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Math 147

Lecture Notes: Lecture 8


Walter Carlip
February, 2014
Lets be clear: the work of science has nothing whatever
to do with consensus. Consensus is the business of
politics. Science, on the contrary, requires only one
investigator who happens to be right, which means that
he or she has results that are veriable by reference to
the real world. In science consensus is irrelevant. What
is relevant is reproducible results. The greatest scientists
in history are great precisely because they broke with the
consensus. Michael Crichton (1942 - 2008)
Hiring a statistician after the data have been collected is
like hiring a physician when your patient is in the
morgue. He may be able to tell you what went wrong,
but he is unlikely to be able to x it.
Attributed to George Box (1919 -)
. . . the statistician knows . . . that in nature there never
was a normal distribution, there never was a straight
line, yet with normal and linear assumptions, known to
be false, he can often derive results which match, to a
useful approximation, those found in the real world.
George Box (1919 -)
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 1 Lecture 8
Chance Error
If you make a measurement, your measurement will dier
from the true value by a chance error.
Individual Measurement
= True (Exact) Value + Chance Error
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 2 Lecture 8
Chance Error
If you make a measurement, your measurement will dier
from the true value by a chance error.
Individual Measurement
= True (Exact) Value + Chance Error
The variability in measurements comes from variability in
the chance error. If we collect data by repeating the same
measurement, the standard deviation of the collection of
measurements will be equal to the standard deviation of
the chance errors. We know this, because the each
individual measurement comes from adding the true exact
value to a chance error, thus shifting the chance errors by a
xed value.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 2-a Lecture 8
Chance Error
If you make a measurement, your measurement will dier
from the true value by a chance error.
Individual Measurement
= True (Exact) Value + Chance Error
The variability in measurements comes from variability in
the chance error. If we collect data by repeating the same
measurement, the standard deviation of the collection of
measurements will be equal to the standard deviation of
the chance errors. We know this, because the each
individual measurement comes from adding the true exact
value to a chance error, thus shifting the chance errors by a
xed value.
If, for example, in our thought experiment, the standard
deviation of the measurements was 1/32-nd of an inch, then
you would expect a typical measurement to be o by about
1/32-nd of an inch.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 2-b Lecture 8
Chance Error
If you make a measurement, your measurement will dier
from the true value by a chance error.
Individual Measurement
= True (Exact) Value + Chance Error
The variability in measurements comes from variability in
the chance error. If we collect data by repeating the same
measurement, the standard deviation of the collection of
measurements will be equal to the standard deviation of
the chance errors. We know this, because the each
individual measurement comes from adding the true exact
value to a chance error, thus shifting the chance errors by a
xed value.
If, for example, in our thought experiment, the standard
deviation of the measurements was 1/32-nd of an inch, then
you would expect a typical measurement to be o by about
1/32-nd of an inch.
More precisely, using the rule of thumb from our earlier
discussion, about 68% of the measurements are likely to be
within 1/32 of an inch away from the correct value, and
about 95% of the measurements are likely to be within
2/32 = 1/16 of an inch of the correct value, and only rarely
will a measurement be more than 3/32 of an inch from the
correct value.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 2-c Lecture 8
Text Example: NB 10
NB 10 is a weight owned by the National Bureau of Weights
and Measures, designed to weigh 10 grams. This weight
probably looks something like one of these:
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 3 Lecture 8
Text Example: NB 10
NB 10 is a weight owned by the National Bureau of Weights
and Measures, designed to weigh 10 grams. This weight
probably looks something like one of these:
The weights at the Bureau of Weights and Measures are
used as standards to evaluate and regulate measurements in
the United States. Of course, NB 10 does not weigh exactly
10 grams.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 3-a Lecture 8
Text Example: NB 10
NB 10 is a weight owned by the National Bureau of Weights
and Measures, designed to weigh 10 grams. This weight
probably looks something like one of these:
The weights at the Bureau of Weights and Measures are
used as standards to evaluate and regulate measurements in
the United States. Of course, NB 10 does not weigh exactly
10 grams.
To control its standards, the bureau repeatedly weighs its
standard weights, including NB 10. The text provides a list
of measurements provided by the Bureau for our analysis.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 3-b Lecture 8
NB 10 Measurement Table
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 4 Lecture 8
The NB 10 Data
All of the measurements from the table indicate that NB 10
weighs less than 10 grams: the values listed are the number
of micrograms below 10 grams, so, for example the rst
measurement, 409 in the table, corresponds to a
measurement of 10.000000 .000409 = 9.999591 grams.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 5 Lecture 8
The NB 10 Data
All of the measurements from the table indicate that NB 10
weighs less than 10 grams: the values listed are the number
of micrograms below 10 grams, so, for example the rst
measurement, 409 in the table, corresponds to a
measurement of 10.000000 .000409 = 9.999591 grams.
The mean of these measurements is 405 micrograms. Notice
that 409 405 = 4, so the rst measurement was 4
micrograms higher than the mean, and the second
measurement satised 400 405 = 5, so it was 5
micrograms lower than the mean.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 5-a Lecture 8
The NB 10 Data
All of the measurements from the table indicate that NB 10
weighs less than 10 grams: the values listed are the number
of micrograms below 10 grams, so, for example the rst
measurement, 409 in the table, corresponds to a
measurement of 10.000000 .000409 = 9.999591 grams.
The mean of these measurements is 405 micrograms. Notice
that 409 405 = 4, so the rst measurement was 4
micrograms higher than the mean, and the second
measurement satised 400 405 = 5, so it was 5
micrograms lower than the mean.
The standard deviation of these
measurements was 6 micrograms,
so a typical measurement was
about 6 micrograms away from the
mean.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 5-b Lecture 8
Fitting to a Normal Curve
Obviously, it is hard to get a sense of the data from the
table. However, a histogram allows us to visualize the
distribution of the data. Here is the data, together with a
normal curve, centered at the mean (405) with a standard
unit corresponding to 6 micrograms.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 6 Lecture 8
Bad Fit
Notice that this normal curve is not an extraordinarily good
t for the data. The bars in the center extend rather far
over the top of the normal curve. The shaded area below,
corresponds to 86% of the data, considerably more than the
68% predicted by a normal distribution.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 7 Lecture 8
Bad Fit
Notice that this normal curve is not an extraordinarily good
t for the data. The bars in the center extend rather far
over the top of the normal curve. The shaded area below,
corresponds to 86% of the data, considerably more than the
68% predicted by a normal distribution.
The bad t is a consequence of three measurements that are
far from the mean: Measurement #36 (423) is 3 SDs from
the mean, and Measurements #86 (437) and #94 (375) are
both 5 standard deviations from the mean. Extreme
measurements that are far from the mean are known as
outliers.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 7-a Lecture 8
Dropping Outliers
When the outliers are dropped, the remaining data has a
mean of 404, with a standard deviation of 4 micrograms.
The corresponding normal curve is a much better t, with
about 66% of the data lying within one standard deviation
of the mean.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 8 Lecture 8
Dropping Outliers
When the outliers are dropped, the remaining data has a
mean of 404, with a standard deviation of 4 micrograms.
The corresponding normal curve is a much better t, with
about 66% of the data lying within one standard deviation
of the mean.
Exactly how to handle outliers drop them or keep them is a
subtle matter and may depend upon some analysis of how the
outliers occurred. The authors of our text write:
There is a hard choice to make when investigators see
an outlier. Either they ignore it, or they have to concede
that their measurements dont follow the normal curve.
The prestige of the curve is so high that the rst choice
is the usual one a triumph of theory over experience
[Freedman, Pisani, Purves, p. 103].
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 8-a Lecture 8
Back to Weight Scales
There is another factor that may aect measurement.
If you are concerned about your weight, you can obtain
lighter measurements on that physicians scale if you turn
the knob indicated:
This knob is used to adjust the calibration of the scale. Turn
it in one direction, and the scale reports higher weights,
turn it in the other, and the scale reports lower weights. If
you want to lose weight without exercising and giving up ice
cream, just turn the knob in the right direction!
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 9 Lecture 8
Bias
How does one calibrate the scale to give the correct
weights?
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 10 Lecture 8
Bias
How does one calibrate the scale to give the correct
weights?
In theory, one could borrow a certied weight from the
Bureau of Weights and Measures and place that on the
scale, and adjust the scale until it reads the correct weight.
(Of course, if you weigh the standard weight again, you will
get a dierent reading, because of chance error.)
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 10-a Lecture 8
Bias
How does one calibrate the scale to give the correct
weights?
In theory, one could borrow a certied weight from the
Bureau of Weights and Measures and place that on the
scale, and adjust the scale until it reads the correct weight.
(Of course, if you weigh the standard weight again, you will
get a dierent reading, because of chance error.)
A scale (or other measurement tool) that consistently
provides a measurement that diers from the correct value
by a xed amount in one direction is said to be biased, and
the amount that the measurement is changed by such
systematic error is called bias. We must modify our
equation describing measurement:
Individual Measurement
= True (Exact) Value + Bias + Chance Error
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 10-b Lecture 8
Bias
How does one calibrate the scale to give the correct
weights?
In theory, one could borrow a certied weight from the
Bureau of Weights and Measures and place that on the
scale, and adjust the scale until it reads the correct weight.
(Of course, if you weigh the standard weight again, you will
get a dierent reading, because of chance error.)
A scale (or other measurement tool) that consistently
provides a measurement that diers from the correct value
by a xed amount in one direction is said to be biased, and
the amount that the measurement is changed by such
systematic error is called bias. We must modify our
equation describing measurement:
Individual Measurement
= True (Exact) Value + Bias + Chance Error
Note that bias may be either positive or negative.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 10-c Lecture 8
All Measuring Devices are Biased
Unfortunately, no scale or measurement device is perfectly
calibrated all of them introduce some bias into
measurement.
For example, many scales depend upon springs:
These depend upon the compressibility and stretchability of
the springs used. In time, springs loose their springiness,
and the scales gradually become more biased.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 11 Lecture 8
Detecting Bias
If there is no bias in a measurement procedure, the chance
errors (some positive, some negative) will in the long run
cancel out, and the long-run average of measurements will
give the exact value of the thing being measured. If there is
bias, however, each of the measurements is shifted by the
same amount, and the long run average will be similarly
shifted.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 12 Lecture 8
Detecting Bias
If there is no bias in a measurement procedure, the chance
errors (some positive, some negative) will in the long run
cancel out, and the long-run average of measurements will
give the exact value of the thing being measured. If there is
bias, however, each of the measurements is shifted by the
same amount, and the long run average will be similarly
shifted.
Bias cannot be detected by examining the data itself. It can
only be detected by comparing to an outside standard. For
example, bias of a weight scale may be identied by
weighing a standard weight from the Bureau of Weights and
Measures and comparing to the known (to some accuracy)
weight of the standard weight.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 12-a Lecture 8
Tools
The next topic today will be a brief review of some
mathematical tools used for visualizing data and
understanding relationships.
This wont take up the entire lecture, so rst a short topic
from Chapter 4 that we zipped past.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 13 Lecture 8
Graphing Averages
We have previously discussed data from the Hanes survey,
in particular, heights of men and women from the Hanes5
survey of 2003-2004 (Lectures 5 & 6 last week). Today I
want to point out the example from Chapter 4 (Section 2)
that compares the data from the Hanes2 (1976-1980) study
to the data from the Hanes5 (2003-2004) study.
The text presents several graphs describing the heights and
weights of men and women from the two studies. The
following graphs show the heights of men and women in the
Hanes2 and Hanes5 studies:
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 14 Lecture 8
Points are Plotted
The rst thing to observe about these graphs: the data is
represented by points on the graph. Each point corresponds
to a single age group and their associated height. For
example, in the Hanes5 graph, the point indicated
corresponds to the 40-year-old age group (or, technically,
the 35-44 age group). The point is located over the 40 year
point on the horizontal axis, and vertically across from
(roughly) 69.5 inches. Mathematically, the point
corresponding to the coordinates (40, 69.5) and indicates the
relationship between the age group and the average height.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 15 Lecture 8
Points are Plotted
The rst thing to observe about these graphs: the data is
represented by points on the graph. Each point corresponds
to a single age group and their associated height. For
example, in the Hanes5 graph, the point indicated
corresponds to the 40-year-old age group (or, technically,
the 35-44 age group). The point is located over the 40 year
point on the horizontal axis, and vertically across from
(roughly) 69.5 inches. Mathematically, the point
corresponding to the coordinates (40, 69.5) and indicates the
relationship between the age group and the average height.
The lines between the points do not correspond to actual data:
they are there only to give a feel for the change in the relationship
as age varies.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 15-a Lecture 8
Averages Lose Information
Each point in the graph corresponds to the average height
of a class of people in the Hanes5 study. The point
corresponding to the 18 24 age group indicates an average
height of 70 inches. Using one point to represent the entire
group obscures details about the group: 15% of the men in
that age group were actually taller than 73 inches, and 15%
were shorter than 66 inches. Recording only the average
hides the fact that there is spread.
Each point in the graph summa-
rizes data that would be better
represented by a histogram.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 16 Lecture 8
Change in Time
The second thing to observe about these graphs is that
there is a tendency, most obvious in the earlier Hanes2
data, for heights to decrease as you move to the right along
the graphs.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 17 Lecture 8
Change in Time
The second thing to observe about these graphs is that
there is a tendency, most obvious in the earlier Hanes2
data, for heights to decrease as you move to the right along
the graphs.
Does this tell us that over time people tend to shrink? Do
men and women tend to shrink by about 2 inches (on the
average) as they age from 18 to 74?
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 17-a Lecture 8
Change in Time
No. While some people do lose a little height as they age,
because of some bone compression, that is not what this
graph indicates. The Hanes studies are cross-sectional
studies. The information is gathered for all of the age
classes simultaneously. The people in the 18 24 age group
are completely dierent people from the people in the
65 74 age group. The people in the 18 24 group were
born much later than those in the 65 74 age group.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 18 Lecture 8
Change in Time
No. While some people do lose a little height as they age,
because of some bone compression, that is not what this
graph indicates. The Hanes studies are cross-sectional
studies. The information is gathered for all of the age
classes simultaneously. The people in the 18 24 age group
are completely dierent people from the people in the
65 74 age group. The people in the 18 24 group were
born much later than those in the 65 74 age group.
It has been observed that the average height of people in the
United States has actually been increasing with time. This
is called a secular trend. This trend explains the downturn
in the curve, not the physical shrinking of individuals.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 18-a Lecture 8
Combining Graphs
The secular trend can also be observed by combining the
graphs of the two studies. Here are the combined graphs for
Hanes2 and Hanes5 for heights and weights:
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 19 Lecture 8
Combining Graphs
The secular trend can also be observed by combining the
graphs of the two studies. Here are the combined graphs for
Hanes2 and Hanes5 for heights and weights:
You can see that, on the average, men and women in all age
groups are a bit taller (as much as an inch or two in some
classes) in the newer study than the older. On the other
hand, they are considerably heavier (as much as 20 30
pounds) in all categories.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 19-a Lecture 8
Longitudinal v.s. Cross-Sectional Data
While cross-sectional studies compare individuals in
dierent groups at one point in time, longitudinal studies
compare individuals with themselves at dierent times.
Both kinds of studies are common, and it is important to
understand which kind of study is being reported to
interpret the data. Keep this in mind when you read the
newspaper. Heres a bit from a New York Times article
about a study of hearing loss and dementia (February 11,
2013):
n u zo11 puper In TIe ArcIIves oI NeuroIogy, Dr. In und coIIeugues Iound u sLrong ussocIuLIon
beLween LIe Lwo. TIe reseurcIers Iooked uL 6q subjecLs, rungIng In uge uL LIe begInnIng oI LIe
sLudy Irom 6 Lo qo (wILI LIe mujorILy beLween 6o und 8o). TIe subjecLs were purL oI LIe
BuILImore ongILudInuI SLudy oI AgIng. None Iud cognILIve ImpuIrmenL uL LIe begInnIng oI LIe
sLudy, wIIcI IoIIowed subjecLs Ior 18 yeurs; some Iud IeurIng Ioss.
"Compured Lo IndIvIduuIs wILI normuI IeurIng, LIose IndIvIduuIs wILI u mIId, moderuLe, und
severe IeurIng Ioss, respecLIveIy, Iud u z-, - und -IoId Increused rIsk oI deveIopIng demenLIu
over LIe course oI LIe sLudy," Dr. In wroLe In un e-muII summurIzIng LIe resuILs. TIe worse LIe
IeurIng Ioss, LIe greuLer LIe rIsk oI deveIopIng demenLIu. TIe correIuLIon remuIned Lrue even
wIen uge, dIubeLes und IyperLensIon - oLIer condILIons ussocIuLed wILI demenLIu - were ruIed
ouL.
(What is the blacked out word?)
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 20 Lecture 8
Mathematical Tools
Points on a Graph
As we observed looking at the graphs of height averages in
the Hanes studies, a point on a graph shows a relationship
between two values.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 21 Lecture 8
Mathematical Tools
Points on a Graph
As we observed looking at the graphs of height averages in
the Hanes studies, a point on a graph shows a relationship
between two values.
Any pair of values can be represented by a point on a
graph. The rst value corresponds to the distance along the
horizontal axis; the second value corresponds to the
distance along the vertical axis.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 21-a Lecture 8
Mathematical Tools
Points on a Graph
As we observed looking at the graphs of height averages in
the Hanes studies, a point on a graph shows a relationship
between two values.
Any pair of values can be represented by a point on a
graph. The rst value corresponds to the distance along the
horizontal axis; the second value corresponds to the
distance along the vertical axis.
The axes intersect at the point (0, 0) (often called the
origin). Positive values on the horizontal axis increase to
the right, while negative values increase to the left. Positive
values on the vertical axis increase upward, while negative
values increase downward.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 21-b Lecture 8
Mathematical Tools
Points on a Graph
As we observed looking at the graphs of height averages in
the Hanes studies, a point on a graph shows a relationship
between two values.
Any pair of values can be represented by a point on a
graph. The rst value corresponds to the distance along the
horizontal axis; the second value corresponds to the
distance along the vertical axis.
The axes intersect at the point (0, 0) (often called the
origin). Positive values on the horizontal axis increase to
the right, while negative values increase to the left. Positive
values on the vertical axis increase upward, while negative
values increase downward.
The horizontal axis is commonly called the x-axis and the
rst coordinate of a point the x-coordinate; the vertical axis
is commonly called the y-axis and the second coordinate of
a point the y-coordinate.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 21-c Lecture 8
Mathematical Tools
Points on a Graph
As we observed looking at the graphs of height averages in
the Hanes studies, a point on a graph shows a relationship
between two values.
Any pair of values can be represented by a point on a
graph. The rst value corresponds to the distance along the
horizontal axis; the second value corresponds to the
distance along the vertical axis.
The axes intersect at the point (0, 0) (often called the
origin). Positive values on the horizontal axis increase to
the right, while negative values increase to the left. Positive
values on the vertical axis increase upward, while negative
values increase downward.
The horizontal axis is commonly called the x-axis and the
rst coordinate of a point the x-coordinate; the vertical axis
is commonly called the y-axis and the second coordinate of
a point the y-coordinate.
While I expect point plotting is familiar to most of you,
here are a few examples: (1, 5), (3, 4), (4, 1), (6, 4), (1, 3),
(5, 3), (3, 2), (3, 2), (1, 1), (4, 4), (2, 2), (4, 4).
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 21-d Lecture 8
Axes
(1, 5), (3, 4), (4, 1), (6, 4), (1, 3), (5, 3), (3, 2), (3, 2),
(1, 1), (4, 4), (2, 2), (4, 4)
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 22 Lecture 8
Observations
There are some easy observations.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 23 Lecture 8
Observations
There are some easy observations.
Points with two positive coordinates lie in the upper
right hand quadrant (I).
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 23-a Lecture 8
Observations
There are some easy observations.
Points with two positive coordinates lie in the upper
right hand quadrant (I).
Points with two negative coordinates lie in the lower left
hand quadrant (III).
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 23-b Lecture 8
Observations
There are some easy observations.
Points with two positive coordinates lie in the upper
right hand quadrant (I).
Points with two negative coordinates lie in the lower left
hand quadrant (III).
Points with rst coordinate negative & second positive
lie in the upper left quadrant (II), and points with rst
coordinate positive and second negative lie in the lower
right quadrant (IV).
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 23-c Lecture 8
Observations
There are some easy observations.
Points with two positive coordinates lie in the upper
right hand quadrant (I).
Points with two negative coordinates lie in the lower left
hand quadrant (III).
Points with rst coordinate negative & second positive
lie in the upper left quadrant (II), and points with rst
coordinate positive and second negative lie in the lower
right quadrant (IV).
Points with equal coordinates lie on the horizontal
rising diagonal line.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 23-e Lecture 8
Observations
There are some easy observations.
Points with two positive coordinates lie in the upper
right hand quadrant (I).
Points with two negative coordinates lie in the lower left
hand quadrant (III).
Points with rst coordinate negative & second positive
lie in the upper left quadrant (II), and points with rst
coordinate positive and second negative lie in the lower
right quadrant (IV).
Points with equal coordinates lie on the horizontal
rising diagonal line.
Points with second coordinate greater than the rst lie
above the horizontal rising diagonal; points with second
coordinate less than the rst lie below the horizontal
rising diagonal.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 23-f Lecture 8
Straight Lines
Straight lines are important and can be identied in several
ways.
If you identify any two points on a line, A and B, you can
describe how to get from A to B using only horizontal and
vertical steps. The amount you must move horizontally to
travel from A to B is called the run, and the amount you
must move vertically to travel from A to B is called the
rise. The ratio of the two is called the slope of the line, and
is identical for any two points on the line.
Slope = Rise/Run
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 24 Lecture 8
Straight Lines
Straight lines are important and can be identied in several
ways.
If you identify any two points on a line, A and B, you can
describe how to get from A to B using only horizontal and
vertical steps. The amount you must move horizontally to
travel from A to B is called the run, and the amount you
must move vertically to travel from A to B is called the
rise. The ratio of the two is called the slope of the line, and
is identical for any two points on the line.
Slope = Rise/Run
We often think of the slope as change in y divided by
change in x.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 24-a Lecture 8
Straight Lines
Straight lines are important and can be identied in several
ways.
If you identify any two points on a line, A and B, you can
describe how to get from A to B using only horizontal and
vertical steps. The amount you must move horizontally to
travel from A to B is called the run, and the amount you
must move vertically to travel from A to B is called the
rise. The ratio of the two is called the slope of the line, and
is identical for any two points on the line.
Slope = Rise/Run
We often think of the slope as change in y divided by
change in x.
Example: Suppose the line contains the points (1, 1) and
(3, 2). Then the run is equal to 3 1 = 2, and the rise is
2 1 = 1. Thus the slope is 1/2. Another point on the line
is (7, 4).
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 24-b Lecture 8
Observations
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 25 Lecture 8
Observations
If the slope is positive, the line rises as you move to
the right.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 25-a Lecture 8
Observations
If the slope is positive, the line rises as you move to
the right.
If the slope is negative, the line drops as you move to
the right.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 25-b Lecture 8
Observations
If the slope is positive, the line rises as you move to
the right.
If the slope is negative, the line drops as you move to
the right.
If the slope is zero, the line is horizontal; at as far as
the eye can see!
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 25-c Lecture 8
Observations
If the slope is positive, the line rises as you move to
the right.
If the slope is negative, the line drops as you move to
the right.
If the slope is zero, the line is horizontal; at as far as
the eye can see!
Units
If the horizontal and vertical axes have no units, or if they
have the same units, then the slope has no units. However,
if the axes have dierent units, the slope must have
corresponding units. For example, if the vertical axis is
measured in feet and the horizontal in seconds, then the
slope is measured in feet per second. Not surprisingly, the
units of slope are a rate.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 25-d Lecture 8
Intercept
The intercept of a line is the vertical coordinate of the point
on the line as it crosses the vertical axis.
Examples:
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 26 Lecture 8
Determining a Line
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 27 Lecture 8
Determining a Line
A line is determined by any two points.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 27-a Lecture 8
Determining a Line
A line is determined by any two points.
A line is determined by any one point and a slope.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 27-b Lecture 8
Determining a Line
A line is determined by any two points.
A line is determined by any one point and a slope.
A line is determined by a slope and an intercept.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 27-c Lecture 8
Algebraic Equation for a Line
Suppose that a line has slope 2 and intercept 7. The fact
that it has intercept 7 means that the point (0, 7) lies on
the line.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 28 Lecture 8
Algebraic Equation for a Line
Suppose that a line has slope 2 and intercept 7. The fact
that it has intercept 7 means that the point (0, 7) lies on
the line.
If (x, y) is any other point that lies on the line, then the
run traveling from (0, 7) to (x, y) is the change in
x-coordinates: run = x 0 = x. On the other hand, the
rise is the change in y-coordinates: rise = y 7.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 28-a Lecture 8
Algebraic Equation for a Line
Suppose that a line has slope 2 and intercept 7. The fact
that it has intercept 7 means that the point (0, 7) lies on
the line.
If (x, y) is any other point that lies on the line, then the
run traveling from (0, 7) to (x, y) is the change in
x-coordinates: run = x 0 = x. On the other hand, the
rise is the change in y-coordinates: rise = y 7.
Now, one the one hand the slope of our line is 2, but on the
other hand
slope =
rise
run
=
y 7
x
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 28-b Lecture 8
Algebraic Equation for a Line
Suppose that a line has slope 2 and intercept 7. The fact
that it has intercept 7 means that the point (0, 7) lies on
the line.
If (x, y) is any other point that lies on the line, then the
run traveling from (0, 7) to (x, y) is the change in
x-coordinates: run = x 0 = x. On the other hand, the
rise is the change in y-coordinates: rise = y 7.
Now, one the one hand the slope of our line is 2, but on the
other hand
slope =
rise
run
=
y 7
x
It follows that
y 7
x
= 2
y 7 = 2x
y = 2x + 7
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 28-c Lecture 8
Algebraic Equation for a Line
The reasoning just given works for any intercept and any
slope! We obtain a general equation. If (x, y) is any point
on a line that has slope m and intercept b, then
y = mx+b
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 29 Lecture 8
Algebraic Equation for a Line
The reasoning just given works for any intercept and any
slope! We obtain a general equation. If (x, y) is any point
on a line that has slope m and intercept b, then
y = mx+b
Examples:
Slope 2, Intercept 1.
Slope 3, Intercept 2.
Slope 1, Intercept 2.
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 29-a Lecture 8
Other Formulas for a Line
If you know the slope of a line m and any point on the line
(a, b) (not necessarily the intercept), you can reason as we
did for intercepts. The slope m must be the change in
y-coordinate (rise) over change in x-coordinate (run). Thus,
if (x, y) is any point on this line,
y b
x a
= m
y b = m(x a)
y = m(x a) + b.
(Note that such a line has intercept equal to b ma.)
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 30 Lecture 8
Other Formulas for a Line
If you feel ambitious, you can determine formulas for a line
in other situations. Try, for example, to nd the equation
for a line that passes through two points.
Try it rst for two given points, say, (1, 1) and (3, 2).
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 31 Lecture 8
Homework
Please read Chapters 6, 7, and 8 carefully
Homework
Week Date Assignment Chapter Page Set Problems
3 February 10, 2014 Reading 5
Problem Set #5 5 82 A 1
84 B 1, 4
88 C 1, 2
89 D 1, 2, 3, 4
92 E 1, 2
93 Review 1, 2, 3, 5, 6
3 February 12, 2014 Reading 6
Set #6 6 104 Review 1, 2, 3
105 Special Review 1, 5, 7, 8, 10
3 February 14, 2014 Reading 7
Set #7 7 111 A 1, 2, 3
112 B 2, 3,4, 5, 6
114 C 1
115 D 1, 2, 5
116 E 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
4 February 17, 2014 Reading 8
Set #8 8 122 A 1, 2
128 B 2, 3, 4, 6
131 C 1, 2, 3
134 D 1
134 Review 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9
Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 32 Lecture 8