or every word. But the !est thing are the de initions: they are very riendly- and they really tell you how to use a word. The IF3&8' 5included with the !ook6 allows easy and ast searching- and also includes a )ord!ank with lots o additional e0ample sentences. ,ou can !uy the 0ollins 0,1)$2D +dvanced 2earner's nglish Dictionary at Elearnaid in hardcover 5J3K6 and paper!ack 5J2*6. Both include the so tware version o the dictionary on IF3&8'. :or a small dictionary that you can take everywhere you go- we recommend the ,7ford 2earner's Pocket Dictionary. %t is very small 5it will it in your palm6- !ut has a lot o in ormation. ,ou can get the dictionary rom

E*ample sentences in dictionaries, -ore important than definitions

%n an English dictionary- e0ample sentences are even more important than de initions. A de inition does one ;o!: it tells you what a word means. E0ample sentences- on the other hand- per orm at least three tasks: 1. They let you check i understood the de inition correctly. 2. They show you how to use a word in sentences > how to connect it with other words and with grammar structures. 3. They program your !rain to produce correct English sentences.

"nderstanding meanings
A ter reading the de inition o a word- you can read the e0ample sentences which contain the word. % you can understand them- you know understood the de inition correctly. :or e0ample- it is nice to read that surpass means 2to go !eyond in amount- +uality or degree2- !ut it is even nicer to see an e0ample: The results surpassed all our e0pectations.

,ou.ll pro!a!ly agree that a ter seeing the sentence- the meaning o the word surpass !ecomes much clearer and easier to remem!er. =ometimes a de inition is so complicated that the e0ample sentences are your only hope. Ionsider this de inition rom the 0ollins 0,1)$2D +dvanced 2earner's Dictionary- an otherwise ine product:

2That part or proportion consists o that thing27 ,eah- whatever. #et.s see the e0ample sentence- which makes things a lot clearer:

.rammar and usage

A de inition tells you what a word means- i.e. it helps you understand the word when you see it. /owever- the meaning is only half of the picture. %n language- there are not only meanings- !ut also grammar and collocations. =ome words simply 2go with2 other words.

:or e0ample- the ver! to suffer goes with the preposition from 5as in 2Alice su ers rom insomnia26- and not with some other preposition. 2ethal and mortal !oth mean 2deadly2- !ut we only talk a!out a lethal injection- not a mortal one. The ad;ective major has the same meaning as important- !ut it must come !e ore a noun 5as in 2Frug a!use is a ma;or pro!lem2 or 2&eligion has played a ma;or role in the history o mankind26- so it would !e wrong to say 2%t is ma;or to remem!er people.s !irthdays2. Danger 5de inition: 2the possi!ility o something !ad happening26 is o ten used with in 528ur lives are in danger26- with of 52The !uilding is in danger o collapsing26- or with a that3clause 52There.s a danger that the plan will ail26.

Such information is often not found in the definition- and you need to read the e0ample sentences to learn how to connect a word with other words to produce correct sentences. But > you might say > most dictionaries or English learners include grammarEusage in ormation in the de initions. ,ou would !e right- o course. :or e0ample- the entry or suffer might include the la!el L rom9 or major might !e la!eled with something like AFC L B to show that the ad;ective must come !e ore a noun. /owever- such 2codes2 can !e tricky to interpret. A person who only knows that suffer means 2to eel pain2 and goes with the preposition from may produce the

per ectly logical sentence 2% su er rom doing homework2 rather than 2% su er when % have to do homework2. %t is also easier to remem!er one or two e0ample phrases 5e.g. major pro#lem- to play a major role6 than to remem!er the a!stract rule that 2major has to !e ollowed !y a noun2.

/rain programming
)hen you speak your native language- you don.t have to think a!out grammar rules to produce a sentence9 phrases ;ust appear in your mind and they are all correct. ,ou don.t have to !e especially intelligent or have an e0ceptionally good memory to speak your native language without mistakes. This is possi!le !ecause the !rain contains a special language module. The module collects sentences rom your environment- and imitates them and re3com!ines them to produce new sentences. This is e0actly how you learned to speak as a child: you listened to your parents and other people around you- and then you were a!le to imitate those sentences. ,ou learn a oreign language in the same way. As you hear 5or read6 more and more correct English sentences- your language module gets more and more in ormationand you can e0press more and more in English. Antimoon calls this learning !y input. =tephen Mrashen calls it the Batural 'ethod. Bow you see why it is a good idea to read the e0ample sentences when you look up a word in a dictionary. :or each sentence you read- there is a good chance that it will appear in your head when you need it- and that you will !e a!le to re3use it 5or part o it6 to produce your own correct sentence.

+ne more e*ample

)e have said that e0ample sentences give important grammarEusage in ormation and program your !rain to produce its own sentences. #et.s see one more e0ample o how this works. =uppose we look up the word shroud in a dictionary and ind this de inition:

/2ongman Dictionary of nglish 2anguage and 0ulture3 Great- so now we know what shroud means. %t means 2to cover and hide2. )e even know that we usually use shroud in the passive voice with the preposition in. But can we really use the word shroud- i.e. can we make our own sentences with it7 :or e0ample- you could say 2% was hidden in the corner2 > !ut would it !e 8M to say 2% was shrouded in the corner27 8r- you could say that 2The street was covered in darkness2 > !ut could you say 2The street was shrouded in darkness2 instead7

)ell- we don.t know that. All we know is- shroud is pro!a!ly B8T used in the same way as cover and hide- !ut the de inition does not say in what situations 5conte0ts6 it %= used. =o a ter seeing the de inition- we know what shroud means- !ut we still can't do anything useful with it. Bow let.s read the de inition with e0ample sentences:

)hat do these e0amples tell us7 They tell us many things:

)e usually say that something is shrouded in something- and not- or e0amplethat something shrouds something. 5)e could have learned this rom the de inition- which says 5in6 usually pass.- !ut e0amples are nicer than codes.6 Both physical 5hills6 and nonphysical 5affair6 things can !e shrouded in something. Things can !e shrouded in mist or shrouded in mystery. 2=hrouded in the corner2 will pro!a!ly sound strange to native speakers.

)ith this in ormation- you are finally prepared to use the word shroud in speaking or writing. :or e0ample- you can imitate the e0ample sentences and say 2The negotiations are shrouded in mystery2 or 2The street was shrouded in og2. This imitation can happen consciously 5i you look at the e0amples while writing your own sentence6 or in the magical 2learning !y input2 way 5i - say- in a week- writing a composition and the phrase 2shrouded in something2 appears in your head !ecause you have seen the phrase !e ore in the e0ample sentences6.

#inal advice
1. :irst- make sure your dictionary has lots o e0ample sentences. Better yet- use two or more dictionaries. 2. The ne0t time you look up a word in a dictionary- and you want to use that word in your own speech or writing- concentrate on the e7ample sentences > may!e even try to memori1e them. ,ou will not only learn incredi!ly use ul in ormation on the word.s usage9 you will program your !rain to produce similar sentences. ,ou.ll !e surprised at how much your !rain can do i you eed it with enough input.

.etting a good English dictionary

,ou need a good English dictionary. An English dictionary is the most important thing that you will need when learning English. =uccess ul English learners use their dictionaries all the time > that.s how they learn to use new words. /ow to !uy a good English dictionary7

1. 2. 3. ".

%t has to !e an English3English dictionary. %t must give phonetic transcriptions 5pronunciations6 or every word. %t must give e0ample sentences or every word. %t should !e a so tware dictionary.

E0ample sentences: more important than de initions: % you want to improve your speakingEwriting a!ility- read the e0ample sentences in your dictionary. They show you how to use a word and they program your !rain with correct English.

Reviews of good dictionaries

Iollins I8BH%#F Advanced #earner.s English Fictionary 5"th edition6 > %t.s very easy to learn English rom this dictionary- !ecause it is ull o real sentences rom English !ooks- newspapers- recordings- etc. Even the de initions are ull sentences. %ncludes the IF3&8' 5see !elow6. Iollins I8BH%#F Advanced #earner.s English Fictionary IF3&8' > included with the paper version. =ame riendly de initions and great e0ample sentences- !ut you can look them up much aster than in the huge !ook. The IF also has a )ord!ank with even more e0ample sentences. /owever- it doesn.t include phonetic transcriptions 5it only has audio recordings6. &andom /ouse )e!ster.s Hna!ridged Fictionary IF3&8' > a very comprehensive dictionary o American English with phonetic transcriptions and American recordings. Iomplements the Iollins I8BH%#F Advanced #earner.s IF3&8' nicely. Iam!ridge English <ronouncing Fictionary 51(th edition6 with IF3&8' > a good source o pronunciations that are not included in general English dictionaries- e.g. pronunciations o people.s names- geographical namescompany names- and in lected orms o words. The IF version has great British recordings- pronunciation e0ercises- and a =ound =earch eature. Also read: )hy pu!lishers are una!le to develop a really good so tware dictionary in the 28ther articles2 section.

Review of the 0ollins 0+/"I1) %dvanced 1earner s English )ictionary

e0ample page 1 e0ample page 2 51*4k G%: iles6 The 0ollins 0,1)$2D +dvanced 2earner's nglish Dictionary 5"th edition6 is the latest dictionary or learners rom /arperIollins <u!lishers. The previous 5third6 edition o this dictionary 5pu!lished in 24416 was titled 2Iollins I8BH%#F Advanced #earner.s English Fictionary2 and the second edition 51@@$6 simply 2Iollins I8BH%#F English Fictionary2. There are important di erences !etween the current edition and the previous one. %n this review- we will o ten write 2IIEF2 instead o the dictionary.s long name.

The basics

The IIEF is an English3English 5monolingual6 dictionary- so it is written only in English. Beginners may !e a raid o this- !ut we think that learners should !egin to use an English3English dictionary as early as possi!le. % you can understand this article- we think you should use a monolingual dictionary. %t has e0ample sentences or almost every meaning o every word. E0ample sentences are the most important thing in a dictionary or learners- !ecause they show you how to use a word. %t has phonetic transcriptions- so you can read how to pronounce every word. The transcriptions are !ased on the %nternational <honetic Alpha!et 5%<A6 > the most popular phonetic alpha!et in the world. %t is a so tware dictionary as well as a paper one > a IF3&8' is included with the !ook.

%n conclusion- the 0ollins 0,1)$2D +dvanced 2earner's nglish Dictionary has all the necessary features of a dictionary for the serious learner. Bow let.s see what is special a!out this dictionary...

% corpus(based dictionary
The name 0,1)$2D stands or 2Iollins Birmingham Hniversity %nternational #anguage Fata!ase2. %t means that the dictionary is #ased on a 8corpus8 > a collection o British and American newspapers- !ooks- TD programs- real3li e conversations- etc. The editors analy1ed the corpus with a computer- getting use ul in ormation a!out the English language. This method has serious advantages 5more on that !elow6- and the latest dictionaries rom other !ig pu!lishers 5like #ongman and 80 ord6 are now !ased on a corpus- too.

#ull(sentence definitions
<ro!a!ly the most interesting thing a!out the 0ollins 0,1)$2D +dvanced 2earner's nglish Dictionary are its de initions. They are full sentences- not phrases. :or e0ample:

% something comes to fruition- it starts to succeed and produce the results that were intended or hoped or. Because this de inition is a ull sentence- it gives you a lot of information. %t shows that fruition is usually used in the phrase 2come to ruition2. /ow did the editors know that7 They used a computer to analy1e the I8BH%#F corpus. )hat does this in ormation give you7 !ou can easily #uild your own correct sentences with the word. :or e0ample- you can say 2/is hopes inally came to ruition2 or 2)ill my plan ever come to ruition72. #ook at a typical de inition o fruition in a dictionary which doesn.t have ull3sentence de initions: fruition G the reali1ation o something that was desired or hoped or A ter reading this de inition- you might use the word fruition in incorrect ways. ,ou might think it is correct to say 2)hat a!out your ruition72 or 2%s this !ook your greatest ruition72. But !oth sentences are !ad English. #ook at another de inition rom the IIEF and compare it with a de inition rom the the ,7ford 9ordpower Dictionary: )hen a dog wags its tail- it repeatedly waves its tail rom side to side. /00 D3 wag G to shake up and down or move rom side to side /,7ford 9ordpower3 The irst de inition tells you that the word wag is often used to talk a#out a dog. The second de inition does not tell you that. %t is too general. Besides- you can pro!a!ly see that the IIEF.s de inition is easier to understand.

The de initions in the IIEF do not simply tell you what a word means- they tell you how to use it > in what phrases- in what grammar structures- in what conte0t. At the same time- you can understand them easily. The de initions are also very 2natural2. They are sentences that could !e said !y your English teacher or any native speaker o English. /aving this dictionary almost eels like having a native speaker riend to answer your +uestions a!out English. )e encourage you to look at other e0amples o de initions rom the IIEF with our comments.

E*ample sentences
8ur rule or dictionaries is: The more e0ample sentences- the !etter. The 0ollins 0,1)$2D +dvanced 2earner's nglish Dictionary has at least one e7ample sentence

for almost every meaning of every word. The num!er o e0amples per de inition is a!out the same as in other modern dictionaries or learners. The interesting thing is how these e7amples were chosen. :or e0ample- to choose the e0ample sentences or the ver! play- the editors used a computer to search the corpus and ind all the sentences with the word play. The results showed that people o ten use play in phrases like 2play an important role in something2 and 2play an active part in something2. =o there should !e at least one e0ample sentence which has the word play in such a phrase. Thanks to this kind o corpus research- the e7ample sentences in the 00 D show how a word is really used !y speakers o English. They are not invented !y an editor9 they are natural. Cust like the de initions- the e0amples ocus on the most important phrases- grammar structures- conte0ts- etc. which contain the word.

<honetic transcriptions in the IIEF are !ased on A. I. Gimson.s phonemic systemwhich uses sym!ols o the %<A to represent English phonemes. Gimson.s system was irst used in 1@(K in the nglish Pronouncing Dictionary- and is now used !y most dictionary pu!lishers.

#ike most new dictionaries- the IIEF uses a couple use ul 5non3phonemic6 sym!ols not used !y Gimson: and . :or an e0planation o these sym!ols- re er to our phonetic chart. Hn ortunately- this edition o the IIEF ignores the act that vowels like - and are o ten pronounced like . :or e0ample- this goes or the in admonish and admit- the in possi#le and private- the in careful. %n all these cases- the IIEF simply omits the 2 2 version- which is the standard in normal speech. % you ollowed the transcriptions in the IIEF- your pronunciation o some words would sound +uite unnatural. %n some cases- the IIEF takes the 2no 2 policy to the e0treme. )ho pronounces adventure and advance with an at the !eginning7 The IIEF shows stress !y underlining the stressed sylla!le5s69 other dictionaries use the apostrophe. The I8BH%#F way is easier to read and more intuitive. The dictionary tries to represent !oth British and American English with one transcription. The transcriptions use mostly British phoneme sym!ols and the dictionary gives rules or 2converting2 these sym!ols into American sounds. :or e0ample- it e0plains that all sym!ols are really in American English. )e think this is a sensi!le system- !ecause it results in short- reada!le transcriptions. 5%n act- we use it ourselves in our phonetic chart and our <er ect<ronunciation product.6 /ere are e0ample transcriptions rom the IIEF and what they mean in British and American English:

word 00E) transcr. pot go fair near lure #arn mothe r #ird



Note* Phonetic transcriptions are not included on the 0D-5,M.

Word fre&uency and the grammar column

The dictionary gives in ormation on word re+uency. The most re+uently used English words are la!eled with 1 to 3 2diamonds2 5 to 6. These are words which occur most re+uently in the I8BH%#F corpus. Grammatical in ormation > or e0ample- whether a noun is counta!le or uncounta!le > is given in a separate column 5see picture to the right6. %t is not mi0ed with the de inition- as in most dictionaries. Because o this- the de initions are easier to read.

2%ccess to English2 section

see entire page 51K4k G%: ile6 The IIEF has a 343page 2Access to English2 section which provides use ul e0ample sentences and phrases that you can 2steal2 when writing essays- giving presentationstelephoning- writing !usiness correspondence- and applying or a ;o! 5there is a chapter or each o these activities6. &eading such sentences is a great way to !uild your English writingEspeaking skills in a short time. Note* The 8+ccess to nglish8 section is not included on the 0D-5,M.

+ur personal e*perience

)e irst saw the IIEF 5the 2nd edition6 in 1@@@- when only the paper version was availa!le. 9e immediately felt it was something special. Bormally- we use only so tware dictionaries- !ut we started using the paper I8BH%#F dictionary- !ecause we liked the contents so much. Today- we still like learning with the dictionary very much. )hen we need to look up a word- it helps us understand it and use it in our own sentences. 8 ten- we look up one word- and then we eel like reading another one > the de initions and e0amples are so nice. =ometimes- we even like to read the IIEF ;ust like a !ook.

)hen you look up a word in a dictionary- you should !e interested in what the word means. But you should also ask the +uestion 29hat can $ do with it(2. The IIEF answers this +uestion very well !y giving the most important phrases and grammar structures containing the word > !oth in the de inition and e0ample sentences. Together- the de inition and the e0ample sentences give you an almost complete picture of how a word is used in the English language. A ter you read them- the word is usually 2yours2 > you can use it easily in your own sentences.

E*ample pages and prices

,ou can look at two e0ample pages 5 irst page- second page6 rom this dictionary. 5)arning: large G%: iles- a!out 1*4 MB each6

,ou can get the ollowing versions o the 0ollins 0,1)$2D +dvanced 2earner's nglish Dictionary- "th edition:

/ardcover L IF > !uy rom Elearnaid 5J2(6 or 5J"26 <aper!ack L IF > !uy rom Elearnaid 5J1@6 or 5J226 IF only > !uy rom Elearnaid 5J146 > Availa!le at a great price. )e only recommend this version i you have another dictionary with phonetic transcriptions 5the IF does not have transcriptions6. &esource <ack on IF 5includes dictionary- thesaurus- grammar and usage6 > !uy rom Elearnaid 5J2@6 > )e only recommend this version i you have another dictionary with phonetic transcriptions 5the IF does not have transcriptions6.

=hipping in ormation: Elearnaid.s shipping charges are lower than Ama1on.s i you live in America- Asia or Eastern Europe. % you live in )estern Europe- Ama1on.s shipping will !e cheaper !y a!out J" and the delivery will !e somewhat aster. )arning: Elearnaid does not ship to a ew countries- e.g. <oland and %ndia. =ee our review o the IF3&8' NN )e would like to thank 'aree Airlie and Cenni er Midd o /arperIollins <u!lishers or providing copies o the 3rd and "th editions o the Iollins I8BH%#F Advanced #earner.s English Fictionary.

Review of the 0ollins 0+/"I1) %dvanced 1earner s English )ictionary 0)(R+-

enlarge screenshot This review descri!es the "th edition o the 0ollins 0,1)$2D +dvanced 2earner's nglish Dictionary IF3&8' 5pu!lished in late 24436. % you have the 3rd edition 524416- check out what.s new in this edition. OO =ee our review o the !ook

The content

)e love so tware dictionaries- so we were very e0cited to learn a!out the so tware version o the e0cellent 0ollins 0,1)$2D +dvanced 2earner's nglish Dictionary rom /arperIollins <u!lishers. As we e0pected- the IF3&8' has the same great definitions and e7ample sentences as the paper edition. ,ou can read more a!out them in our review o the !ook version. /ere- we.ll ;ust +uote part o it: )hen you look up a word in a dictionary- you should !e interested in what the word means. But you should also ask the +uestion 29hat can $ do with it(2. The PIollins I8BH%#F Advanced #earner.s English FictionaryQ answers this +uestion very well !y giving the most important phrases and grammar structures containing the word > !oth in the de inition and e0ample sentences. Together- the de inition and the e0ample sentences give you an almost complete picture of how a word is used in the English language. The IF3&8' also contains a 29ord#ank2 > a collection o sentences rom English3 language !ooks- articles- conversations- etc. The )ord!ank is part o the 2Bank o English2- a much larger collection which /arperIollins used to create the de initions and choose the e0ample sentences in the dictionary.

The )ord!ank is a very use ul thing. %t gives you lots o e0ample sentences- and- i you are a reader o Antimoon- you should know that e0ample sentences are the proper way to learn English words. The )ord!ank is especially help ul when the dictionary doesn.t e0plain a word- or when it doesn.t give enough e0ample sentences. :or e0ample- the dictionary does not e0plain weltanschauung- !ut we ound a nice e0ample sentence in the )ord!ank 5see picture to the right6. The IF3only version 5called the 2&esource <ack26 also contains the 0ollins 0,1)$2D :uide to nglish )sage- the 0ollins 0,1)$2D nglish :rammar- and a thesaurus.

3o phonetic transcriptions
The so tware does not contain phonetic transcriptions 5unlike the !ook version6. The editors thought that i the dictionary has recordings- phonetic transcriptions are unnecessary. Big mistake? There are three reasons why we think removing the transcripton was a !ad move:

,our ears are not per ect. Even i the dictionary has high3+uality recordings- it is always good to see all the sounds in a word. =ometimes you hear a 2t29 then some!ody tells you it should !e a 2d2- and then you start hearing a 2d2. &ecordings are never per ect. The ones in IIEF are o a high +uality- !ut it.s still di icult to recogni1e the sounds in some words. :or e0ample- here is the recording or the word #ack. Bot very clear- is it7 <honetic transcription 5E E6 is always clear- !ecause it represents each English sound with a di erent sym!ol. %n order to listen to a recording- you have to turn on your computer.s speakers. Then you have to press a key 5ItrlL)6 or click an icon in the program window. This is too much work i you want to look up something ast. % the dictionary had phonetic transcriptions- you could ;ust +uickly read it.

Because there are no phonetic transcriptions- the 0ollins 0,1)$2D +dvanced 2earner's nglish Dictionary IF3&8' cannot !e your only dictionary. ,ou will have to use another so tware dictionary 5or the paper version o the IIEF6 to learn pronunciation. 5,ou should use many dictionaries anyway- so this is not a huge pro!lem.6

The so tware has British audio recordings or all words. American recordings are availa!le only for some words- or e0ample: lieutenant- resource- advertisement- dog- new- lashlight /ere are some words or which only a 1ritish recording is availa!le 5even though all these words are pronounced di erently in American English6: car- heart- ire- hour- hair- near- lot- claw- more- lure- turn- orget- castle- ast )e liked one thing a!out the recordings: ,ou can listen to all the forms of a word 5only in British English6. :or e0ample- in the page or open there is a recording or open- !ut also or opens- opening- and opened. 'any learners pronounce such in lected orms incorrectly- so the recordings can !e help ul. The so tware lets you record your own speech and compare it with the recordings. This is a help ul eature- !ecause it lets some learners notice the mistakes they make in pronunciation. 8 course- !ecause the dictionary contains so ew American recordings- the eature will !e use ul mostly or learners o British English.

1oo!ing up words
=ome IF3&8' dictionaries have complicated graphical inter aces- which are di icult to learn and to use. 5The idea is that customers want 2multimedia2- and a simple )indows inter ace is not multimedia enough.6 :ortunately- the 0ollins 0,1)$2D +dvanced 2earner's Dictionary 0D-5,M is di erent. There are no color ul animations > ;ust a small" fast" relia#le" easy-to-use interface- which supports the main unction o a dictonary: looking up words.

The so tware lets you look up words really ;uickly. ,ou can simply type a word and press Enter. ,ou never have to press an additional key !e orehand. )ith most dictionaries- you have to press a key every time you want to look up a word. )hen you look up a lot o English words- it really is a pro!lem. /owever- the search does not always work well. :or e0ample- i you try to look up the phrase 2 all to pieces2- the dictionary will show the page or the word fall. The page has e0planations o 21 meanings o the word and you have to find the right meaning yourself 52 all to pieces2 is num!er 246. The dictionary has a nice eature called 2full-te7t search2. %t searches or a word or phrase in all the parts o the IF3&8': the entries- de initions and e0amples in the dictionary- the )ord!ank- the 0ollins nglish )sage- etc.

Install to hard drive

The setup program has an 2install to hard drive2 option. %n our opinion- the option is necessary or every serious learner. /ere.s why: % you want to learn a lot o words- looking them up should !e easy. % it.s too hardyou will ignore many words !ecause you will !e scared o the time and e ort 5paper dictionaries are scary like that6. This means that your dictionary should !e ;uickly availa#le. ,ou should !e a!le to look up a word in a ew seconds. An application on a IF is not 2+uickly availa!le2- !ecause:

%t takes time to insert the IF into your IF3&8' drive. Even when it.s inserted- a IF works more slowly than a hard drive.

=o i you want to use your dictionary com orta!ly- you need to have it on your hard drive. 'any dictionaries are +uite di icult to install to the hard drive 5o ten you have to edit the )indows registry6- !ut the IIEF IF3&8' makes it all easy !y having a special option in the setup.

'oor copying 4 pasting

,ou cannot select part of a page 5 or e0ample- one de inition or one e0ample sentence6 and copy it to another program. )hen making a =uper'emo itemyou have to copy the entire page with the option 2Iopy entry2. % a word has 144 meanings- you have to copy "44 lines o te0t. Then you have to erase 3@@ lines to leave only the one that you want. )e don.t know i this is a programming error or some kind o copy protection. 'ay!e /arperIollins did not want people to copy their de initions7


There is only one annoying !ug in the 0ollins 0,1)$2D +dvanced 2earner's nglish Dictionary. Hnder )indows R<- there is a $3second pause when you irst try to play a recording. A terwards- all recordings play immediately. 8therwise- the so tware is ast and relia!le.

9e recommend the 0ollins 0,1)$2D +dvanced 2earner's nglish Dictionary 0D5,M. %n our opinion- it is a good so tware English dictionary or learners. The content is e0cellent > great e0ample sentences and de initions rom the 0ollins 0,1)$2D +dvanced 2earner's nglish Dictionary plus the )ord!ank with even more e0amples. The program.s inter ace is +uite good- so you can look up English words +uickly and pleasantly. The IIEF IF3&8' is a source o super3 riendly and super3clear de initions and e0ample sentences- !ut not o phonetic transcriptions. % learning English pronunciation- you will also need another so tware dictionary with transcriptions 5or the !ook version o the IIEF6.

,ou can get the ollowing versions o the 0ollins 0,1)$2D +dvanced 2earner's nglish Dictionary- "th edition:

/ardcover L IF > !uy rom Elearnaid 5J2(6 or 5J"26 <aper!ack L IF > !uy rom Elearnaid 5J1@6 or 5J226 IF only > !uy rom Elearnaid 5J146 > Availa!le at a great price. )e only recommend this version i you have another dictionary with phonetic transcriptions 5the IF does not have transcriptions6. &esource <ack on IF 5includes dictionary- thesaurus- grammar and usage6 > !uy rom Elearnaid 5J2@6 > )e only recommend this version i you have another dictionary with phonetic transcriptions 5the IF does not have transcriptions6.

=hipping in ormation: Elearnaid.s shipping charges are lower than Ama1on.s i you live in America- Asia or Eastern Europe. % you live in )estern Europe- Ama1on.s shipping will !e cheaper !y a!out J" and the delivery will !e somewhat aster. )arning: Elearnaid does not ship to a ew countries- e.g. <oland and %ndia. )e would like to thank 'aree Airlie and Cenni er Midd o /arperIollins <u!lishers or providing copies o the 3rd and "th editions o the Iollins I8BH%#F Advanced #earner.s English Fictionary.

Review of the Random House Webster s "nabridged )ictionary 0)(R+-


enlarge screenshot The 5andom %ouse 9e#ster's )na#ridged Dictionary 0D-5,M 5&/)HF6 contains the 1@@@ edition o the 5andom %ouse 9e#ster's )na#ridged Dictionary- one o the two largest and most authoritative dictionaries o American English 5the other is the 'erriam3)e!ster Hna!ridged Fictionary6. %t does not contain the &andom /ouse Thesaurus. This review covers the so tware 5IF3&8'6 version o the &/)HF- not the !ook version- which is !ig- heavy- harder to read- and slower to use.

The &/)HF is an English3English 5monolingual6 dictionary designed mainly or native speakers. This means that it doesn.t try to give simple and riendly de initions like a learner.s dictionary. %nstead- it sticks to a rather dry le0icographic style: tenacious G holding ast9 characteri1ed !y keeping a irm hold 5o ten ol. !y o 6: a tenacious grip on my arm< tenacious of old ha#its. #ask G to lie in or !e e0posed to a pleasant warmth: to #ask in the sunshine.

E*ample sentences
There are ar ewer e0ample sentences in the &/)HF than in a learner.s dictionary. )hen % looked up 22 intermediateEadvanced words chosen randomly rom a !ook- the &/)HF had 3.2 e0ample sentences per word. There were- on average- *.$ meanings or each o the 22 words- which means that less than 1 in 2 meanings had an e0ample sentence. :or the same sample- the 0,1)$2D +dvanced 2earner's Dictionary had ( e0ample sentences per word- 3.$ meanings per word- and almost 2 e0ample sentences per meaning. Being a dictionary or native speakers- the &/)HF has twice as many meanings as the 0,1)$2D" #ut each meaning has = times fewer e7ample sentences.

'honetic transcriptions
The &/)HF provides phonetic transcriptions or practically all words. There are no transcriptions o compound words like fish stick or unanticipated- !ut this is no !ig pro!lem- as you can look up fish- stick- and anticipated instead. The dictionary includes transcriptions o proper names such as McNaughton- :ynergen or San 5afael- and even #atin phrases like mira#ile dictu. %nstead o the %<A- the dictionary uses its own system of phonetic transcription. % you are amiliar with the !asics o English pronunciation- you should have no pro!lem learning it > or e0ample- !y listening to the recordings and comparing them with the transcriptions or !y looking up simple words or which you know the transcription 5e.g. go- run- #ed- now6. %t.s worth remem!ering that the dictionary has its own transcription conventions- some o which are less precise than those used in other dictionaries. :or instance- any and near are !oth transcri!ed with the 2ee2 vowel 5as in keep6- even though in speech they each sound a !it di erent. =imilarly- tourist is transcri!ed with the 2oo2 vowel 5#ook6. =tress is marked !y placing an apostrophe after- not #efore he stressed sylla!le.

)herever it gives phonetic transcriptions- the &/)HF also provides recordings 5listen to a sample in mp3 ormat6. :or words with two or more alternative transcriptions- the recording is usually provided only or the most popular alternative. All the words are pronounced !y pro essional speakers- and match the transcriptions perfectly- even or di icult oreign entries like 2udwig 9ittgenstein 5listen6. The dictionary does not con use you !y showing you one thing- and playing another. The only pro!lem is that the technical ;uality of the recordings is average > pro!a!ly !ecause the so tware uses an old sound compression technology.

$oftware &uality
The dictionary o ers an 2install to hard drive2 option 5you have to select 2Iustom %nstallation2 during the setup process6- which allows you to use the so tware without the IF in the drive. The &/)HF starts up very ;uickly and works fast. The user inter ace is good- e0cept or a ew laws. 8ne pro!lem is that !e ore you can start typing a word- you have to click on the search !o0 and erase its contents 5i.e. the previous word you looked up6. By contrast- in the Iollins I8BH%#F Advanced #earner.s dictionary- you can ;ust start typing without thinking a!out the search !o0. A more annoying pro!lem is that the dictionary does not support mousewheel scrolling or realtime scrolling. )hen you want to scroll down in the de inition window- you have to use the slider on the right side- and the window is scrolled only when you release the mouse !utton 5not at the same time as you move the slider6.

% do like the act that you can !rowse through all the entries in the dictionary !y scrolling a list 5here realtime scrolling works6. The process is similar to lea ing through a !ook and ena!les you to learn completely random words ;ust or un. The &/)HF ails most re+uently o all the dictionaries % have used. ,ou can e0pect a crash once every 1443244 words you look up. 8n one unlucky computer % tested the &/)HF on- the dictionary seemed to crash once every 343$4 words. Generally- it is not the most sta#le piece of software and you.ll have to get used to restarting it occasionally.

)o you need this dictionary?

% you are an English learner- % do not recommend the &/)HF as your primary dictionary- even though % learned English rom a similar so tware dictionary mysel . Today- you can get IF3&8' dictionaries with many more e0ample sentences and nicer de initions 5e.g. the 0ollins 0,1)$2D +dvanced 2earner's Dictionary or the 2ongman Dictionary of 0ontemporary nglish6. /owever- a large dictionary like the &/)HF can !e very use ul as your second dictionary:

Because it is so huge- it contains things that are not found in a learner's dictionary. These include: o advanced words: diathesis- lathwork- fender #ender- highfaluting o meanings: ar#or in the mechanical sense o phrasal ver!s: kick #ack- hike up o cultural entries: 0ity of 1rotherly 2ove- :arden State- +++- >ohn ?it.gerald @ennedy o encyclopedic entries: :odel's incompleteness theorem- M+, inhi#itorPensacola 1ay o idioms: push up daisies- put the screws on Each o these advanced words- phrases and meanings occurs rarely- !ut you will always come across a ew o them when reading any te0t in English > it.s guaranteed.

The &/)HF is a relia#le source of +merican pronunciations- !oth phonetic transcriptions and recordings. % you are learning American English and use the 0ollins 0,1)$2D +dvanced 2earner's nglish Dictionary on 0D 5which does not have phonetic transcriptions or American recordings6- a dictionary like the &/)HF is a!solutely necessary. ...And- o course- two dictionaries are !etter than one- !ecause they give you a lot more e0ample sentences than ;ust one dictionary.

%n conclusion- the 5andom %ouse 9e#ster's )na#ridged Dictionary 0D-5,M is highly recommended for learners of +merican nglish who already have a good learner's dictionary.

The RHW") or the online -erriam(Webster?

&andom /ouse )e!ster.s Hna!ridged Fictionary

'erriam3)e!ster 8nline Fictionary 5m3w.com6

There is a ree online dictionary at 'erriam3)e!ster.s site 5m3w.com6- which has a!out the same num!er o words as the &/)HF. /owever- % still think it is a good idea to pay J3.2$ L shipping and get the &/)HF. /ere.s why:

The &/)HF works faster. ,ou don.t have to wait or the page to load. &ecordings are played instantly. The relative slowness o discourages you rom looking up words- which is not good when you want to learn as many words as you can. The &/)HF has a much clearer layout. =ee right or an e0ample entry 5go6 in !oth dictionaries. The &/)HF presents all the meanings on one page. 8n it.s not enough to type in rack > you have to choose !etween rack/A"noun3rack/B"intransitive ver#3- rack/C"noun3- rack/="ver#3 or one o ive other su!entries. This slows you down and re+uires you to make a decision !e ore you can look up a word. ' sometimes gives too many alternative pronunciations- e.g. pronunciations used in some regions o the H=- !ut not in 2standard American English2. 8ne e0ample is catch- which is transcri!ed PkSt= T ket=Q. Another is actor- which- according to can !e pronounced P.Sk torQ in addition to the standard P.Sk t..rQ. This may mislead learners who are trying to learn American English as spoken on television. Both dictionaries have a!out the same num!er o e0ample sentences. %n a sample o 22 words- &/)HF had 3.2 e0ample per word- while had 2 e0amples in the dictionary and 1." e0amples in the thesaurus 53." in total6.

/owever- the &/)HF has e7amples for almost every phrasal ver# 5e.g. keep at- run down6 and idiom. ' has very ew e0amples or such entries. E0amples on are o ten very !rie 5e.g. jam his hat on6. The &/)HF usually uses full sentence e7amples 5e.g. %e jammed his hat on and stalked out of the room.6 The de initions in the &/)HF are a #it easier to understand than on m3

/uying information
,ou can !uy the &andom /ouse )e!ster.s Hna!ridged Fictionary IF3&8' rom Elearnaid or JK.44 5the shipping cost is !etween JK and J1"- depending on where you live6. Thanks to Bernard #ittman 5Elearnaid6 or providing a review copy o the &andom /ouse )e!ster.s Hna!ridged Fictionary IF3&8'.

1earn English without mista!es

,ou can damage your English !y writing and speaking. ,our grammar- voca!ularyand pronunciation can get worse !ecause o practice. )hen you speak or write and you make mistakes- you teach yoursel !ad ha!its. These !ad ha!its may !e di icult to eliminate. The solution is simple: Avoid mistakes? Try to say or write only correct English sentences.

/ow can you avoid making mistakes7

=tudy pronunciation 5all the English sounds and at least !asic English words6 !e ore you open your mouth. Get lots o English sentences into your head 5!y reading and listening6 !e ore you open your mouth or write in English. To avoid mistakes- you need to ollow good e0amples. )hen you speak or write- !e care ul- slow- and use simple language

5ou can damage your English by writing and spea!ing

How practice can damage your English
% you ask 2/ow can % learn to speak English !etter72- many people will tell you 2<ractice- practice- practice2. 2=peak and write in English whenever you can2 > they will say. All English classes are ull o activities which involve speaking and writing. ,ou produce sentences when you do an e0ercise in your te0t!ook- when your teacher

makes you speak in class- or when you have to write a composition. All these activities are supposed to help you with your English. )e agree that practice can !e very use ul. %t.s even necessary to learn English well. =o what.s the pro!lem7 The pro!lem is that for many learners" 8speaking8 or 8writing8 means 8making a lot of mistakes8. =ome people make a mistake in every sentence? % you don.t make many mistakes- then you can speak or write in English and it can only help. But i you make many mistakes- then every time you write or speak- you rein orce your mistakes. +s you write or speak" you repeat your mistakes constantly and your incorrect ha#its #ecome stronger.

%magine this situation: ,ou are writing an e3mail message in English. ,our English is not per ect and you want to write the message +uickly. ,ou write 5incorrectly6: 2% want speak English.2 )hen you write a sentence- you also read it. =o the incorrect sentence goes into your head. The ne0t time you write a message- you will !e more likely to write 2% want inish2 or 2% want !e happy2. )hy7 Because 2% want speak English2 is resh in your head > ;ust used it? And when you write 2% want Odo somethingN2 the second time- got a 2!ad ha!it2- or a rein orced mistake.

Bow do you see our point7 ,ou write > you make mistakes > those mistakes !ecome your ha!it- they !ecome your way o writing in English. =o- the more you write" the worse your nglish #ecomes.

$top ma!ing mista!es6

)e have said that you need practice to learn English. )e have also said that when you practice- you rein orce your mistakes. 'ichal suggests a simple solution to this parado0: Never make mistakesD /ere is what he says: %t is close to the truth that % have never written an incorrect English sentence. % knew many grammatical structures and % used only those that % knew. My sentences were similar to sentences which $ knew to #e correct. % ollowed good e0amples- so all my sentences were good. %n the !eginning- % could write only very simple sentences- !ut all the simple sentences were correct. Then as % advanced- % added more and more complicated structures- and again all my sentences were correct.

Because o this approach- % was never rein orcing !ad ha!its. % never had any !ad ha!its? :rom the !eginning- % copied only correct sentences. )ith every sentence that % wrote- % rein orced my good ha!its. ,ou can speak and write with almost no mistakes- too.

5ou may be thin!ing...

"But practice makes perfect!"
% you make many mistakes- speaking and writing is not the way to eliminate them? 8n the contrary- it rein orces them- as we have shown earlier in this article. ,ou have to reali1e that speaking does not improve your grammar or your voca#ulary. %t.s really very simple. Ian you learn a new word rom yoursel 7 % you don.t know how to say 2Good !ye2 in English- can you invent it !y yoursel 7 Bo- you can.t. ,ou can only learn it !y reading or listening to English. 8r take a language you don.t know 5e.g. #atin6. Bow try to learn #atin !y speaking it right now. Iome on- speak #atin? Fon.t !e shy. <ractice makes per ect? > 8!viouslyyou can.t. )hy7 Because you need to see some e0ample #atin sentences irst. )e hope we have shown that the main way to learn a language is to read and listen to sentences in that language. =o what should you do i you can.t help !ut make mistakes in your English sentences7 % you make mistakes- that means you don.t know how to say things in English. ,ou need to learn how to say them. ,ou won.t learn that !y speaking or writing. !ou must read and listen to correct nglish sentences. ,ou can speak and write later > when you can already !uild correct English sentences and want to improve your luency 5your speed6.

"I'll get better by practicing, because my teacher corrects my mistakes!"

<erhaps you can !ene it rom corrections i you get a ew corrections per week. But when there are many mistakes" you #ecome una#le to concentrate on them. % a teacher returns your composition with 24 corrected mistakes- how many o these corrections can you keep in your mind7 Besides- your teacher is not always there. )hat i writing an e3mail message on your own or talking to someone else7 8ther people usually ignore your mistakes- and even your teacher does not point out all o them. The conclusion would !e that fighting your mistakes is not easy- so it.s !etter to avoid making mistakes altogether.

"But if I'm afraid to make a mistake, I will never open my mouth!"

:irst- try to !e more care ul !y using the rules o error3 ree speaking. % you still make a lot o mistakes 5G more than 1 mistake every 3 sentences6- or i you ind that the rules are killing your motivation- you pro!a!ly shouldn't open your mouth ;ust now. %nstead- try to get more input !y reading and listening in English.

"But you can't learn anything without mistakes!"

True- !ut !elieve us > you can learn English with almost no mistakes. /ow7 ,ou can ill your !rain with correct sentences and imitate them. ,ou can simply ollow good e0amples. % you write or say sentences that are similar to correct English sentences 5 rom a !ook- a dictionary- or heard rom a native speaker6- then it is very hard to make a mistake?

"Can I ever make a mistake on purpose?"

,es. =ometimes you can say or write something which you think is wrong. ,ou can do it i you want to learn how to say something in English. :or e0ample- i you are talking to a native speaker- you can do this: 1. Say "I'm not sure how to say this in English, but ..." and then say your sentence (which is probably wrong). 2. he other person can tell you how to say it in English correctly. !. "earn the correct way to say the sentence. Botice that this techni+ue is only sa e i :

you #now that you are saying something which may be wrong you are sure that the other person will correct you i$ you ma#e a mista#e you use it only occasionally

-ista!es and pronunciation

) e0plained how speaking and writing with mistakes can damage your grammar and voca!ulary. But the same can happen to your pronunciation. =uppose you are talking to someone in English. ,ou don.t know how to pronounce a word- so you say it in your own way. Then- you !ecome used to this incorrect pronunciation. ,ou pronounce the word incorrectly again and again. , gotten yoursel a !ad pronunciation ha!it. %n our opinion- pronunciation should #e the first thing that you learn a#out nglish. % you do anything else- it will usually involve speaking. 5Botice that even i reading a !ook- o ten pronouncing the sentences aloud or in your head.6 That

means you will !e speaking with !ad pronunciation and you will !e teaching yoursel !ad ha!its. =o i you really want to avoid mistakes- you must study English pronunciation !e ore you do anything else- and especially #efore you open your mouth. )hen you open your mouth- you should know how to pronounce everything you are saying.

How to avoid ma!ing mista!es in English

#earners make mistakes and rein orce them !ecause they produce sentences 16 too carelessly or 26 too early. ,ou will avoid mistakes i you ollow a couple o rules:

Rules of error(free spea!ing and writing

1. )se simple language. =ome !eginners try to !uild very complicated sentences with things like the present per ect tense or conditionals. They make horri!le mistakes. Fon.t do this? % ;ust started to speak or write in English- you should say what you can say 5simple sentences that you have seen many times6 > not what you want to say 5complicated sentences6. ,ou may eel talking like a child or that you are not e0pressing your thoughts- !ut don.t worry a!out it. &ight now- your task is not to e0press your thoughts reely9 your task is to learn the language. 2. 1e slow and careful. %n the !eginning- you should write very slowly. % you need 2 hours to write an e3mail message with 14 correct sentences- that.s okay. That.s how long it should take i ;ust starting to write. )hy should it take so long7 Because you should read your sentences many times- looking or mistakes. ,ou should correct your own sentences re+uently. ,ou should check i your sentences are correct !y using a dictionary and the )e!. And you should look or e0ample sentences to imitate. )hen speaking- it.s okay to !uild a sentence or some time in your head !e ore you open your mouth. 3. $f you're not sure how to say something" don't say it. % you can.t say something correctly- it.s almost always !etter not to say it. ,ou don.t want to teach yoursel the wrong way to say it. ,ou can try to look or the correct sentence in a dictionary or on the )e! 5see ne0t point6- !ut when speaking- usually you don.t have time or that. =o it.s a good idea to say something else > something that you know is correct. %t can even !e something on a di erent su!;ect. ". 9hen writing" always look things up. )henever not sure how to use a word- look it up in a good dictionary to ind e0ample sentences with it. )hen written something- and you are not sure i it.s correct- search or it on the )e! with Google. % many pages contain your phrase- then it is pro!a!ly correct. Fictionaries and Google should !e your everyday tools- and you

should use them even many times in one sentence 5especially i ;ust !egun writing in English6. =ee this orum topic or more in ormation on using Google when writing. $. @now where you can screw up. =ometimes learners don.t even reali1e how di erent English is rom their native language. )hen speaking- they translate word or word rom their native language- and they think their sentences are okay. )hen reading or listening in English- pay close attention to things like word order- articles- prepositions- and tenses. Iompare sentences in English with e+uivalent sentences in your native language. Botice the di erences in words and in word order. This will make you more care ul when speaking in the oreign language- !ecause you will reali1e which parts o your sentences can !e wrong and should !e dou!le3checked.

2Will I ever be fluent if I spea! so slowly and carefully?2

Fon.t worry a!out luency. :luency is easy to achieve !y simply talking. % you practice speaking- you will !e a!le to speak aster and aster. %n high school- Tom achieved pretty good luency in a month !y talking to his English teacher 5a native speaker6 a!out two hours a week. That.s only * hours o talking. %n our opinion- it is much !etter to !e slow and correct than #e fluent and make a lot of mistakes. )hy7 Because i you are slow and correct- you can easily improve your speed and !ecome luent and correct. But i you are luent and make a lot o mistakesit is not so easy to remove your mistakes and !ecome luent and correct.

Tom s e*perience with error(free writing

% recently started learning German. % wanted to start writing e3mails in German as soon as possi!le- !ut % didn.t want to make mistakes and teach mysel !ad ha!its. % wrote my irst e3mails in German a ter reading ;ust one short 5"43page6 !ook or learners written in simple German- a ew e3mail messages rom a German riend- and a ter using my very small =uper'emo collection or a ew months. And my e-mails in :erman had almost no mistakes. /ow was that possi!le > writing correct sentences a ter getting so little input7 :irstmy e3mails contained very simple sentences. But the most important thing was my research: % looked or e0ample sentences on the )e! and in dictionaries. :or e0ample- % knew that the German word or use was #enut.en- !ut % didn.t know how to use it in a sentence like 2)hich program do you use to copy IFs72. 8 ten- % had an idea how something might !e done in German- !ut % wasn.t sure i my idea was correct. %n such situations- % looked or the answer on the )e! or in my dictionaries. % spent a lot o time on each sentence. %t took me more than an hour to write my irst message- which contained only a ew German sentences.

The writing process was long and it took much e ort- !ut it was un. The e0perience was very motivating and it made me even more interested in German. <erhaps one o the reasons why it was so en;oya!le was that % knew % was !uilding correct sentences.

)on t spea! or write too early

% you ollow the a!ove rules and still make a lot o mistakes when speaking 5G more than 1 mistake every 3 sentences6- you should pro!a!ly switch to writing or a while. Ionsider the ollowing guidelines: 1. ?irst write" then speak. )riting is easier than speaking !ecause: 16 you don.t need to have good pronunciation 5!ut you need good spelling6- 26 you can write very slowly and no!ody will mind- 36 you can use dictionaries- the )e!etc. =o- it.s a good idea to practice writing irst until you can !uild correct sentences +uickly enough or speaking. 2. Don't speak until you've learned to pronounce nglish sounds. ,ou need to !e a!le to pronounce all the English vowels and consonants in a clear way !e ore you speak. % you don.t- you will get used to !ad pronunciation. 3. Don't say a word if you don't know how to pronounce it. %n other words- you need to know the pronunciation o all the words that you use. % you don.t- you will !e making pronunciation mistakes and teaching yoursel !ad ha!its. % you make more than 1 mistake every 3 sentences when writing in the slow and care ul way descri!ed a!ove- you should pro!a!ly stop writing for some time and concentrate on reading and listening. &emem!er that you should irst get lots o English sentences into your head- then !uild your own sentences. ,our main activity should !e reading and listening to English > and the reason is that you need good e0amples to ollow !e ore you can !uild your own sentences. The more sentences your !rain a!sor!s- the more you can e0press in English. % you don.t seeEhear enough correct- natural English sentencesyou will not know how to say things in English. =o you will !e inventing your own language. And you will !e making mistakes.

What happens in English classes

The recommended order in the Antimoon learning method is: <ronunciation 3 %nput 5reading and listening6 3 )riting 3 =peaking. Hn ortunately- something completely di erent happens in English classes. Almost no courses teach you pronunciation at the !eginning. :ew teachers give you enough 2input2. %nstead- they orce you to speak and write > asking you +uestions- telling you to do grammar e0ercises or writing assignments. %n a way- they orce you to make mistakes and create !ad ha!its.

1earning English pronunciation

)hy should you study English pronunciation7 Because pronunciation is the !iggest thing that people notice a!out your English. ,ou should study it even i you think you can already communicate in English.

/ow to learn English pronunciation7 ,ou will need to: 1. #earn to pronounce every English sound correctly. The sounds o English and the %nternational <honetic Alpha!et are shown in our ta!le. ,ou can listen to recorded e0amples o each sound. 2. Hnderstand phonetic transcription > the system or writing the pronunciation o English words. <honetic transcription is usually written in the %nternational <honetic Alpha!et. 3. #earn the pronunciation o every English word that you use. ,ou can ind phonetic transcriptions o words in good English dictionaries. %t might !e a good idea to use PerfectPronunciation > Antimoon.s English pronunciation so tware which teaches you the pronunciation o the most re+uently used English words with phonetic transcriptions and audio recordings. )hat is good English pronunciation7 There are three levels o English pronunciation. ,our pronunciation is good i it is understanda!le and pleasant. )e created the A=I%% <honetic Alpha!et !ecause the sym!ols o the %nternational <honetic Alpha!et are di icult to type on computers. The A=I%% <honetic Alpha!et uses only sym!ols which you can ind on your computer.s key!oard. Femonstration o phonetic transcription: #isten to recordings and read the transcriptions.

Articles related to pronunciation in the 28ther articles2 section:

2,ou are a oreigner- there ore you will always have a oreign accent2

Why you should study English pronunciation

#irst impressions
<ronunciation is de initely the #iggest thing that people notice when you are speaking nglish. #et us tell you a personal anecdote a!out this: )e once went to a conversation class taught !y native speakers 5Americans6. Be ore the class started- the teacher said to us: 2=o- do you speak good English72. Tom replied 2)e think so2- and the guy said 2%t sure sounds like you do2. Botice that we ;ust said three words- and the teacher could already tell i our English was good or !ad. )hy did the teacher think our English was good7 Because o the di icult words we used7 Bo. Because we used advanced grammar structures7 Bo. %t was our pronunciation.

)hen you meet a person- and you ;ust say a sentence or two- do you think they will notice your poor voca!ulary or !ad grammar7 <ro!a!ly not. But they will notice i your pronunciation is good or !ad. % your pronunciation is poor- they will immediately think a!out you as 2the guyEgirl who speaks !ad English2. ,our pronunciation creates the irst impression you make.

Good pronunciation should !e one o the irst things that you learn in English. ,ou can live without advanced voca!ulary > you can use simple words to say what you want to say. ,ou can live without advanced grammar > you can use simple grammar structures instead. But there is no such thing as 2simple pronunciation2. % you don.t have good pronunciation- you have... !ad pronunciation. And the results o !ad pronunciation are tragic. Even i you use great voca!ulary and grammar- people may simply not understand what you want to say. :or e0ample- i you pronounce sleep like this- and not like that- or i you pronounce ghost like this instead o this- native speakers will have serious pro!lems understanding you? %n our opinion- you should know how to say English sounds like the ee in sleep or the o in ghost- !e ore you even learn words like sleep and ghost. /ere is another anecdote a!out this. A ter coming !ack rom a vacation in the H=A- a riend o Tom.s said: 2)henever % spoke to a person in America- they kept asking me 2)hat7 )hat72. % would repeat my sentence again and again. :inally they would say 2Ah3ha?2 and then say my sentence- using e0actly my words? %t was very humiliating. % knew my words and grammar were good- !ut no!ody would understand me- ;ust !ecause o my pronunciation. % am very motivated to learn English now.2

0an you communicate in English?

Almost all English learners say 2% don.t need to study pronunciation. % ;ust want to communicate in English.2 'any o them think that they can communicate in English !ecause they can communicate with their teacher and other students. Fo not make this mistake? ,ou have to remem!er that:

,our teacher has !een listening to !ad English or years. /e or she can understand it much more easily than the average person. 8ther students are usually rom the same country as you. There ore- they speak English like you and they make the same mistakes. =o it is easy or them to understand you.

The only true test is: Go to America or Britain and try to talk to 2normal people2 > a clerk at a supermarket- a !us driver- etc. % they can understand you- then you can say that you can communicate in nglish.

Hn ortunately- many learners ignore pronunciation. They can communicate in classso they think that they are good enough. A ter a ew years they go to England or the H=A and... no!ody understands what they are saying. &emem!er Tom.s riend who went on vacation to America and couldn.t communicate7 /e was the !est student in his English class. 'ichal wrote a short story a!out people living on two islands where English is spoken. The story is or those who say: 2% don.t need to learn pronunciation !ecause % only want to communicate.2

0ommunication is not enough

% you can communicate in English with people rom other countries- congratulations? %t.s a !ig achievement. But it may not !e enough. % you are at #evel 2 o pronunciation skill- your English is understanda!le- !ut you have a strong oreign accent which is unpleasant or other people. )e have already said that your pronunciation is important !ecause it makes your irst impression. This is certainly true > no!ody will say that you speak good English i you have a strong oreign accent. But there is more. $f you have a pleasant accent" people will simply enjoy talking to you. They will want to spend time with you. 8n the other hand- i your accent is !ad- people may !e even avoiding you 5consciously or unconsciously6. The good news is that you can work on your pronunciation until you speak 2understanda!le and pleasant English2 5we simply call it good pronunciation6. :or e0ample- you can learn the sounds o English- listen to recordings- watch English3 language television- etc. But irst you have to reali1e there is a pro!lem? 'ost English learners don.t. 'ichal wrote a short story to help learners understand this pro!lem.

How to learn English pronunciation

7. 1earn the sounds of English
nglish uses different sounds than other languages. :or e0ample- the irst sound in the word thin and the irst sound in the word away are never heard in many languages. There ore- you have to: 1. know all the English sounds 2. listen to how they sound in real words and sentences !. practice your pronunciation > listen to English words and sentences- and try to repeat them as well as you can

%t.s not so important to spend a lot o time practicing9 it's more important to do it regularly. 'any learners ind that ;ust starting to pay attention to pronunciation helps them improve a great deal. %t is a good idea to try to imitate English words whenever listening to anything in English 5watching TD- watching a movie- etc.6. ,ou should also try to pronounce English words whenever somewhere alone with a little time to spare- e.g. while waiting or the !us- taking a shower- or sur ing the )e!. 8nce your mouth and tongue get used to the new sounds- you will not ind them di icult at all. ,ou will need at least some talent or imitating sounds 5 or instance- i you can imitate people in your own language- it should !e easy or you to 2do2 English pronunciation6. /owever- i you don.t have these skills- you can achieve a lot with persistence and a little technology. 8ne help ul techni+ue is to record your voice and compare it with the correct pronunciation. This way- you can see where your pronunciation is di erent rom the original and you can gradually make it more native3like. 8h- and one more thing: Fon.t let other people tell you that 2since you are a oreigneryou will always have a oreign accent2.

8. 1earn the pronunciation of English words

&eading an English word does not tell you how it is pronounced. :or e0ample- the words no and do !oth end in the letter o. /owever- no is pronounced like this- and do is pronounced like that. This means that- generally- you have to learn the pronunciation of every word that you're going to use. /ow can you learn the pronunciation o an English word7 ,ou can look it up in a dictionary and read a!out how it is pronounced. Fictionaries tell you a!out pronunciation through a special system called phonetic transcription. <honetic transcriptions are written in a phonetic alpha!et. The most popular phonetic alpha!et is the %nternational <honetic Alpha!et 5%<A6. Antimoon has also created the A=I%% <honetic Alpha!et- which is suita!le or typing on a computer. Antimoon.s so tware- <er ect<ronunciation- helps you learn the pronunciations o the most important English words. %t lets you record your voice and compare it with the correct pronunciation. Because it contains phonetic transcriptions and audio recordings- it can also teach you how to read phonetic transcriptions.

9. 0hoose %merican or /ritish pronunciation :or both;

Different kinds of nglish have different pronunciation. :or e0ample- the pronunciation 5the accent6 in British English is di erent rom the pronunciation in American English.

,ou have a choice !etween British English and American English- !ecause these are the most important kinds o English in the world. )hich one should you choose7 <ro!a!ly the kind that you like the most. )hether you choose British or American pronunciation- people will understand you wherever you go. 8 course- you don.t have to decide: you can learn to speak !oth kinds o English.

<. 1earn about both %merican and /ritish pronunciation

Even i you choose to speak one kind o English- you should learn a#out #oth kinds. #et.s suppose you want to speak pure British English. ,ou don.t want to have an American accent at all. =hould you pay attention to the American pronunciations in your dictionary7 )e !elieve you should. ,ou may want to speak British English- !ut you will hear some American Englishtoo. ,ou may go see an American movie- visit the Hnited =tates- have an American teacher- etc. ,ou may want to speak only British English- !ut you need to understand #oth 1ritish and +merican nglish. Also- consider what happens i you 5a student o British English6 hear a new English word rom an American7 ,ou may learn the American pronunciation o the word. And you may start using that pronunciation in your own speech. =o your British English will no longer !e pure. :or e0ample- i you hear the word nuke on American TD- it will !e pronounced Pnu:kQ. % - all your li e- you have !een reading only British phonetic transcriptionsyou will not know that many words which have the sound P;u:Q in British Englishhave Pu:Q in American English. =o you will pro!a!ly learn that nuke is pronounced Pnu:kQ. But i you learn it like this- you will make your pronunciation 2wrong2!ecause a Briton would pronounce the word Pn;u:kQ. 8 course- the same advice is true i learning American English. %n such a caseyou should !e interested in !oth British and American pronunciations- too. 5This topic has !een discussed in the :orum.6

The sounds of English and the International 'honetic %lphabet

This ta!le contains all the sounds 5phonemes6 used in the English language. :or each sound- it gives:

The sym!ol in the $P+ 5%nternational <honetic Alpha!et6- as used in phonetic transcriptions in modern dictionaries or English learners > that is- A. I. Gimson.s phonemic system with a ew additional sym!ols.

The ta!le represents British and American phonemes with one sym!ol. 8ne sym!ol can mean two di erent phonemes in American and British English. =ee the ootnotes or British3only and American3only sym!ols.

Two English words which use the sound. The underline shows where the sound is heard. The links la!eled +mer and 1rit play sound recordings 5in mp3 ormat6 where the words are pronounced in American and British English. The British version is given only where it is very di erent rom the American version.

% you would like to print the ta!le- use the pretty printa!le version. consonants I'% vowels I'% words cup- luck arm- ather cat- !lack met- !ed turn- learn hit- sitting see- heat hot- rock call- our put- could !lue- ood ive- eye now- out go- home where- air say- eight near- here !oy- ;oin listen Amer Amer E Brit Amer Amer 1 2 words #ad- la# did- lady find- if give- lag how- hello yes- yellow cat- !ack leg- little man- lemon no- ten sing- inger pet- map red- try sun- miss she- crash tea- getting $ think- !oth this- mother voice- ive wet- window .oo- la.y just- large listen Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer 6 in American

away- cinema Amer Amer Amer

Amer E Brit 2

Amer E Brit 3 Amer E Brit " Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer E Brit ( Amer Amer E Brit (

check- church Amer

pure- tourist Amer E Brit (

pleasure- vision Amer

1 The phoneme is sometimes written as 5do not con use with

sources to show that in AmE- the pronunciation alls !etween and

%n and - the is not pronounced in BrE- unless the sound comes !e ore a vowel 2 5as in answering- answer it6. %n AmE- the is always pronounced- and the sounds are sometimes written as and . %n AmE- is pronounced instead o . This is so o!vious that we don.t need to provide separate transcriptions or AmE and BrE. 5 6 and in the same way. is pro!a!ly more

" 'any Americans pronounce

has !een traditionally written as appropriate or !oth BrE or AmE.

in British sources. Today-

%n - the is not pronounced in BrE- unless the sound comes !e ore a vowel ( 5as in dearest- dear +nn6. %n AmE- the is always pronounced- and the sounds are o ten written as 5 6 . special sym!ols I'% what it means The apostrophe sym!ol 5 6 is used to show word stress. Hsually- it is placed !e ore the stressed sylla!le in a word. :or e0ample- E E is pronounced like this- and E E like that. )ord stress is e0plained in our article a!out phonetic transcription. is not a sound > it is a short way o saying that an is pronounced only in American English. :or e0ample- i you write that the pronunciation o #ar is E E- you mean that it is E E in American English- and E E in British English. /owever- in BrE- will !e heard i is ollowed !y a vowel. :or e0ample- far gone is pronounced E E in BrE- !ut far out is pronounced E E. 52medium i26 means that you can pronounce or or something in !etween > a sound that is short like !ut sounds like . E0amples: very E E- create E E- previous E E- a#ility E E. 52sylla!ic l26 shows that the consonant is pronounced as a separate sylla!le 5it sounds like vowel6. E0amples: little E E- uncle E E. %nstead o the sym!ol- some dictionaries use E E or E E. 52sylla!ic n26 shows that the consonant is pronounced as a separate sylla!le 5it sounds like a vowel6. E0amples: written E E- listen E E. %nstead o the sym!ol- some dictionaries use or .

What this page actually presents

This page contains sym!ols used in phonetic transcriptions in modern dictionaries or English learners. $t does not list all the possi#le sounds that e7ist in nglish. :or

e0ample- it does not list the 2regular t2 5heard in this pronunciation o letter6 and the 2 lap t2 5heard in this one6 separately. %t groups them under a single . 5%n other wordsit groups a num!er o sounds under a single 2phoneme2. To understand how sounds are grouped into phonemes- read the article on phonemic transcription.6 Even though dictionaries represent each phoneme with one sym!ol o the %<A- you should remem!er that one phoneme can actually correspond to many %<A sym!ols. :or e0ample- the phoneme in pin would !e phonetically written with the %<A sym!ol - !ecause it is pronounced with aspiration 5!reathing6. %n spin- the same phoneme would !e written with a simple 5no aspiration6. =imilarly- the 2regular t2 and the 2 lap t2 have separate %<A sym!ols > and - respectively. %n other words- this page does not list all the possi#le $P+ sym#ols that descri#e nglish speech. Also note that the %<A contains sym!ols or many languages > not only English.

The %$0II 'honetic %lphabet

The %nternational <honetic Alpha!et is very popular- !ut there is a !ig pro!lem with this alpha!et: the %<A sym!ols are di icult to type on computers. Because o created the A=I%% <honetic Alpha!et. %t uses only sym!ols which you can type on your computer.s key!oard.

1earning to pronounce the sounds

)e o er so tware 5<er ect<ronunciation6 which teaches learners to pronounce the most re+uently used English words. %t lets you listen to e0amples o English soundspractice your pronunciation- and review your knowledge. <er ect<ronunciation uses the A=I%% <honetic Alpha!et. Su#scri#e to get an e3mail when we pu!lish a new update.

Introduction to phonetic transcription

Related 'ages Femonstration o phonetic transcription )ith phonetic transcriptions- dictionaries tell you a!out the pronunciation o words. <honetic transcription is necessary- !ecause the spelling o a word does not tell you how you should pronounce it. <honetic transcriptions are usually written in the %nternational <honetic Alpha!et 5%<A6- in which each English sound has a special sym!ol. :or e0ample- the phonetic transcription o no is - and the transcription o do is . 5%n spelling- these words are similar. They !oth end in the letter o. But their phonetic transcriptions are di erent- !ecause they are pronounced di erently.6

<honetic transcription is usually given in !rackets- like this: E sometimes like this: P Q- P Q. %n a dictionary- it looks like this:

E- E

E9 or

/2ongman +ctive Study Dictionary of nglish3 5By the way- not all dictionaries give the pronunciations o words. % you are serious a!out learning English- you should !uy a dictionary which has this in ormation.6

The International 'honetic %lphabet

Take a look at our ta!le with all the %<A sym!ols used in phonetic transcriptions in English dictionaries.

Word stress
)hen a word has many sylla!les- one o them is always pronounced more strongly. This is called word stress- and we say that the sylla!le is stressed. :or e0ample- in the word #ecome- the stressed sylla!le is come. % the stressed sylla!le was #e- #ecome would !e pronounced like this. Fictionaries tell you which sylla!le is stressed. The most popular system is to put an apostrophe 5 6 #efore the stressed sylla!le in the phonetic transcription o the word. :or e0ample- the transcription or #ecome is E E. % a word has only one sylla!le 5 or e0ample: pen- house6- the sylla!le is always stressed. Fictionaries usually do not put an apostrophe !e ore the only sylla!le. =o they don.t write E E > they simply write E E. =ome dictionaries use other systems or showing word stress. :or e0ample- they may put an apostrophe after the stressed sylla!le- or they may underline the stressed sylla!le.

% demonstration
/ave a look at our demonstration o the phonetic transcription system. ,ou can read the transcriptions o some English words and listen to their pronunciations at the same time.

'honemic transcription
The most common type o phonetic transcription is called phonemic transcription. This is the type that we discuss on Antimoon and that is used in dictionaries.

/ow does phonemic transcription work7 =uppose we have two di erent English sounds. =hould we give them separate sym!ols in transcriptions7 %n phonemic transcription- the answer is 2yes2 only i there is an English word where saying one sound instead of another changes the meaning.

:or e0ample- saying 2d2 instead o 2t2 in the word #et changes the meaning 5the word !ecomes #ed6- there ore we use separate sym!ols or 2d2 and 2t2 in phonemic transcriptions. )e say that 2t2 and 2d2 are two different phonemes. The 2 lap t2 5in this pronunciation o the word letter6 and the regular 2t2 5in this one6 are two very di erent sounds. /owever- there are no English words where saying the 2 lap t2 instead o the regular 2t2 5or the other way around6 changes the meaning. There ore- in phonemic transcription- we use the same sym!ol or the 2 lap t2 and the regular 2t2. 5)e say that the 2 lap t2 and 2regular t2 are the same phoneme.6

5'ore e0amples in our article on phonemic transcription.6

%. 0. .imson s system
The most popular system o phonemic transcription was created !y A. I. Gimson. %t is used 5with certain small changes6 in nearly all dictionaries pu!lished in Britain. %t is also used on Antimoon. Gimson.s system uses sym!ols rom the %nternational <honetic Alpha!et 5%<A6 to represent phonemes. 8 course- some phonemes can !e pronounced in many ways 5as e0plained a!ove6- and there ore could !e written with many %<A sym!ols. :or e0ample- the 2t2 phoneme can !e spoken like the 2regular t2 5%<A sym!ol 6 or like the 2 lap t2 5%<A sym!ol 6. %n such cases- A. I. Gimson simply chose one o the possi!le %<A sym!ols. Thus- the 2t2 phoneme is represented !y the sym!ol. %n addition to Gimson.s sym!ols- recent dictionaries use the ollowing additional 5non3phonemic6 sym!ols in transcriptions: - - - - and .

Representing %merican English

Gimson.s system was created with British pronunciation in mind. /owever- it can also !e used to descri!e American pronunciation. There are two !asic ways to do this:

=eparate transcriptions or British and American English- or e0ample: dot farm go BrE E BrE E BrE E E- AmE E E- AmE E E- AmE E E E E

mothe r


E- AmE E

E 5or E


5This system is used e.g. in the 0am#ridge nglish Pronouncing Dictionary and the 2ongman Dictionary of 0ontemporary nglish6 8ne transcription or !oth British and American English. This is done !y using mostly British phoneme sym!ols plus the sym!ol. dot farm go mothe r E E E E E E

%n this system- transcriptions are shorter- !ut the reader must know that- in American English- changes to and changes to . This system is used e.g. in the 0ollins 0,1)$2D +dvanced 2earner's nglish Dictionary and on Antimoon.

=ome dictionaries use something in !etween these two e0tremes- giving separate American transcriptions or some words- !ut not or others. :or e0ample- the ,7ford +dvanced 2earner's Dictionary gives separate AmEEBrE transcriptions- e0cept when the word ends in .

23arrow2 phonetic transcription

The other type o phonetic transcription is much more detailed than phonemic transcription. %n 2narrow transcription2- we use di erent sym!ols e.g. or:

the 2p2 sound in pin and spin 5the irst is accompanied !y more !reathing6 the 2w2 sound in wet and twice 5the irst is voiced- the second is not6 the 2u2 sound in this pronunciation o flu and this one 5the second has a longer 2u2 sound6 the 2 lap t2 and the regular 2t2 5the irst is voiced and 2 lapped29 in narrow transcription it is usually denoted as 6

2Barrow2 transcription also uses sym!ols o the %nternational <honetic Alpha!et. /owever- it uses more sym!ols than Gimson.s phonemic transcription. 2Barrow2 transcription is mainly used !y phoneticians and is not covered on Antimoon.


more screenshots <er ect<ronunciation is a computer program or learning English pronunciationdeveloped !y Antimoon. %t contains $44 e0ercises which teach you to pronounce the &'' most fre;uently used nglish words properly.

)hen used regularly- <er ect<ronunciation can help you:

Speak nglish with more confidence. ,ou won.t have to worry a!out how to say words like century and although. ,ou will simply know how to pronounce them correctly. Start noticing other people's mistakes in pronunciation 5 or e0ample- in English classes6. 2earn the answers to many ;uestions a!out English pronunciation- or e0ample: /ow to pronounce development7 %s the 2oo2 in the words foot and food pronounced in the same way7 Foes law sound like low7 2earn phonetic transcription > the system or writing down the pronunciations o English words used !y teachers- pronunciation e0perts- and English dictionaries. Speak more clearly and #e understood #y others. Practice in your home as o ten as you want > without other people listening.


$44 e0ercises teach you to say properly the most re+uently used English words $(" high3+uality audio recordings with American English pronunciation Ilearly shows you all the sounds in a word through written pronunciations 5phonetic transcriptions69 in ormation a!out word stress 5accent6 is also included <honetic transcriptions cover all ways to pronounce a word- including British English pronunciation =pecial notes e0plain various issues o English pronunciation /elps you review what you have learned with advanced =uper'emo technology9 keeps the pronunciations in your head =aves your time9 2knows2 which e0ercises you will soon orget and helps you review them > and doesn.t waste your time with e0ercises you remem!er well

&ecord your own voice and compare it with the correct pronunciation until you inally reach the per ect pronunciation %ncludes a phonetic re erence > a guide to all English sounds with over 144 recorded words

How an e*ercise wor!s

<er ect<ronunciation consists o $44 pronunciation e0ercises. Each e0ercise works like this: 1. :irst- <er ect<ronunciation shows you an English word 5 or e0ample- scheme6. 2. ,ou try to say the word properly. 3. ,ou click a !utton and <er ect<ronunciation plays a recording with the correct pronunciation. %t also shows you the written pronunciation 5phonetic transcription6 o the word > so you can clearly see each sound in the word? ". ,ou compare your answer with the correct answer and you give yoursel a grade !etween 4 5very !ad6 and $ 5very good6. This grade is used !y <er ect<ronunciation to decide how well you remem!er the e0ercise 5see !elow6.

How reviews wor!

'any other English learning programs only teach you once- and then let you orget everything. <er ect<ronunciation is di erent. %t actually helps you keep your knowledge in your memory. To do so- it uses =uper'emo technology 5SuperMemo is short or Super Memory6. The =uper'emo technology is the result o scienti ic research into human memory. %t has won many awards and has !een used or learning since the 1@*4s. )hen you run <er ect<ronunciation on a given day- it irst gives you some 8old8 e7ercises to review > these are e0ercises that you have done !e ore. The program asks you to review them so that you don.t orget them. The interesting thing is that <er ect<ronunciation chooses these 2old2 e0ercises in an intelligent way. Because you grade yoursel at each e0ercise- <er ect<ronunciation can look at your grades and calculate which e7ercises you will soon forget. %t then asks you to review only these 2poorly remem!ered2 e0ercises. As a result- you never waste time on e0ercises you remem!er well. %nstead o reviewing all the e0ercisesyou only have to review a few e0ercises which are hard to remem!er. %t may sound simple- !ut <er ect<ronunciation actually !uilds a complicated mathematical model o your memory and updates it with each e0ercise you do. The two most important acts a!out the review system used in <er ect<ronunciation are:

)henever you run <er ect<ronunciation- it has some e0ercises or you > and those are e0ercises which you need to review. %n a way- <er ect<ronunciation is like a good teacher who knows which e0ercises you should do. ,ou can keep all the pronunciations in your memory- !ut you only have to spend a little time every day on reviews.

/uy 'erfect'ronunciation
,ou can order the ollowing versions o Antimoon <er ect<ronunciation:

IF version 5E=F.G&6 > The price already includes the shipping cost. Be ore you get your IF !y postal mail- you can download <er ect<ronunciation and start using it immediately. To order the IF version- click the a!ove link and then add 2eIF2 to your cart. Fownloada!le version 5EC=.G&6 > E0actly the same as the IF version. The only di erence is that you have to download it yoursel . Bo IF will !e shipped. The download is a!out ( 'B.

Hsers o =uper'emo 2444E2442E244"E244(: ,ou can download <er ect<ronunciation as a =uper'emo collection 5J32.@$6 which will work with your version o =uper'emo. The download si1e is a!out $ 'B. Iustomers in the European Hnion: <lease read this important !uying in ormation.

-ore information

E0ample screenshots rom <er ect<ronunciation Hser guide or <er ect<ronunciation

What is good English pronunciation?

Related 'ages )hy you should study English pronunciation There are three levels o English pronunciation:

#evel 1: <eople o ten don.t understand what you want to say. ,ou use the wrong sounds in English words. 5e0ample6 #evel 2: <eople understand what you want to say- !ut it is unpleasant to listen to you. 5e0ample6 #evel 3: <eople understand you- and your English is pleasant to listen to. 5e0ample one- e0ample two6

#evel 3 will !e called good pronunciation. Botice that good pronunciation is not 8perfect +merican or 1ritish accent8. ,ou don.t have to sound like the Uueen o England or the <resident o the Hnited =tates o America.

)hy not7 Because there are many regional kinds of nglish. %n England- people rom Bewcastle speak English di erently rom people in #ondon. %n America- people rom Bew ,ork Iity- Iali ornia- and Te0as each have their own pronunciation. =o it is no pro!lem i you have your own accent. But your accent must #e close to the standards 5American and British English6. )hat does it mean7 Turn on your TD and watch channels like IBB %nternational- BBIEuroBews- BBI- or =ky Bews. ,ou will hear many di erent people 5news anchorsreporters- etc.6 rom Germany- :rance- and other non3English3speaking countries. They all have good accents > easy to understand and pleasant. The rule is: % you are close to the standard- you can always communicate- and your English will !e pleasant. % you are ar rom the standard- sometimes you won.t communicate success ully.

The %$0II 'honetic %lphabet

The %nternational <honetic Alpha!et is very popular- !ut there is a !ig pro!lem with this alpha!et: the %<A sym!ols are di icult to type on computers. ,ou can do it- !ut you need special onts and special so tware. This is very inconvenient. There ore- when you want to write English sounds in computer documents- or in e3 mail messages- or in =uper'emo collections- it is !etter to use a phonetic alpha!et which doesn.t use strange sym!ols like or - !ut uses regular sym!ols like V or S instead. )e have created such an alpha!et. ) named it the +S0$$ Phonetic +lpha#et!ecause the letters and sym!ols displayed !y computers are called A=I%% characters. 5By the way- 2A=I%%2 is pronounced P.Ss ki:Q.6 /ere is a ta!le with all the sym!ols o the A=I%% <honetic Alpha!et. A special printa!le version is also availa!le. vowels I'% %$0II W a: S e .. e:5r6 i i: o o: e*amples cup- luck arm- ather cat- !lack met- !ed turn- learn hit- sitting see- heat hot- rock call- our listen Amer Amer E Brit Amer Amer Amer E Brit Amer Amer Amer E Brit Amer E Brit g h ; k l m n ! d consonants I'% %$0II e*amples #ad- la# did- lady find- if give- lag how- hello yes- yellow cat- !ack leg- little man- lemon no- ten listen Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer

away- cinema Amer

consonants I'% %$0II vowels I'% %$0II u u: ai au 8u e..5r6 ei i..5r6 oi u..5r6 e*amples put- could !lue- ood ive- eye now- out go- home where- air say- eight near- here !oy- ;oin listen Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer E Brit Amer Amer E Brit Amer B p r s = t t= th T/ v w 1 V dV special sym!ols I'% %$0II . 5r6 i5:6 .l .n what it means . is placed !e ore the stressed sylla!le in a word. :or e0ampleP.kon trSktQ is pronounced like this- and Pk..n .trSktQ like that. Pka:5r6Q means Pka:rQ in American English- and Pka:Q in British English. i5:6 means i: or i or something in !etween. E0amples: very ri5:6Q- a#ility P.. .!i li ti5:6Q- previous P.pri: vi5:6 ..sQ. .l shows that the consonant l is pronounced as a sylla!le 5it sounds like a vowel6. E0amples: little t.lQ- uncle P.WB k.lQ. .n shows that the consonant n is pronounced as a sylla!le. E0amples: written P.ri t.nQ- listen s.nQ. e*amples sing- inger pet- map red- try sun- miss she- crash tea- getting think- !oth this- mother voice- ive wet- window .oo- la.y just- large listen Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer

check- church Amer

pure- tourist Amer E Brit

pleasure- vision Amer

)emonstration of phonetic transcription

This page shows you how to read and write the phonetic transcriptions o English words. Fictionaries use phonetic transcriptions to tell you how you should pronounce words. All the transcriptions on this page are written in the phonemic system used in most dictionaries or English learners. They use sym!ols o the %nternational <honetic Alpha!et 5%<A6. All the pronunciations are written with 2universal2 5British3 American6 sym!ols- !ut are spoken in American English. :or e0ample- their is transcri!ed as E E- and the sound is heard in the recording.

:or more in ormation- look at the ta!le with English sounds and %<A sym!ols. $nstructions* <lay the sound samples 5mp3 iles- a!out *4 MB each6- listen to the words- and read the transcriptions. #isten to these words #isten to these words that however di icult another you again which world their area a!out psychology photo course should company people under also pro!lem !etween never many service thicker something child place hear point system provide group large num!er general #isten to these words #isten to these words always head ne0t in ormation +uick +uestion nervous !usiness local power during change although move who !ook e0ample development rather young social national write water percent yet guest perhaps !oth until every control month include important !elieve #isten to these words #isten to these words allow person stand once

idea character result happen riend carry aw ul early view himsel 0ero0 report political law ghost modest

police lose position industry ma;or !uild language international else yeah center enough calm color lure kni e

Input ( getting English into your head

)hat is input and why you need it7 $nput is a short word or 2English sentences that you read or listen to2. )hen you read and listen to English sentences- parts o the sentences stay in your memory- which lets you !uild similar sentences yoursel . %nput > not speaking- writing or grammar tests > is what you need to use English grammar and voca!ulary like a native speaker. ,ou shouldn.t learn English !y grammar rules !ecause grammar rules are di icult to memori1e and !ecause !uilding sentences !y using grammar rules is very slow. ,ou can.t use English luently i you have to think a!out grammar rules. )hy your input should !e un: Thrilling- en;oya!le andEor unny content is the key to your progress. &eading is easier than listening: ,ou can get input in only two ways: reading and listening- and reading is easier than listening- !ecause: 516 ,ou can see the spelling o all the words- so you can look them up in a dictionary- and 526 )hen reading- you can always stop to think and look things up. )ith listening- this is not always possi!le. The power o reading > two cases: These two stories o people who learned English well !y reading show what can happen to your English i you get lots o input. Great output skills without output practice7 &ichard Boydell.s e0ample shows that to learn good output skills- you may not need output practice at all.

,ou can get English input in many di erent ways:

&eading in English gives you easy input 5easier than listening6. )hen readingpay attention to new words- phrases- and grammar patterns. o )hy you need to start reading on your own o /ow to read English te0ts i you want to improve your English o )hat to read )atching movies in English gives you spoken English input and helps you learn in ormal English voca!ulary. ,ou will o ten have pro!lems understanding movies9 we present a ew techni+ues to help you with that. Adventure games are computer games where you control a character who talks to other characters. They give you lots o spoken English input and are un to play.

Besides- good dictionaries give you input in the orm o e0ample sentences. By reading the sentences- you can learn how to use a word. =uper'emo gives you regular input and helps you keep it in your head > i you add sentences to your items.

Input = the only way to learn English

What is input?
$nput is a short word or 2sentences that you read and listen to2. %nput is the opposite o output- which means 2producing sentences !y speaking and writing2.

The model of language learning

/ave you ever wondered how it is possi!le that you can speak your native language so easily7 ,ou want to say something 5e0press some meaning6 and correct phrases and sentences ;ust come to you. 'ost o this process is unconscious: something ;ust appears in your head. ,ou can say it or not- !ut you don.t know where it came rom. This model e0plains how this is possi!le: 1. ,ou get input > you read and listen to sentences in some language. % you understand these sentences- they are stored in your !rain. 'ore speci icallythey are stored in the part o your !rain responsi!le or language. 2. )hen you want to say or write something in that language 5when you want to produce output6- your !rain can look or a sentence that you have heard or read !e ore > a sentence that matches the meaning you want to e0press. Then- it imitates the sentence 5produces the same sentence or a similar one6 and you say your 2own2 sentence in the language. This process is unconscious: the !rain does it automatically.

0omments on the model

8 course- this model is very simple. The !rain doesn.t really look or whole sentences- !ut rather or parts o sentences 5phrases6. %t can !uild very complicated and long sentences rom these parts. =o it doesn.t ;ust 2imitate2 one sentence at a time. %t uses many sentences at the same time to !uild original sentences.

:or e0ample- it 2knows2 that it can take one word in a sentence it has heard and su!stitute another word 5an e+uivalent one6 or it. :or e0ample- i it has heard 2The cat is under the ta!le2- it can easily produce 2The dog is under the ta!le2 or 2The !ook is under the chair.2 5i it has also heard and understood the nouns dog- #ook- and chair6. %t can su!stitute more than one word- as in 2The cat is under the !ig !lack ta!le2. The !rain can also do more advanced trans ormations. % you give the !rain these three sentences% like gol . % like ishing or salmon. Gol is rela0ing. it can produce this: :ishing or salmon is rela0ing. /ere- a noun phrase with a gerund 52 ishing or salmon26 was su!stituted or a regular noun 5golf6. As a result- we got an original sentence which doesn.t look too similar to any o the three input sentences. But these considerations don.t change the most important act: The !rain needs input. The more correct and understanda!le sentences it gets- the more sentences it can imitate and the !etter it gets at making its own sentences. By the way- the language learning model descri!ed a!ove is !asically the 2comprehension hypothesis2 5or 2input hypothesis26 !y pro essor =tephen Mrashen 5Hniversity o =outhern Iali ornia6 and is part o his 2natural approach2 to language learning. The model descri!es the process o a child learning its irst 5native6 language. The child listens to its parents and other people. The child.s !rain collects sentences and gets !etter and !etter at producing its own sentences. By the age o $- the child can already speak +uite luently. But the same model works for learning a foreign language. %n act- we think it is the only way to learn a language well.

What the model means for language learners

/ere.s what.s important in the model rom the point o view o oreign language learning:

The !rain produces sentences !ased on the sentences it has seen or heard 5input6. =o the way to improve is to feed your #rain with a lot of input > correct and understanda!le sentences 5written or spoken6. Be ore you can start speaking and writing in a oreign language- your !rain must get enough correct sentences in that language.

,utput Hspeaking and writingI is less important. %t is not the way to improve your language skills. %n act- you should remem!er that you can damage your English through early and careless output. Also- it may !e possi!le to develop great output skills without output practice? !ou don't need grammar rules. ,ou learned your irst language without studying tenses or prepositions. ,ou can learn a oreign language in that waytoo.

How input can change your English

% you read a ew !ooks in English- you will see that your English has !ecome !etter. ,ou will start using new voca!ulary and grammar in your school compositions and e3 mail messages. ,ou will !e surprised- !ut English phrases will ;ust come to you when you are writing or speaking? Things like the past simple tense and how to use the word 2since2 will !ecome part o you. ,ou will use them automatically- without thinking. Iorrect phrases will ;ust appear in your head. %t will !e easy to use English- !ecause your !rain will only !e repeating the things that it has seen many times. By reading a !ook in English- you have given your !rain thousands o English sentences. They are part o you now. /ow can you make a mistake and say 2% eeled !ad2- i you have seen the correct phrase 52% elt !ad26 $4 times in the last !ook read7 ,ou simply cannot make that mistake anymore. ,ou will surely notice an improvement at your ne0t English test. :or e0ample- in multiple choice +uestions- you will 2feel2 which is the correct answer. ,ou may not know 2why2 it is correct 5you will not !e a!le to give a rule or it6- !ut you will know it is correct. ,ou will know !ecause you will have read it many times. This is true or all words and grammar structures. % you read in English- you can orget a!out grammar rules. Throw away your grammar !ook? ,ou don.t need to know the rules or the present per ect tense. ,ou don.t even have to know the name 2present per ect tense2. %nstead- read a ew !ooks in English- and soon you will eel that 2% have seen <aul yesterday2 is wrong- and 2% saw <aul yesterday2 is correct. %t will simply sound wrong. /ow7 =imple. ,our !rain has seen the second kind o sentence 1@2 times- and the irst kind 4 times. Fo you know what is the di erence !etween a learner and a native speaker7 The native speaker 2 eels2 what is correct. /e can tell that a sentence sounds either good or !ad 5unnatural6 and he doesn.t need to use grammar rules or that. /e can do it !ecause he has heard and read lots o English sentences in his li e. This is the only difference #etween a learner and a native speaker J the amount of input. ,ou can !e like a native speaker i you get lots o input- too. /ere are a ew words rom Tom: %.ll never orget the irst time that % opened 'ichael =wan.s Practical nglish )sage 5an English grammarEusage re erence !ook6. %t was at the end o high school and % was already very good at English. The !ook was ull o English grammar and usage pro!lems like 2when should you use #elow and when under72 and 2what sort o things

can you e0press with the word must72. :or each pro!lem- there were e0ample sentences 5showing the correct and incorrect way to say something6 and rules such as 2Hse under when something is covered or hidden !y what is over it- and when things are touching2. % !rowsed through the !ook- looking at page a ter page. )hen looking at an incorrect e0ample- %.d think 28 course that.s wrong9 it sounds aw ul2. )hen looking at a rule%.d think 28h- % didn.t know there was a rule or that2. <age a ter page- % had the impression that % didn.t know any rules in the !ook- and... % didn.t need them? 5And % couldn.t learn all o them even i % wanted to.6 $ could just look at a sentence and tell if it sounded good or not. % was like a native speaker o English. By reading !ooks- watching TD- listening to recordings- etc. % had gotten lots o input and developed an English intuition. There are many e0amples o people who have !ecome close to native speakers !ecause o intensive input > or e0ample- 'ichal- Tom- and the other authors in the =uccess ul English learners section. ,ou can read a!out two interesting cases rom a scienti ic article !y =tephen Mrashen.

Why you shouldn t learn English by grammar rules

%n this article- we present an e0ample o learning !ased on grammar rules. Then we e0plain why we think this way o learning is much less e ective than input3!ased learning.

E*ample of learning by grammar rules

/ere is an e0cerpt rom a modern E=# te0t!ook 52)orkout Advanced2 !y <aul &adley and Mathy Burke- pu!lished !y Belson English #anguage Teaching6. The te0t!ook was used in an English class Tom attended at a language school in England. )nit =. :rammar* +djectives )hen two or more ad;ectives are used !e ore a noun- the ad;ectives ollow a certain order: opinion ad;ectives: generalEspeci ic descriptive ad;ectives: si1eEageEshapeEcolourEnationalityEmaterial 7ample* They !ought a lovely- stylish- large- old- rectangular- !rown- English oak ta!le.

)nit =. Practice 5ne0t page6

Hse the ad;ectives in the correct order !e ore each noun to make noun phrases. 7ample* !each > white- sandy- so t 33N a so t- white- sandy !each hotel > modern- large- e0pensive climate > sunny- warm- 'editerranean water > !lue- clear- clean restaurant > international- open3air- clean rooms > spacious- com orta!le- twin3!edded The te0t!ook presents a grammar rule or ordering ad;ectives 52si1eEageEshapeEcolourEnationalityEmaterial26. Then it gives only two e0amples. A ter that- you are e0pected to do an e0ercise. 8!viously- you cannot do the e0ercise using your intuition 5what intuition can you get rom seeing only two e0amples76. The te7t#ook wants you to use the grammar rule. ,ou are supposed to classi y the ad;ectives into one o the groups 52si1e2- 2age2- etc.6and then put them in order according to the rule. %n other words- you are supposed to: 1. recall the rule 52si1e 3 age 3 shape 3 color 3 nationality 3 material26 2. or every ad;ective- answer the +uestion 2%s it an ad;ective o si1e- age- shapecolor- nationality- or material72 3. order the ad;ectives according to the rule Bow imagine doing all these things whenever writing or saying a sentence with 2 or more ad;ectives. Ian you guess how much time it would take you to #uild the sentence7 %s there another way7 ,es- there is. ,ou can learn !y input. ,ou can read a lot o sentences with ad;ectives and get a natural- intuitive knowledge o ad;ective order. %nstead o memori1ing the rule and using it to !uild sentences- you can get correct sentences into your head and your !rain will imitate them. The 2input way2 is easier and it lets you speak and write aster. 8 course- learning !y input is not e ortless. ,ou have to spend a lot o time reading and listening to English. /owever- i you learn e.g. !y reading a !ook that you like- it can give you pleasure and motivation.

.rammar rules vs. input = summary

#earning with grammar rules has two important disadvantages:

Memory effort. %t is di icult to memori1e a grammar rule. The process is highly arti icial9 it is like memori1ing a poem. %t is much easier to read some e0ample sentences and let your !rain do the rest.

Time. ,ou need a lot o time to use a grammar rule. ,ou have to remem!er ityou have to see i it can !e used in your sentence- then you have to !uild the sentence according to the rule. )riting a sentence with grammar rules is like solving a mathematical e+uation. % you use grammar rules o ten- you can.t speak or write in English luently.

0an grammar rules be useful?

,es- they can. :or e0ample- i you don.t hear 5or read6 some word or grammar pattern re+uently- it may !e hard to ac+uire a natural- intuitive knowledge o it. :or e0ampleit may !e hard to ac+uire an intuitive knowledge o the uture per ect tense 5a grammar structure used e.g. in this sentence: 2By 24$4- li e in Europe will have changed.26 ;ust !y reading !ooks in English- !ecause the uture per ect occurs relatively rarely in !ooks. % you want to use the uture per ect in your own sentences- you can memori.e a rule for it. The rule will tell you when to use the uture per ect and how to use it correctly. %n a similar way- you can memori1e other rules or de initions o words which are used rarely. =o you could su!stitute grammar rules or intuition. The pro!lem with this method is that you can.t remem!er too many rules 5memory limit6. Also- it would slow you down i you had to use many rules when speaking or writing 5time limit6. There oremost of your knowledge must #e intuitive 5!ased on input6. Grammar rules may !e use ul or using rare words and grammar patterns- !ut we think there is a !etter way. ,ou can !uild your intuition 2the input way2 or every rare grammar pattern. /ow7 ,ou can artificially increase the fre;uency with which you see that grammar pattern. :or e0ample- i you don.t see the uture per ect o ten- you can add 24 e0ample sentences with the uture per ect to your =uper'emo collection. =uper'emo will make you repeat the sentences regularly- and so will help you to !uild an intuitive knowledge o the uture per ect.

$top as!ing people to tell you grammar rules

'any learners have a strange ha!it. )hen some!ody 5e.g. a teacher6 tells them the correct way to say something in English 52)e say #ig red car.26 or corrects their mistake 52,ou can.t say red #ig car26- they like to ask 2why72. /owever- the +uestion 2why72 has no real answer. )hen asking the +uestion- learners want to hear a grammar rule 5e.g. 2)e say #ig red car !ecause ad;ectives o si1e come !e ore ad;ectives o color26. But the rule is not the reason why we don.t say 2red !ig car2. The rule is only a description o native speakers. ha!its. %t was invented !y some linguist who simply noticed that native speakers never say 2red !ig car2 or 2white small house2. %n other words- it is not true that native speakers say 2!ig red car2 !ecause they know the rule and ollow it. %t.s the other way around. The si1e3color rule e0ists !ecause

native speakers say 2!ig red car2. Bative speakers are the ones who create the language. Grammar rules only ollow native speakers. ha!its. )e think that it doesn.t make much sense to ask the +uestion 2why is that sentence correct- and not the other one72. The only good answer to that +uestion would !e 2Because native speakers say that sentence- and not the other one.2. $nstead of wondering 8why(8" simply learn the correct way. ,ou don.t have to care that a linguist wrote a rule or it. :ollow native speakers- not grammar rules.

Why your input should be fun

&eading a !oring te0t or the sake o learning English is not a good idea. )hen you do so- not ;ust reading a !oring te0t > reading a !oring te0t that.s hard to understand. Bo!ody.s going to put up with that sort o torture or very long. ,ou can go like that or a ew days- i highly motivated- !ut not or a month. And you don.t need a way to learn English or ;ust a ew days. , already studied English or a ew days on a couple occasions and you pro!a!ly know these irregularone3time e orts don.t work. ,ou need to make a permanent change to your li estyle to ensure steady improvement. That is why you need super-fun" thrilling and funny sources o English. ,our sources should !e so cool that you will look forward to reading- watching or listening to them. ,ou need something that will make you get your English input and develop your English every day. )hich sources o English are super3 un7 The answer will !e di erent or every learner. :or e0ample- % like watching The Simpsons and The Tonight Show with >ay 2eno- movies !y the Ioen !rothers- the music o &.E.'. and <ink :loyd- popular science !ooks- #ucasArts adventure games- Coel on =o tware- and The 8nion- among other things.

=uppose a !ig an o The Matri7. 5% not a !ig an o The Matri7- insert the name o your avorite movie.6 )hen watching The Matri7- you can learn much more English than i you watched some random movie you don.t care a!out.

,ou are more likely to watch the movie scene3!y3scene- listening care ully to every line 5or reading it- i you have a version with su!titles6 and thinking a!out how it is phrased. ,ou are more likely to look up di icult phrases in a dictionary and add them to your =uper'emo collection. ,ou are more likely to practice your pronunciation !y imitating lines said !y your avorite characters 5 or e0ample- 'orpheus.s 2Hn ortunately- no one can !e told what The 'atri0 is.26

,ou are more likely to repeat your avorite lines to yoursel - which means you.ll !e constantly reviewing the grammar and voca!ulary contained in those lines.

%ttitude to English
:inally- un input lets you change your attitude to English. At irst- you may think o learning English as a necessary evil > sort o like getting up and going to work every morning. But when you ind en;oya!le English3language !ooks- movies- TD showswe!sites- etc.- learning nglish will #ecome a way to have fun every day !y reading a unny !ook- watching a cool movie- or communicating with someone you like. )hen this happens- you will ind it easy to study English- even in ways which are not strictly 2 un2- such as reading a!out English grammar.

0ontent or form?
Bow you may have noticed that elsewhere on Antimoon % tell you to read with the goal o learning grammar and voca!ulary. % tell you to analy1e the grammar in the sentences you read. And now % seem to !e telling you to read stu !ecause it is cool. 8 course- what %.m actually telling you is that you should read with !oth goals in mind. 'ore precisely- when starting reading- concentrate on how un the content is 5e.g. how much you like the !ook6. =tarting is always the hardest part- which is why you will need compelling content to overcome your la1iness. /owever- once you start reading" do your #est to read for form. Fon.t turn page a ter page in order to ind out what happens ne0t. %nstead- read as slowly as you canthinking a!out the phrases and grammatical structures used. &epeat them to yoursel . ,ou want to learn some English- remem!er7

What if you re a beginner?

)hen you are a !eginner- you have a small voca!ulary. %n this state- reading !ooks or watching movies is too di icult. Even i your content is e0tremely un- the num!er o unknown words may make it impossi!le to en;oy it. ,ou need input which will teach you new things- !ut not input in which everything is new. Being a !eginner- how can you take advantage o the !ene its o un input > regularity- dedication and improved attitude to English7 The answer is 2simpli ied !ooks2. These are popular !ooks re3written in simple English especially or English learners. Thousands o titles are availa!le at various di iculty levels. A well3known series is the Penguin 5eaders- availa!le in !ookstores worldwide. % !elieve these !ooks are the #est way for a #eginner to ;uickly develop his6her voca#ulary and grammar skills. :irst- you can choose something you will love!ecause thousands o titles are availa!le. =econd- you will not get rustrated- !ecause

the num!er o new words and phrases will !e limited. % you read these !ooks regularly using the 2pause and think2 method- the progress you can make is ama1ing.

$ome fun input ideas

English3language culture is e0tremely rich and very e0pansive- which- luckily or youmeans that you should ind it relatively easy to ind en;oya!le sources o input. /ere are some e0amples o content that you might possi!ly en;oy:

Books: /arry <otter- The Fa Dinci Iode- #ord o the &ings- current !estsellers ... =impli ied !ooks 5see a!ove6 E3mail messages rom a native speaker you know 'ovies: The 'atri0- =tar )ars- #ord o the &ings- =hrek- current FDF !estsellers ... Bews: Google Bews- BBI- IBB- The %ndependent ... 'ovie reviews: &oger E!ert- %'FB ... %nternet discussion: Antimoon :orum- Europa- Google Groups ... Adventure games: Grim :andango- The Iurse o 'onkey %sland ... TD shows: Tonight Show with >ay 2eno- 2ate Night with 0onan ,'1rien=aturday Bight #ive ... TD series: The =impsons- =e0 and the Iity- The R3:iles ... The Good Bews Bi!le 5written in simple English6 Technology sites: Coel on =o tware- Tom.s /ardware- )ired Bews- IBETArs Technica ... /umor sites: The 8nion- Fil!ert- =omething Aw ul ...

Reading is easier than listening

Hnderstanding spoken English is di icult or !eginners. % you want to listen to TD programs and movies- you need to know many English words 5and their pronunciation6. % your voca!ulary is poor- you will never understand natural spoken English. 8 tenyou will not even know where one word ends- and the other !egins. Everything may sound like one long- strange word. % talking to a person- they will pro!a!ly repeat and e0plain things to you. But this is a special situation. Bo!ody will e0plain anything to you i watching TD or listening to a presentation. %n generalunderstanding spoken nglish is hard. #istening to English is much more di icult than reading. 8 course- you need a good voca!ulary to understand written English- too. But reading is still easier than listening- !ecause o these di erences:

!ou have lots of time. )hen reading- you can always stop and look up a di icult word in a dictionary. )ith listening- this is not always possi!le. ,ou

can stop and rewind an audio recording or a taped movie- !ut the TD the movie theater- or a native speaker will not wait or you. !ou know the spelling. % you want to look up a word in a dictionary- you have to know what the word is. $n a #ook" the word is simply printed on the page. %n spoken English- a sentence is o ten spoken very +uickly- and you don.t know where the unknown word !egins. And even i you know where the word !egins- you o ten don.t know its spelling. :or e0ample- i the unknown word sounds like this 5which is transcri!ed Pi.nSktQ6- can you look it up7 Bot really. %s it spelled inact or enact or something else7 =hould you look under $ or or another letter7

%n e*ample
#isten to this mp3 recording o Tim Berners3#ee talking a!out the new technology or the )e!. 5Tim Berners3#ee is the person who created the )orld )ide )e!.6 Bow try to write down all the words that you don.t know. Then look them up in a dictionary. % you can.t do it- it.s !ecause:

The speaker is talking very ast. % you don.t understand part o the sentenceyou may not know how many words the speaker said. ,ou don.t know the spelling o the words that you didn.t understand.

Bow you can read the te0t o what Tim Berners3#ee said. #ook how easy it is to write down and look up all the di icult words. They are simply there- you can read them as many times as you want- and you know their spelling. The conclusion: you can.t do without reading. #istening is great > or e0amplewatching movies in English helps you to learn slang voca!ulary- pronunciation- and intonation. But i you are a !eginner- you simply can.t understand natural spoken English. &eading is the !est way to learn a lot o English words. 8nly a ter you have learned a large voca!ulary can you try to understand natural spoken language.

The power of reading = two cases

%n his article- The comprehension hypothesis and second language ac;uisition=tephen Mrashen 5a amous e0pert on language learning6 gives two cases o students who completely changed their English !ecause o reading:

The case of 1.
This case was descri!ed in a paper !y C. =egal 5Summer Da.e- written in 1@@K6- and then !y =tephen Mrashen. )e have shortened and simpli ied the original te0t. #. was a 1K year old student in %srael. =he spoke English at home with her parentswho were rom =outh A rica. But she had serious pro!lems in English writing-

especially in spelling- voca!ulary and writing style. =egal- who was #..s teacher in grade 14- tried to help her in many ways: 2Error correction was a total ailure. #. tried correcting her own mistakes- tried process writing- and tried copying words correctly in her note!ook. Bothing worked. #..s compositions were poorly written and her voca!ulary was small. )e discussed the ormat and ideas !e ore writing. )e made little progress. % gave #. a list o ive use ul words to spell each week or ( weeks and tested her in a riendly way !etween classes. #. did well in the tests in the !eginning- !ut a ter si0 weeks she started misspelling the words again.2 #..s mother also got her a private teacher- !ut there was little improvement. =egal also taught #. in grade 11. At the !eginning o the year- she assigned an essay. 2)hen % came to #..s composition % stopped still. % was looking at an almost per ect essay. There were no spelling mistakes. The structure was clear. %t was interesting and well3written. /er voca!ulary had improved. % was surprised !ut at the same time uneasy ...2 =egal discovered why #..s English improved so much: =he had started reading !ooks in the summer. #. told her- 2% never read much !e ore !ut this summer % went to the li!rary and % started reading and % ;ust couldn.t stop.2 #..s English in grade 11 was e0cellent and she kept reading.

The case of 0ohen

This case was irst descri!ed !y ,. Iohen in a paper titled %ow reading got me into trou#le 51@@K6. Beginning at age 12- Iohen went to an English3language school in Turkey. Furing the irst two years- there were intensive English classes- and a ter only two monthsIohen started to read in English. many !ooks in English as % could get. % had a large li!rary o English !ooks at home ... % !ecame a mem!er o the local British Iouncil.s li!rary and sometimes !ought English !ooks in !ookstores ... By the irst year o middle school % had !ecome an enthusiastic reader o English.2 Because o her reading- an unpleasant thing happened to her in middle school: 2% had a new English teacher who assigned us two compositions or homework. The teacher returned them to me. =he was angry and she wanted to know who had helped me to write them. They were my work. % had not even used the dictionary. =he would not !elieve me. =he showed me a ew underlined sentences and some voca!ulary and asked me how % knew them9 they were more advanced than the level o the class. 5...6 % elt sad. % could not e0plain how % knew them. % ;ust did.2

.reat output s!ills without output practice?

%n our opinion- input is the most important way to learn English. %n his !ook- 2The %nput /ypothesis: %ssues and %mplications2- =tephen Mrashen cites a ascinating e0ample 5originally descri!ed in Adrian :ourcin.s 1@K$ article 2Disual eed!ack and the ac+uisition o intonation26- which shows that it may #e possi#le to learn great output skills #y input alone Hwithout producing any outputI. &ichard Boydell was a disa!led child who couldn.t speak or write 5most o his !ody was paraly1ed6. /e was intelligent and he could understand other people. )hen he was 34 years old- he got a special typewriter. /e could type on the typewriter with his eet. %n this way- he could communicate with others. /ere is what he wrote: % ac+uired an understanding o language !y listening to those around me. #ater- thanks to my mother.s tireless- patient work % !egan learning to read and so !ecame amiliar with written as well as spoken language. As my interest developed- particularly in the ield o science- % read !ooks and listened to educational programs on radio and- latertelevision which were at a level that was normal- or sometimes rather a!ove- or my age. Also when people visited us ... % en;oyed listening to the conversation even though % could only play a passive role and could not take an active part in any discussion ... As well as reading !ooks and listening to radio and television .... % read the newspaper every day to keep in touch with current events. 5 rom :ourcin.s articlecited in Mrashen.s !ook6 As you can see- 5ichard 1oydell's writing was e7cellent" although he had never written anything #efore. /e could use advanced grammar and voca!ulary- !ecause he had !een reading !ooks- newspapers- listening to the radio and people.s conversations. %t seems that input > and nothing more > gave him good English.

Why you need to start reading in English on your own

Be ore you can start speaking and writing in English- you have to learn how things are said in English. ,ou do this !y reading and listening to correct English sentences o other people 5ideally- native speakers6. &eading and listening are !oth good ways to develop your English- !ut reading is usually much easier than listening or various reasons. )ith the help o a good dictionary- you can understand English te0ts much more easily than- or e0ampleEnglish television or movies. %n this article- % will show why reading English te0ts on your own is the way to go. The arguments will all into three categories: %ntensity- 'otivation and Authenticity.


% you read a ew !ooks in English- you will see that your English has !ecome !etter. ,ou will start using new voca!ulary and grammar in your school compositions and e3 mail messages. ,ou will !e surprised- !ut English phrases will ;ust come to you when you are writing or speaking? Things like the past simple tense and how to use the word 2since2 will !ecome part o you. ,ou will use them automatically- without thinking. Iorrect phrases will ;ust appear in your head. %t will !e easy to use English- !ecause your !rain will only !e repeating the things that it has seen many times. By reading a !ook in English- you have given your !rain thousands o English sentences. They are part o you now. /ow can you make a mistake and say 2% eeled !ad2- i you have seen the correct phrase 52% elt !ad26 2$4 times in the last !ook read7 -- from our introduction to input ,ou need 1444s o phrases to speak English luently. To !e a!le to use thousands o phrases- you must read tens of thousands o phrases- !ecause you will orget a lot o what you read. % you ;ust read when your teacher tells you to 5e.g. 2 short articles per week in your English class6- you are not going to make any progress. At such a rate- even i you learn something one week- you will orget it ne0t week. ,ou need to read- on averageat least a few pages per day. :or this- you need to take charge o your learning > get some !ooks and start reading on your own. % you don.t !elieve that reading on your own will dramatically change your Englishconsider this: %n a week- a typical intermediate English learner who attends " hours o English classes learns may!e $ new words or phrases rom reading 2 pages in English plus another $ rom other sources 5listening- conversation with teacher6. =ure- they write down more than this- !ut a ter a week they remem!er less than $4A o the knowledge. % you read 24 pages per week 5which is only 3 per day6- you will learnmathematically- a!out $4 new words or phrases per week. % you read "4 pages per week 5( per day6- you will learn 144 new words or phrases per week. As you see- it.s not very hard to !eat the average learner. At ( pages per day- already learning 14 times aster. )hich means that learning in 1 year what the average learner learns in 14 years. %.m giving you all these num!ers !ecause % want you to reali1e one thing: % you have !een an 2average learner2- you cannot even !egin to imagine how +uickly you can develop your English skills with a little work on your own. The di erence !etween readers and non3readers is that !ig. 5Take a minute to read the passage in the !o0 to the right to see what % mean.6


,ou need to start reading on your own not ;ust !ecause it is e ective- !ut also !ecause it is so damn motivating. )hen you read on your own- you read something you chose yoursel - something you really ind interesting- rather than something your teacher told you to read. As a result- you read much more willingly and spend more time on it. % you choose te0ts which are interesting and un 5%arry Potter- an article a!out computers- sports news- movie reviews- e3mail messages rom riends- an %nternet orum on relationships > whatever its your !ill6- reading will not !e something you have to do. %t will !e something you want to do. 8nce you try it- you will pro!a!ly !e thank ul that you can understand English and read such great stu ? :urthermore- when you read something that matters to you- you can remem#er much more. :or e0ample- i you read an article your teacher gave you- you want to read it +uickly and !e done with it. But i you read the lyrics o a new song !y your avorite !and- much more likely to repeat them to yoursel and keep them in your memory > together with all the grammar and voca!ulary. A lot o people associate English with unpleasant things. :or e0ample- they think 2% must learn English or else % won.t ind a ;o!2 or 2% must learn English or % won.t get a passing grade2. %n their minds- studying English is something they have to do- even though they would rather not do it > ;ust like they would rather not have to go to school or work. Those who read on their own think di erently. :or them- English is something which helps them achieve their own goals- such as reading the latest !ook !y =tephen Ming or talking to people rom other countries in an online orum. They are much more willing to spend time on English- even in ways which are not directly related to their interests- e.g. learning with =uper'emo or asking grammar +uestions on discussion groups. This shows that 2 ree reading2 improves your general motivation for nglish.

% !elieve it.s important to learn rom real American and British sources instead o resources prepared especially or English learners. % you see a phrase in a !ook or in a !log- you know it's really used in the English3speaking world. By contrast- te0ts used in English classes o ten attempt to teach 2proper2 Englishstripped o any in ormal e0pressions- such as crap- sucks or stuff. Authors o such te0ts pro!a!ly disapprove o such phrases and !elieve that learners don.t need them. But the act is that most learners would choose rela0ed- natural language > the language o regular educated Americans and Britons > over the stu y standards o the proper3speaking 2elite2. )hich is another reason why learners should go !eyond English classes and start reading 2real3li e English2 on their own.

How to read English te*ts if you want to improve your English

Reading for content

Bormally- when reading a te0t- people use a strategy that % call 2reading or content2. The goal o this strategy is to get the main idea o the te0t as +uickly as possi!le and with as little e ort as possi!le. To accomplish this goal- your !rain will try to read as ew words as possi!le and spend only a raction o a second on each word. :or e0ample- when reading the ollowing passage- you don.t really see it like this: 8nce when % was si0 years old % saw a magni icent picture in a !ook- called True Stories from Nature- a!out the primeval orest. %t was a picture o a !oa constrictor in the act o swallowing an animal. /ere is a copy o the drawing. %n the !ook it said: 2Boa constrictors swallow their prey whole- without chewing it. A ter that they are not a!le to move- and they sleep through the si0 months that they need or digestion.2 % pondered deeply- then- over the adventures o the ;ungle. And a ter some work with a colored pencil % succeeded in making my irst drawing. To your !rain- it looks more or less like this: 8nce when % was si0 years old % saw a magni icent picture in a !ook- called True Stories from Nature- a!out the primeval orest. %t was a picture o a !oa constrictor in the act o swallowing an animal. /ere is a copy o the drawing. %n the !ook it said: 2Boa constrictors swallow their prey whole- without chewing it. A ter that they are not a!le to move- and they sleep through the si0 months that they need or digestion.2 % pondered deeply- then- over the adventures o the ;ungle. And a ter some work with a colored pencil % succeeded in making my irst drawing. /ere are some characteristics o 2reading or content2:

Bot seeing 2grammar words2 like a- the- in- of- through- that. The eye only stops at content words 5main nouns- ver!s- ad;ectives and adver!s6. Bot seeing word orms: )as it look or looked7 %as looked or had looked7 Bot noticing the e0act spelling. %t is well known that the !rain recogni1es whole words > it does not analy1e them letter !y letter. Bative speakers see the word piece all the time- !ut many o them still misspell it as peice- !ecause the two spellings have similar shapes. %gnoring di icult words that are not essential to understanding the meaning 5here: primeval- constrictor6. )ho has the time to use a dictionary7

An e0treme e0ample o 2word !lindness2 is the rather well3known pu11le where asked to count how many times the letter : occurs in the ollowing passage: :%B%=/EF :%#E= A&E T/E &E=H#T 8: ,EA&= 8: =I%EBT%:%I =THF, I8'B%BEF )%T/ T/E ER<E&%EBIE 8: ,EA&=. Ilick here or answer:

&eading or content is a great- time3saving way to e0tract in ormation rom printed sources. The pro!lem is that you may not need the grammar words to understand a te0t- !ut you do need them to produce a te0t. =o i you don.t pay attention to things like articles and prepositions- you won.t !e a!le to use them correctly in your own sentences. :or e0ample- here is a sentence rom the opening paragraph o this article. 'ost learners 5e0cept those who are pro icient in English grammar or e0tremely o!servant6 will pro!a!ly ind it di icult to ill in the !lanks: To accomplish this goal- your !rain will try to read as XXX words as possi!le and spend only a raction o XXX second XXX each word. The a!ove e0plains why some learners can read a 3443page !ook and still have pro!lems with relatively !asic grammar. %t also e0plains why articles and prepositions are among the hardest aspects o English to learn. The conclusion or the English learner is that i you want to improve your production 5output6 skills- you will have to train yourself to notice grammar words. /ere.s an illuminating passage posted !y 'aya l.a!eille at the Antimoon :orum: % !elieve that seeing correct and typical English sentences helps a lot to learn how to use English properly. %t is also important to read and read again every structure that is new to you- so that you can remem!er them. % you only read the !ook without taking any pause to think care ully a!out the 2new2 sentences- you will hardly remem!er any o them. read all /arry <otter !ooks straight mysel - and when % opened them again- % realised % had viewed loads and loads o use ul structures whithout remem!ering them 3 which was such a shame? %.m reading The :ull 'onty 5<enguin &eaders collection6 using the 2pause and think2 method at present. Bow a ter a ew days o daily readingwhen % take a look at an English te0t- many structures are amiliar to me 3 2hey- % remem!er reading this one in The :ull 'onty?2. There ore- % !elieve this method is e icient and % would advise it to all learners. =ometimes- we don.t realise how wealthy a single !ook can !e 3 loads to learn ;ust in one o them.

'ause and thin!

% agree with 'aya l.a!eille a!out the 2pause and think2 method. /ere.s the process that % recommend or dealing with sentences in te0ts: 1. =top at interesting 5not o!vious6 things: a new word- how a word was used- a grammatical structure- a preposition- an article- a con;unction- the order o words- etc. :or e0ample- spend a while to think a!out the act that the sentence contains the preposition at- and not on. <erhaps the sentence uses the present

per ect tense where you would have e0pected the past simple. <erhaps the word order is di erent than in your irst language. 2. % the sentence contains a use ul phrase- ask yoursel : 0ould you produce a similar phrase yourself( )ould you use the right tenses- articles and prepositions7 )ould you use the right word order7 % not sure- practice saying a similar phrase aloud or in your mind. The idea is to move the phrase to your 2active voca!ulary2. 3. % necessary- or i you eel like it- use your dictionary to ind de initions o words in the sentence and get more e0ample sentences. This will help enrich your 2 eel2 o the word. %. % you use SuperMemo- consider adding the phrase to your collection 5e.g. as a sentence item6 to make sure it will stay in your memory. 8 course- only use ul phrases should !e added. % you don.t like to stop reading 5to look up a word in your dictionary or add a phrase to =uper'emo6- you can write down all the interesting sentences- or you can underline them in the !ook with a pencil. This way- you can handle these sentences later. Another important piece o advice is that you don't have to use the a#ove strategy all the time. &eading in this mode can !e +uite e0hausting- so don.t do it when tired a ter a long reading session. Also- do not try to give e+ual attention to every sentence. =ome sentences in !ooks 5e.g. long poetic descriptions6 do not contain phrases or structures that are use ul or !uilding your own sentences. =ome characters in !ooks use weird slang e0pressions which aren.t very use ul either. :inally- the 2pause and think2 techni+ue will not always make you remem!er the e0act way to say something. But perhaps you'll remem#er that this particular type of sentence is 8weird8 or 8difficult8 in nglish. % you remem!er that- it will at least make you stop !e ore you write that sentence- and look it up instead o making a careless mistake.

%n e*ample
%.ll now give you a short demonstration o the 2pause and think2 method. /ere are two English sentences and the thoughts % got when reading them: :ormer <resident Cimmy Iarter will visit Dene1uela ne0t week to mediate talks !etween the government and its opposition- which have !een locked in a power struggle since a ailed coup. 2:ormer <resident2 > not 2The ormer <resident2- so % guess we say 2<resident Iarter2 and not 2The <resident Iarter2- even though we say 2The <resident will do something2 when we don.t mention his name. 2to mediate talks2 > not 2to mediate in the talks2 or something like that. % wonder i that would !e 8M- too... 2power struggle2 > % think seen this phrase !e ore. 2since a ailed coup2 > so % can say 2/e.s !een paraly1ed since an accident2 5preposition use6- not only 2/e.s !een paraly1ed since an accident happened2 5con;unction use6.

2since a ailed coup2 > not 2since the ailed coup2. The author does not assume we know a!out the coup. 2coup2 > hey- % know this is pronounced Pku:Q?

Cenni er 'cIoy- o the Atlanta3!ased Iarter Ienter- told reporters =aturday that Iarter may !e a!le to help !reak the political deadlock when he visits !eginning Culy (. 2Cenni er 'cIoy o the Iarter Ienter2 > not 2Cenni er 'cIoy from the Iarter Ienter2 5in <olish % would say from6. =o we.d say 2Cohn Brown o %B'2- or e0ample. 2Atlanta3!ased2 > another way o saying 2!ased in Atlanta2. Guess % could say %.m a 2)roclaw3!ased we!master2. 2told reporters =aturday2 not 2on =aturday2 > seems we can skip the 2on2 sometimes. 2% met her :riday2 would pro!a!ly work as well as 2% met her on :riday2. 2told that Iarter may !e a!le2 > not 2told that Iarter might !e a!le2 > lack o reported 5indirect6 speech. And my English teacher taught me to say things like 2=he said she might stay2 5not 2=he said she may stay26. 2to help !reak the deadlock2 > %t looks like help can !e used without an o!;ect 5it does not say 2to help Kene.uelans !reak the deadlock26- and without to 5it does not say 2help to !reak the deadlock26. This is di erent rom some other ver!s like force 5we cannot say 2The <resident will orce !reak the deadlock2- we must say 2The <resident will orce Kene.uelans to !reak the deadlock.26. 2when he visits2 > not 2when he will visit2- even though it will !e in the uture. % don.t think % have ever seen will used in such a sentence. 2to visit !eginning Culy (2 > interesting structure > % would say 2to visit on Culy (2- !ut here #eginning replaces on. This may !e the irst time that seen this phrase. %t may !e some sort o news ;argon.

Reading everywhere
% you think you don.t have time to read- try to carry a !ook with you everywhere you go. That way- you can read when waiting in line- waiting or a !us- or even when walking 5!ut make sure you don.t walk into other people or vehicles6.

What to read

Something fun. %t needs to !e so much un that you will look forward to reading it every day. %t does not have to !e intellectual- it does not have to improve your knowledge o science or history. &emem!er: you want to convince yoursel that reading in English is un. Fon.t eel guilty a!out reading comics- maga1ines- detective stories- romances- etc. 5related article !y =tephen Mrashen6 Something challenging" #ut not too challenging. )hat does it mean7 There should !e some words that you don.t know- !ecause you want to learn something. /owever- there shouldn.t !e too many di icult words- !ecause you

don.t want to use your dictionary 14 times in one sentence. There.s a simple rule here: % not en;oying the te0t- switch to an easier one. Something with the kind of sentences that you want to write or say yourself. )ant to learn to talk a!out computers in English7 &ead an English3language orum on computers. )hen choosing a !ook- choose one with modern language and lots o dialogue. % you read a !ook written in o!solete English with lots o literary descriptions- you won.t !e a!le to use too many o these phrases in your own sentences 5unless you write !ooks in English6. ,ou want use ul sentences that you can imitate. Start #y reading a few #ooks #y the same author 5or a ew !ooks on the same su!;ect6. Each author has hisEher own voca!ulary and grammar. :or e0amplewhen you read a !ook !y 'ichael Irichton- you come across a lot o scienti ic voca!ulary. A terwards- it is easier or you to read another 'ichael Irichton novel than to read a !ook !y a di erent author. )hen you read another !ook !y the same author- you will notice that you understand it much more easily than the previous one- and you will feel great a#out your progress in nglish. 8n the other hand- i you ;ump rom author to author 5or topic to topic6- you will always !e rustrated !y unknown voca!ulary and grammar- which is not healthy or your motivation. 5related article !y =tephen Mrashen6

$ome ideas
/ere are some ideas o te0ts that you can read in English:

2iterature. )hatever kind o !ooks you like- you can read them in English. Simplified #ooks 5e.g. the Penguin 5eaders series6. These are popular !ooksre3written in simple language or English learners. They are ;ust perfect or !eginners and i % were to learn a new language- % would de initely use one o those. They are availa!le in di erent levels o di iculty > the simplest ones use only 244 !asic English words. Try the intermediate or advanced levels 5over 1-444 words6 > the lowest levels use so ew words that they sound +uite unnatural. Science #ooks. % you are interested in science- you can get great science !ooks written in English. There are many amous English3speaking authors in many su!;ects- such as psychology- evolutionary !iology- physics- or economics. Te7t#ooks. % studying at a college and you use te0t!ooks written !y English3speaking authors- you can get the original English versions. % you are learning a new computer language- you can use a !ook in English. ,ou will learn your su!;ect and English at the same time. ?orums and #logs. :orums- discussion groups and !logs are a uni+ue source o written in ormal language. Hnlike other written sources- such as !ooks or newspapers- they are very close to the way native speakers talk. As such- they are an e0cellent source o input or English learners. %deally- stick to orums or native speakers and remem!er that many native speakers make spelling mistakes. -mail. #ike orums and !logs- e3mails rom native speakers are a antastic source o 2everyday English2- which is normally the kind o English you want

to speak most o the time 5e0cept or some ormal occasions6. Iommunicating with a native speaker over e3mail gives you a lot o pleasure- as well as an opportunity to practice your writing skills. Software. ,ou can start using English versions o your operating system- your word processor- and other applications.

Watching movies in English

English learners have a !ig advantage over learners o other languages: /ollywood is in America and it makes English3language movies. =o- i you know English and you like movies- why don.t you watch movies in English7 ,ou can have un and- at the same time- learn a lot o English.

Why watch movies in English

% you are a an o movies- you will notice that they are much #etter in the original. )atching a du!!ed ilm will never !e as good as watching the original version. )hy7 Because in the original version- the actor.s voices are real. Everything is ;ust like the director imagined. #earning English !y watching movies is learning !y input. The learning process is similar. :irst you get lots of correct nglish sentences into your head. Then you can imitate them and you can make your own sentences. And isn.t that why you are learning English > to !e a!le to make your own sentences7 That is why watching movies 5;ust like reading !ooks6 is such a great way to learn English. 5,ou can learn more a!out how getting correct sentences into your head improves your English in our introduction to input.6 8 course- there are important di erences !etween movies and !ooks. )ith #ooksyou learn how native speakers write in English. )ith movies- you learn how they speak English.

!ou learn what words they use. )hen speaking- native speakers use words and phrases that you o ten won.t ind in a !ook. =poken language is di erent rom 2!ook language2. :or e0ample: 1ook: The price of five dollars was accepta#le" and $ decided to purchase it. Spoken: $t was" like" five #ucks" so $ was like 8okay8. %n many movies- the dialog is like real spoken English. 'ovies also let you learn in ormal and slang words which are not yet in English dictionaries. :or e0ample- in a movie you might hear :ive me the freaking keysD- !ut you won.t ind the word freaking in a dictionary.

You learn how they say these words. &o'ies let you impro'e your pronunciation, not only grammar and 'ocabulary. I$ you listen to

(mericans or )ritons spea#ing English, you can learn to spea# li#e them. You learn to understand spoken language . &o'ies are made $or nati'e spea#ers, not $or learners o$ English. So the actors tal# $ast, *ust li#e nati'e spea#ers tal# in real li$e.

How to learn as much as possible?

he difficulty of watching movies
,ou won.t learn anything rom the movie i you don.t understand it. ,ou pro!a!ly won.t en;oy it- either. :35 This is one !ig pro!lem with movies: They are much more di icult to understand than !ooks. % you don.t understand a word in a !ook- you can simply look it up in a dictionary- !ecause the word is written there 5you know its spelling6. )ith a movieyou sometimes hear something- !ut you don.t know what it is. =ometimes you don.t even know i heard one word or two. There are other reasons why listening is more di icult than reading- and they all mean one thing: $f you want to understand a movie" you have to know a lot of nglish words > and not only their spelling- !ut also their pronunciation. ,ou can greatly improve your voca!ulary !y reading !ooks- looking up words in your dictionary- and repeating them with =uper'emo. But even i you read 244 !ooks in English- you would still not understand everything? There will always !e some words that you didn.t know !e ore. And some o the dialog will !e spoken very +uickly and unclearly. 5,ou should know that sometimes even Americans can.t understand some o the dialog.6

!hat to do when you don't understand something

% you are playing the movie rom tape or FDF- you can stop it whenever you don't understand a sentence. ,ou can then play the sentence many times and perhaps you.ll !e a!le to understand all the words in the sentence. % you still don.t understand a word or two- you can try to look them up in a dictionary 5which is not easy- !ecause you have to guess their spelling?6. 'ost FDFs let you turn on su!titles. )ith su!titles- there is no pro!lem with +uick or unclear dialog > everything is ;ust written on the screen. %t is also easy to look up di icult words in your dictionary- !ecause you know their spelling. The pro!lem with su!titles is that they make you la1y > you stop listening and concentrate on reading. This is not good i you want to e0ercise your listening skills. There ore- you should pro#a#ly try to watch movies without su#titles. Turn su!titles on only i having a hard time understanding the sentences in the movie- and it doesn.t help when you listen to them repeatedly.

"ovie guides
There is a great alternative to su!titles. is a we!site which has 2guides2 to popular movies. A guide is a list o over 144 di icult sentences rom a movie with e0planations. 5/ere is an e0ample guide to The :raduate.6 Bow the most important thing: ,ou first read the e0planations9 then you watch the movie. =o- when watching the ilm- you already know the necessary voca!ulary? )e think this is the !est strategy or watching movies- !ecause:

It feels great to understand a movie in the original! It's 'ery, 'ery moti'ating when you learn a word, and then the #nowledge o$ the word lets you en*oy the mo'ie. It gi'es you a lot o$ pleasure + so you will want to learn more English 'ocabulary to understand e'en more. You don't have to stop the movie. (,r you ha'e to stop it less $re-uently.) .ou can simply watch it and en*oy it.

A guide doesn.t e0plain all the di icult sentences in the movie. But the e0planations in the guide should !e enough to help you understand what.s happening in the movie.

#earning techni$ues
)hat else can you do to learn rom movies more e ectively7 The same things that you should do when reading !ooks: 1. Pay attention to interesting things/ new words, phrases, and grammar structures. 2. Use your dictionary to learn about these interesting things . .ou can stop the mo'ie to loo# up di$$icult words. .ou can also write down all the interesting sentences, and loo# them up later. )ut do use your dictionary0 !. Add these interesting things to uper!emo . I$ there is an ES"notes guide to the mo'ie, you can add all the sentences in the guide to your Super&emo collection + be$ore watching the $ilm. "ater, you can also add the words that you ha'e written down when watching the mo'ie.

Where to get movies in English?

Getting movies in English may !e a pro!lem i you are not in an English3speaking country. 'ost stores will have only movies du!!ed in the local language. Fu!!ed movies help people who do not know English- !ut i you are an English learner- they are your greatest enemy. :36 /ow can you get original versions o movies7 /ere are some ideas that you can try:

.our cable or satellite "# may ha'e mo'ie channels in English ($or e1ample, 2), is a popular channel which shows a lot o$ mo'ies3 un$ortunately, it is not $ree). .ou can buy $#$s or videotapes at ( (,r (, i$ you are in Europe.) 2owe'er, the prices may be a problem. .ou can buy your $a'orite mo'ies on 565 or 'ideotape. )ut you can't buy e'ery $ilm that you want to see. In some countries, movie theaters (cinemas) show $ilms with subtitles in the local language (and not dubbed mo'ies). It is a good idea to watch them, especially i$ you can a'oid reading the subtitles. /7)

1earning English with adventure games

What is an adventure game?
An adventure game is a kind o computer game which is similar to a movie. There is always a story and the main character 5usually a person- such as a detective or a pirate6. The di erence is that you don.t ;ust watch > instead- you control the main character. ,ou use your mouse or key!oard- and your character moves around in the game world- looks at things- picks them up- uses them- and talks to other characters. ,our character also talks to you. :or e0ample- when you tell him to look at something- he will tell you what he sees. ,ou can then use this in ormation to decide what to do ne0t. Anyone who played an adventure game knows that they are great un. But adventure games are also a great way to improve your English.

Why adventure games are good for your English

)hen you play an adventure game:

!ou improve your understanding of spoken nglish. %n modern adventure games- you can hear all the characters speak real English. The dialogue is easier to understand than in movies: it is slower- clearer- and you can usually stop the action and listen to a phrase again. There ore- playing an adventure game is e0cellent listening practice. !ou gain a 8grammar intuition8. )hen you play an adventure game- you have contact with a large num!er o grammatically correct and natural English sentences. These sentences are not only spoken 5as on TD6. %n many adventure games you can also turn on su!titles. % you do- you will hear the pronunciation and see the spelling at the same time. The result7 'ore will !e le t in your memory. !ou improve your pronunciation. #istening to good spoken English is always good or your pronunciation. !ou increase your motivation. )hen you play an adventure game- you are in a situation where knowing English makes you eel good. %t.s simple. % you can understand the dialogue- you know what is going on in the game. This helps

you solve the pu11les and understand the humor. ,ou have un. ,ou give your !rain a signal: 2English gives me pleasure2- and your motivation increases?

How to use adventure games?

)hen playing an adventure game- you learn some English even i you don.t want to. But o course you can learn even more i you try. 8ne use ul techni+ue when playing an adventure game is very simple: use a dictionary. <ause the game re+uently and look up new English words in a good dictionary or learners. ,ou will understand more o the game- and o course you will learn some English voca!ulary. % you are really motivated to learn English- you can write down all the new words. #ater- you can add these words to your =uper'emo collection so that you will remem!er them orever. % you want to improve your pronunciation- pause the game re+uently and try to repeat nglish sentences as well as you can. This is a great pronunciation e0erciseand it.s much more interesting than e0ercises in te0t!ooks. Adventure games make it possi!le- !ecause the pronunciation in those games is clearer than pronunciation in movies. % you are especially interested in improving your understanding o spoken Englishyou can play the game without su#titles. %n order to play- you will have to understand spoken language. At irst- you will surely have pro!lems- !ut you will !ecome !etter and !etter. Botice that when using this techni+ue- it will !e di icult to look up words in a dictionary- !ecause you will not see the words on the screen > you will only hear them.

Recommended adventure games

)hich adventure game should you !uy7 The short answer is: Any game rom #ucasArts Entertainment. ,ou will get an intelligent story 5more intelligent than most /ollywood movies6- incredi!le humor- !eauti ul graphics- stirring music- and voices o talented actors. #ucasArts. adventure games create a true atmosphere. They take you to another world > a world that you don.t want to leave... /ere are the latest adventure games !y #ucasArts Entertainment. They all have spoken dialogues- and you can also turn on su!titles.

:rim ?andango. Iheck out the o icial page or !uy the game at 5only i you live in the H=A6 or 5i you live in Europe6. 0urse of Monkey $sland. Iheck out the o icial page or !uy the game at 5only i you live in the H=A6 or 5i you live in Europe6. scape from Monkey $sland. Iheck out the o icial page or !uy the game at 5only i you live in the H=A6 or at 5i you live in Europe6.

$uper-emo and learning English

)hat is =uper'emo and what can it give you7 %t is an advanced computer program which can help you !uild an impressive knowledge o English.

/ow does it work7 ,ou add some knowledge to =uper'emo 5e.g. 144 English words6- and every day you review part o the knowledge 5e.g. $ words6. %n the process- =uper'emo collects in ormation a!out your memory. )hy is it good7 16 % you add something to =uper'emo- you will not orget it. 26 ,ou can keep a lot in your head- !ut do very little work every day. )hat are the results7 =uper'emo can help you increase your voca!ularyimprove your grammar- learn pronunciation- and !e the !est in your class? Getting =uper'emo is easy. ,ou can !uy and download versions or )indows- the <ocket <I- and the <alm <ilot in ;ust a ew minutes. %t.s easy to start learning. )hen you !uy =uper'emo- you get the Antimoon =tarter Iollection- which shows you how to add English words and phrases to =uper'emo. ,ou can also download ready3made knowledge collections or English learners.

'e and =uper'emo > Tom writes a!out his personal e0perience with =uper'emo > rom 1@@3 to 2442. /e talks a!out his motivation or using =uper'emo and his e0cellent results while learning English in high school. &eview o =uper'emo or <ocket <I > the easiest3to3use version o =uper'emo that lets you learn anywhere. Hn ortunately- adding words and sentences with the stylus will slow you down.

"sing $uper-emo to learn English

%n this manual- you will learn how to use =uper'emo or learning English: 1. 2. 3. ". Getting- installing and uninstalling =uper'emo =tarting your irst collection 'emori1ing and reviewing knowledge 'aking items or English learning

)ownloadable $uper-emo collections

To start using =uper'emo immediately- you can !uy and download =uper'emo collections or learning English: <er ect<ronunciation is Antimoon.s so tware or learning English pronunciationwhich is !ased on =uper'emo technology. %t teaches you the pronunciation o the most re+uently used English words. %n addition to the 2standalone2 version<er ect<ronunciation is also availa!le as a =uper'emo collection compati!le with =uper'emo 2444- 2442 and 244".

The =uper'emo #i!rary has some collections or English learners. )e have looked at most o them- and chosen the !est ones:

English %rregular Der!s 5a !estseller6 Business English Basic English Grammar Advanced English Grammar

'ore collections are availa!le.