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You are on page 1of 71

Walter Carlip

February, 2014

Lets be clear: the work of science has nothing whatever

to do with consensus. Consensus is the business of

politics. Science, on the contrary, requires only one

investigator who happens to be right, which means that

he or she has results that are veriable by reference to

the real world. In science consensus is irrelevant. What

is relevant is reproducible results. The greatest scientists

in history are great precisely because they broke with the

consensus. Michael Crichton (1942 - 2008)

Hiring a statistician after the data have been collected is

like hiring a physician when your patient is in the

morgue. He may be able to tell you what went wrong,

but he is unlikely to be able to x it.

Attributed to George Box (1919 -)

. . . the statistician knows . . . that in nature there never

was a normal distribution, there never was a straight

line, yet with normal and linear assumptions, known to

be false, he can often derive results which match, to a

useful approximation, those found in the real world.

George Box (1919 -)

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 1 Lecture 8

Chance Error

If you make a measurement, your measurement will dier

from the true value by a chance error.

Individual Measurement

= True (Exact) Value + Chance Error

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 2 Lecture 8

Chance Error

If you make a measurement, your measurement will dier

from the true value by a chance error.

Individual Measurement

= True (Exact) Value + Chance Error

The variability in measurements comes from variability in

the chance error. If we collect data by repeating the same

measurement, the standard deviation of the collection of

measurements will be equal to the standard deviation of

the chance errors. We know this, because the each

individual measurement comes from adding the true exact

value to a chance error, thus shifting the chance errors by a

xed value.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 2-a Lecture 8

Chance Error

If you make a measurement, your measurement will dier

from the true value by a chance error.

Individual Measurement

= True (Exact) Value + Chance Error

The variability in measurements comes from variability in

the chance error. If we collect data by repeating the same

measurement, the standard deviation of the collection of

measurements will be equal to the standard deviation of

the chance errors. We know this, because the each

individual measurement comes from adding the true exact

value to a chance error, thus shifting the chance errors by a

xed value.

If, for example, in our thought experiment, the standard

deviation of the measurements was 1/32-nd of an inch, then

you would expect a typical measurement to be o by about

1/32-nd of an inch.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 2-b Lecture 8

Chance Error

If you make a measurement, your measurement will dier

from the true value by a chance error.

Individual Measurement

= True (Exact) Value + Chance Error

The variability in measurements comes from variability in

the chance error. If we collect data by repeating the same

measurement, the standard deviation of the collection of

measurements will be equal to the standard deviation of

the chance errors. We know this, because the each

individual measurement comes from adding the true exact

value to a chance error, thus shifting the chance errors by a

xed value.

If, for example, in our thought experiment, the standard

deviation of the measurements was 1/32-nd of an inch, then

you would expect a typical measurement to be o by about

1/32-nd of an inch.

More precisely, using the rule of thumb from our earlier

discussion, about 68% of the measurements are likely to be

within 1/32 of an inch away from the correct value, and

about 95% of the measurements are likely to be within

2/32 = 1/16 of an inch of the correct value, and only rarely

will a measurement be more than 3/32 of an inch from the

correct value.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 2-c Lecture 8

Text Example: NB 10

NB 10 is a weight owned by the National Bureau of Weights

and Measures, designed to weigh 10 grams. This weight

probably looks something like one of these:

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 3 Lecture 8

Text Example: NB 10

NB 10 is a weight owned by the National Bureau of Weights

and Measures, designed to weigh 10 grams. This weight

probably looks something like one of these:

The weights at the Bureau of Weights and Measures are

used as standards to evaluate and regulate measurements in

the United States. Of course, NB 10 does not weigh exactly

10 grams.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 3-a Lecture 8

Text Example: NB 10

NB 10 is a weight owned by the National Bureau of Weights

and Measures, designed to weigh 10 grams. This weight

probably looks something like one of these:

The weights at the Bureau of Weights and Measures are

used as standards to evaluate and regulate measurements in

the United States. Of course, NB 10 does not weigh exactly

10 grams.

To control its standards, the bureau repeatedly weighs its

standard weights, including NB 10. The text provides a list

of measurements provided by the Bureau for our analysis.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 3-b Lecture 8

NB 10 Measurement Table

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 4 Lecture 8

The NB 10 Data

All of the measurements from the table indicate that NB 10

weighs less than 10 grams: the values listed are the number

of micrograms below 10 grams, so, for example the rst

measurement, 409 in the table, corresponds to a

measurement of 10.000000 .000409 = 9.999591 grams.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 5 Lecture 8

The NB 10 Data

All of the measurements from the table indicate that NB 10

weighs less than 10 grams: the values listed are the number

of micrograms below 10 grams, so, for example the rst

measurement, 409 in the table, corresponds to a

measurement of 10.000000 .000409 = 9.999591 grams.

The mean of these measurements is 405 micrograms. Notice

that 409 405 = 4, so the rst measurement was 4

micrograms higher than the mean, and the second

measurement satised 400 405 = 5, so it was 5

micrograms lower than the mean.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 5-a Lecture 8

The NB 10 Data

All of the measurements from the table indicate that NB 10

weighs less than 10 grams: the values listed are the number

of micrograms below 10 grams, so, for example the rst

measurement, 409 in the table, corresponds to a

measurement of 10.000000 .000409 = 9.999591 grams.

The mean of these measurements is 405 micrograms. Notice

that 409 405 = 4, so the rst measurement was 4

micrograms higher than the mean, and the second

measurement satised 400 405 = 5, so it was 5

micrograms lower than the mean.

The standard deviation of these

measurements was 6 micrograms,

so a typical measurement was

about 6 micrograms away from the

mean.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 5-b Lecture 8

Fitting to a Normal Curve

Obviously, it is hard to get a sense of the data from the

table. However, a histogram allows us to visualize the

distribution of the data. Here is the data, together with a

normal curve, centered at the mean (405) with a standard

unit corresponding to 6 micrograms.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 6 Lecture 8

Bad Fit

Notice that this normal curve is not an extraordinarily good

t for the data. The bars in the center extend rather far

over the top of the normal curve. The shaded area below,

corresponds to 86% of the data, considerably more than the

68% predicted by a normal distribution.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 7 Lecture 8

Bad Fit

Notice that this normal curve is not an extraordinarily good

t for the data. The bars in the center extend rather far

over the top of the normal curve. The shaded area below,

corresponds to 86% of the data, considerably more than the

68% predicted by a normal distribution.

The bad t is a consequence of three measurements that are

far from the mean: Measurement #36 (423) is 3 SDs from

the mean, and Measurements #86 (437) and #94 (375) are

both 5 standard deviations from the mean. Extreme

measurements that are far from the mean are known as

outliers.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 7-a Lecture 8

Dropping Outliers

When the outliers are dropped, the remaining data has a

mean of 404, with a standard deviation of 4 micrograms.

The corresponding normal curve is a much better t, with

about 66% of the data lying within one standard deviation

of the mean.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 8 Lecture 8

Dropping Outliers

When the outliers are dropped, the remaining data has a

mean of 404, with a standard deviation of 4 micrograms.

The corresponding normal curve is a much better t, with

about 66% of the data lying within one standard deviation

of the mean.

Exactly how to handle outliers drop them or keep them is a

subtle matter and may depend upon some analysis of how the

outliers occurred. The authors of our text write:

There is a hard choice to make when investigators see

an outlier. Either they ignore it, or they have to concede

that their measurements dont follow the normal curve.

The prestige of the curve is so high that the rst choice

is the usual one a triumph of theory over experience

[Freedman, Pisani, Purves, p. 103].

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 8-a Lecture 8

Back to Weight Scales

There is another factor that may aect measurement.

If you are concerned about your weight, you can obtain

lighter measurements on that physicians scale if you turn

the knob indicated:

This knob is used to adjust the calibration of the scale. Turn

it in one direction, and the scale reports higher weights,

turn it in the other, and the scale reports lower weights. If

you want to lose weight without exercising and giving up ice

cream, just turn the knob in the right direction!

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 9 Lecture 8

Bias

How does one calibrate the scale to give the correct

weights?

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 10 Lecture 8

Bias

How does one calibrate the scale to give the correct

weights?

In theory, one could borrow a certied weight from the

Bureau of Weights and Measures and place that on the

scale, and adjust the scale until it reads the correct weight.

(Of course, if you weigh the standard weight again, you will

get a dierent reading, because of chance error.)

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 10-a Lecture 8

Bias

How does one calibrate the scale to give the correct

weights?

In theory, one could borrow a certied weight from the

Bureau of Weights and Measures and place that on the

scale, and adjust the scale until it reads the correct weight.

(Of course, if you weigh the standard weight again, you will

get a dierent reading, because of chance error.)

A scale (or other measurement tool) that consistently

provides a measurement that diers from the correct value

by a xed amount in one direction is said to be biased, and

the amount that the measurement is changed by such

systematic error is called bias. We must modify our

equation describing measurement:

Individual Measurement

= True (Exact) Value + Bias + Chance Error

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 10-b Lecture 8

Bias

How does one calibrate the scale to give the correct

weights?

In theory, one could borrow a certied weight from the

Bureau of Weights and Measures and place that on the

scale, and adjust the scale until it reads the correct weight.

(Of course, if you weigh the standard weight again, you will

get a dierent reading, because of chance error.)

A scale (or other measurement tool) that consistently

provides a measurement that diers from the correct value

by a xed amount in one direction is said to be biased, and

the amount that the measurement is changed by such

systematic error is called bias. We must modify our

equation describing measurement:

Individual Measurement

= True (Exact) Value + Bias + Chance Error

Note that bias may be either positive or negative.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 10-c Lecture 8

All Measuring Devices are Biased

Unfortunately, no scale or measurement device is perfectly

calibrated all of them introduce some bias into

measurement.

For example, many scales depend upon springs:

These depend upon the compressibility and stretchability of

the springs used. In time, springs loose their springiness,

and the scales gradually become more biased.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 11 Lecture 8

Detecting Bias

If there is no bias in a measurement procedure, the chance

errors (some positive, some negative) will in the long run

cancel out, and the long-run average of measurements will

give the exact value of the thing being measured. If there is

bias, however, each of the measurements is shifted by the

same amount, and the long run average will be similarly

shifted.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 12 Lecture 8

Detecting Bias

If there is no bias in a measurement procedure, the chance

errors (some positive, some negative) will in the long run

cancel out, and the long-run average of measurements will

give the exact value of the thing being measured. If there is

bias, however, each of the measurements is shifted by the

same amount, and the long run average will be similarly

shifted.

Bias cannot be detected by examining the data itself. It can

only be detected by comparing to an outside standard. For

example, bias of a weight scale may be identied by

weighing a standard weight from the Bureau of Weights and

Measures and comparing to the known (to some accuracy)

weight of the standard weight.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 12-a Lecture 8

Tools

The next topic today will be a brief review of some

mathematical tools used for visualizing data and

understanding relationships.

This wont take up the entire lecture, so rst a short topic

from Chapter 4 that we zipped past.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 13 Lecture 8

Graphing Averages

We have previously discussed data from the Hanes survey,

in particular, heights of men and women from the Hanes5

survey of 2003-2004 (Lectures 5 & 6 last week). Today I

want to point out the example from Chapter 4 (Section 2)

that compares the data from the Hanes2 (1976-1980) study

to the data from the Hanes5 (2003-2004) study.

The text presents several graphs describing the heights and

weights of men and women from the two studies. The

following graphs show the heights of men and women in the

Hanes2 and Hanes5 studies:

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 14 Lecture 8

Points are Plotted

The rst thing to observe about these graphs: the data is

represented by points on the graph. Each point corresponds

to a single age group and their associated height. For

example, in the Hanes5 graph, the point indicated

corresponds to the 40-year-old age group (or, technically,

the 35-44 age group). The point is located over the 40 year

point on the horizontal axis, and vertically across from

(roughly) 69.5 inches. Mathematically, the point

corresponding to the coordinates (40, 69.5) and indicates the

relationship between the age group and the average height.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 15 Lecture 8

Points are Plotted

The rst thing to observe about these graphs: the data is

represented by points on the graph. Each point corresponds

to a single age group and their associated height. For

example, in the Hanes5 graph, the point indicated

corresponds to the 40-year-old age group (or, technically,

the 35-44 age group). The point is located over the 40 year

point on the horizontal axis, and vertically across from

(roughly) 69.5 inches. Mathematically, the point

corresponding to the coordinates (40, 69.5) and indicates the

relationship between the age group and the average height.

The lines between the points do not correspond to actual data:

they are there only to give a feel for the change in the relationship

as age varies.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 15-a Lecture 8

Averages Lose Information

Each point in the graph corresponds to the average height

of a class of people in the Hanes5 study. The point

corresponding to the 18 24 age group indicates an average

height of 70 inches. Using one point to represent the entire

group obscures details about the group: 15% of the men in

that age group were actually taller than 73 inches, and 15%

were shorter than 66 inches. Recording only the average

hides the fact that there is spread.

Each point in the graph summa-

rizes data that would be better

represented by a histogram.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 16 Lecture 8

Change in Time

The second thing to observe about these graphs is that

there is a tendency, most obvious in the earlier Hanes2

data, for heights to decrease as you move to the right along

the graphs.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 17 Lecture 8

Change in Time

The second thing to observe about these graphs is that

there is a tendency, most obvious in the earlier Hanes2

data, for heights to decrease as you move to the right along

the graphs.

Does this tell us that over time people tend to shrink? Do

men and women tend to shrink by about 2 inches (on the

average) as they age from 18 to 74?

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 17-a Lecture 8

Change in Time

No. While some people do lose a little height as they age,

because of some bone compression, that is not what this

graph indicates. The Hanes studies are cross-sectional

studies. The information is gathered for all of the age

classes simultaneously. The people in the 18 24 age group

are completely dierent people from the people in the

65 74 age group. The people in the 18 24 group were

born much later than those in the 65 74 age group.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 18 Lecture 8

Change in Time

No. While some people do lose a little height as they age,

because of some bone compression, that is not what this

graph indicates. The Hanes studies are cross-sectional

studies. The information is gathered for all of the age

classes simultaneously. The people in the 18 24 age group

are completely dierent people from the people in the

65 74 age group. The people in the 18 24 group were

born much later than those in the 65 74 age group.

It has been observed that the average height of people in the

United States has actually been increasing with time. This

is called a secular trend. This trend explains the downturn

in the curve, not the physical shrinking of individuals.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 18-a Lecture 8

Combining Graphs

The secular trend can also be observed by combining the

graphs of the two studies. Here are the combined graphs for

Hanes2 and Hanes5 for heights and weights:

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 19 Lecture 8

Combining Graphs

The secular trend can also be observed by combining the

graphs of the two studies. Here are the combined graphs for

Hanes2 and Hanes5 for heights and weights:

You can see that, on the average, men and women in all age

groups are a bit taller (as much as an inch or two in some

classes) in the newer study than the older. On the other

hand, they are considerably heavier (as much as 20 30

pounds) in all categories.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 19-a Lecture 8

Longitudinal v.s. Cross-Sectional Data

While cross-sectional studies compare individuals in

dierent groups at one point in time, longitudinal studies

compare individuals with themselves at dierent times.

Both kinds of studies are common, and it is important to

understand which kind of study is being reported to

interpret the data. Keep this in mind when you read the

newspaper. Heres a bit from a New York Times article

about a study of hearing loss and dementia (February 11,

2013):

n u zo11 puper In TIe ArcIIves oI NeuroIogy, Dr. In und coIIeugues Iound u sLrong ussocIuLIon

beLween LIe Lwo. TIe reseurcIers Iooked uL 6q subjecLs, rungIng In uge uL LIe begInnIng oI LIe

sLudy Irom 6 Lo qo (wILI LIe mujorILy beLween 6o und 8o). TIe subjecLs were purL oI LIe

BuILImore ongILudInuI SLudy oI AgIng. None Iud cognILIve ImpuIrmenL uL LIe begInnIng oI LIe

sLudy, wIIcI IoIIowed subjecLs Ior 18 yeurs; some Iud IeurIng Ioss.

"Compured Lo IndIvIduuIs wILI normuI IeurIng, LIose IndIvIduuIs wILI u mIId, moderuLe, und

severe IeurIng Ioss, respecLIveIy, Iud u z-, - und -IoId Increused rIsk oI deveIopIng demenLIu

over LIe course oI LIe sLudy," Dr. In wroLe In un e-muII summurIzIng LIe resuILs. TIe worse LIe

IeurIng Ioss, LIe greuLer LIe rIsk oI deveIopIng demenLIu. TIe correIuLIon remuIned Lrue even

wIen uge, dIubeLes und IyperLensIon - oLIer condILIons ussocIuLed wILI demenLIu - were ruIed

ouL.

(What is the blacked out word?)

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 20 Lecture 8

Mathematical Tools

Points on a Graph

As we observed looking at the graphs of height averages in

the Hanes studies, a point on a graph shows a relationship

between two values.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 21 Lecture 8

Mathematical Tools

Points on a Graph

As we observed looking at the graphs of height averages in

the Hanes studies, a point on a graph shows a relationship

between two values.

Any pair of values can be represented by a point on a

graph. The rst value corresponds to the distance along the

horizontal axis; the second value corresponds to the

distance along the vertical axis.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 21-a Lecture 8

Mathematical Tools

Points on a Graph

As we observed looking at the graphs of height averages in

the Hanes studies, a point on a graph shows a relationship

between two values.

Any pair of values can be represented by a point on a

graph. The rst value corresponds to the distance along the

horizontal axis; the second value corresponds to the

distance along the vertical axis.

The axes intersect at the point (0, 0) (often called the

origin). Positive values on the horizontal axis increase to

the right, while negative values increase to the left. Positive

values on the vertical axis increase upward, while negative

values increase downward.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 21-b Lecture 8

Mathematical Tools

Points on a Graph

As we observed looking at the graphs of height averages in

the Hanes studies, a point on a graph shows a relationship

between two values.

Any pair of values can be represented by a point on a

graph. The rst value corresponds to the distance along the

horizontal axis; the second value corresponds to the

distance along the vertical axis.

The axes intersect at the point (0, 0) (often called the

origin). Positive values on the horizontal axis increase to

the right, while negative values increase to the left. Positive

values on the vertical axis increase upward, while negative

values increase downward.

The horizontal axis is commonly called the x-axis and the

rst coordinate of a point the x-coordinate; the vertical axis

is commonly called the y-axis and the second coordinate of

a point the y-coordinate.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 21-c Lecture 8

Mathematical Tools

Points on a Graph

As we observed looking at the graphs of height averages in

the Hanes studies, a point on a graph shows a relationship

between two values.

Any pair of values can be represented by a point on a

graph. The rst value corresponds to the distance along the

horizontal axis; the second value corresponds to the

distance along the vertical axis.

The axes intersect at the point (0, 0) (often called the

origin). Positive values on the horizontal axis increase to

the right, while negative values increase to the left. Positive

values on the vertical axis increase upward, while negative

values increase downward.

The horizontal axis is commonly called the x-axis and the

rst coordinate of a point the x-coordinate; the vertical axis

is commonly called the y-axis and the second coordinate of

a point the y-coordinate.

While I expect point plotting is familiar to most of you,

here are a few examples: (1, 5), (3, 4), (4, 1), (6, 4), (1, 3),

(5, 3), (3, 2), (3, 2), (1, 1), (4, 4), (2, 2), (4, 4).

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 21-d Lecture 8

Axes

(1, 5), (3, 4), (4, 1), (6, 4), (1, 3), (5, 3), (3, 2), (3, 2),

(1, 1), (4, 4), (2, 2), (4, 4)

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 22 Lecture 8

Observations

There are some easy observations.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 23 Lecture 8

Observations

There are some easy observations.

Points with two positive coordinates lie in the upper

right hand quadrant (I).

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 23-a Lecture 8

Observations

There are some easy observations.

Points with two positive coordinates lie in the upper

right hand quadrant (I).

Points with two negative coordinates lie in the lower left

hand quadrant (III).

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 23-b Lecture 8

Observations

There are some easy observations.

Points with two positive coordinates lie in the upper

right hand quadrant (I).

Points with two negative coordinates lie in the lower left

hand quadrant (III).

Points with rst coordinate negative & second positive

lie in the upper left quadrant (II), and points with rst

coordinate positive and second negative lie in the lower

right quadrant (IV).

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 23-c Lecture 8

Observations

There are some easy observations.

Points with two positive coordinates lie in the upper

right hand quadrant (I).

Points with two negative coordinates lie in the lower left

hand quadrant (III).

Points with rst coordinate negative & second positive

lie in the upper left quadrant (II), and points with rst

coordinate positive and second negative lie in the lower

right quadrant (IV).

Points with equal coordinates lie on the horizontal

rising diagonal line.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 23-e Lecture 8

Observations

There are some easy observations.

Points with two positive coordinates lie in the upper

right hand quadrant (I).

Points with two negative coordinates lie in the lower left

hand quadrant (III).

Points with rst coordinate negative & second positive

lie in the upper left quadrant (II), and points with rst

coordinate positive and second negative lie in the lower

right quadrant (IV).

Points with equal coordinates lie on the horizontal

rising diagonal line.

Points with second coordinate greater than the rst lie

above the horizontal rising diagonal; points with second

coordinate less than the rst lie below the horizontal

rising diagonal.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 23-f Lecture 8

Straight Lines

Straight lines are important and can be identied in several

ways.

If you identify any two points on a line, A and B, you can

describe how to get from A to B using only horizontal and

vertical steps. The amount you must move horizontally to

travel from A to B is called the run, and the amount you

must move vertically to travel from A to B is called the

rise. The ratio of the two is called the slope of the line, and

is identical for any two points on the line.

Slope = Rise/Run

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 24 Lecture 8

Straight Lines

Straight lines are important and can be identied in several

ways.

If you identify any two points on a line, A and B, you can

describe how to get from A to B using only horizontal and

vertical steps. The amount you must move horizontally to

travel from A to B is called the run, and the amount you

must move vertically to travel from A to B is called the

rise. The ratio of the two is called the slope of the line, and

is identical for any two points on the line.

Slope = Rise/Run

We often think of the slope as change in y divided by

change in x.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 24-a Lecture 8

Straight Lines

Straight lines are important and can be identied in several

ways.

If you identify any two points on a line, A and B, you can

describe how to get from A to B using only horizontal and

vertical steps. The amount you must move horizontally to

travel from A to B is called the run, and the amount you

must move vertically to travel from A to B is called the

rise. The ratio of the two is called the slope of the line, and

is identical for any two points on the line.

Slope = Rise/Run

We often think of the slope as change in y divided by

change in x.

Example: Suppose the line contains the points (1, 1) and

(3, 2). Then the run is equal to 3 1 = 2, and the rise is

2 1 = 1. Thus the slope is 1/2. Another point on the line

is (7, 4).

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 24-b Lecture 8

Observations

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 25 Lecture 8

Observations

If the slope is positive, the line rises as you move to

the right.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 25-a Lecture 8

Observations

If the slope is positive, the line rises as you move to

the right.

If the slope is negative, the line drops as you move to

the right.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 25-b Lecture 8

Observations

If the slope is positive, the line rises as you move to

the right.

If the slope is negative, the line drops as you move to

the right.

If the slope is zero, the line is horizontal; at as far as

the eye can see!

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 25-c Lecture 8

Observations

If the slope is positive, the line rises as you move to

the right.

If the slope is negative, the line drops as you move to

the right.

If the slope is zero, the line is horizontal; at as far as

the eye can see!

Units

If the horizontal and vertical axes have no units, or if they

have the same units, then the slope has no units. However,

if the axes have dierent units, the slope must have

corresponding units. For example, if the vertical axis is

measured in feet and the horizontal in seconds, then the

slope is measured in feet per second. Not surprisingly, the

units of slope are a rate.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 25-d Lecture 8

Intercept

The intercept of a line is the vertical coordinate of the point

on the line as it crosses the vertical axis.

Examples:

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 26 Lecture 8

Determining a Line

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 27 Lecture 8

Determining a Line

A line is determined by any two points.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 27-a Lecture 8

Determining a Line

A line is determined by any two points.

A line is determined by any one point and a slope.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 27-b Lecture 8

Determining a Line

A line is determined by any two points.

A line is determined by any one point and a slope.

A line is determined by a slope and an intercept.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 27-c Lecture 8

Algebraic Equation for a Line

Suppose that a line has slope 2 and intercept 7. The fact

that it has intercept 7 means that the point (0, 7) lies on

the line.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 28 Lecture 8

Algebraic Equation for a Line

Suppose that a line has slope 2 and intercept 7. The fact

that it has intercept 7 means that the point (0, 7) lies on

the line.

If (x, y) is any other point that lies on the line, then the

run traveling from (0, 7) to (x, y) is the change in

x-coordinates: run = x 0 = x. On the other hand, the

rise is the change in y-coordinates: rise = y 7.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 28-a Lecture 8

Algebraic Equation for a Line

Suppose that a line has slope 2 and intercept 7. The fact

that it has intercept 7 means that the point (0, 7) lies on

the line.

If (x, y) is any other point that lies on the line, then the

run traveling from (0, 7) to (x, y) is the change in

x-coordinates: run = x 0 = x. On the other hand, the

rise is the change in y-coordinates: rise = y 7.

Now, one the one hand the slope of our line is 2, but on the

other hand

slope =

rise

run

=

y 7

x

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 28-b Lecture 8

Algebraic Equation for a Line

Suppose that a line has slope 2 and intercept 7. The fact

that it has intercept 7 means that the point (0, 7) lies on

the line.

If (x, y) is any other point that lies on the line, then the

run traveling from (0, 7) to (x, y) is the change in

x-coordinates: run = x 0 = x. On the other hand, the

rise is the change in y-coordinates: rise = y 7.

Now, one the one hand the slope of our line is 2, but on the

other hand

slope =

rise

run

=

y 7

x

It follows that

y 7

x

= 2

y 7 = 2x

y = 2x + 7

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 28-c Lecture 8

Algebraic Equation for a Line

The reasoning just given works for any intercept and any

slope! We obtain a general equation. If (x, y) is any point

on a line that has slope m and intercept b, then

y = mx+b

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 29 Lecture 8

Algebraic Equation for a Line

The reasoning just given works for any intercept and any

slope! We obtain a general equation. If (x, y) is any point

on a line that has slope m and intercept b, then

y = mx+b

Examples:

Slope 2, Intercept 1.

Slope 3, Intercept 2.

Slope 1, Intercept 2.

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 29-a Lecture 8

Other Formulas for a Line

If you know the slope of a line m and any point on the line

(a, b) (not necessarily the intercept), you can reason as we

did for intercepts. The slope m must be the change in

y-coordinate (rise) over change in x-coordinate (run). Thus,

if (x, y) is any point on this line,

y b

x a

= m

y b = m(x a)

y = m(x a) + b.

(Note that such a line has intercept equal to b ma.)

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 30 Lecture 8

Other Formulas for a Line

If you feel ambitious, you can determine formulas for a line

in other situations. Try, for example, to nd the equation

for a line that passes through two points.

Try it rst for two given points, say, (1, 1) and (3, 2).

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 31 Lecture 8

Homework

Please read Chapters 6, 7, and 8 carefully

Homework

Week Date Assignment Chapter Page Set Problems

3 February 10, 2014 Reading 5

Problem Set #5 5 82 A 1

84 B 1, 4

88 C 1, 2

89 D 1, 2, 3, 4

92 E 1, 2

93 Review 1, 2, 3, 5, 6

3 February 12, 2014 Reading 6

Set #6 6 104 Review 1, 2, 3

105 Special Review 1, 5, 7, 8, 10

3 February 14, 2014 Reading 7

Set #7 7 111 A 1, 2, 3

112 B 2, 3,4, 5, 6

114 C 1

115 D 1, 2, 5

116 E 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

4 February 17, 2014 Reading 8

Set #8 8 122 A 1, 2

128 B 2, 3, 4, 6

131 C 1, 2, 3

134 D 1

134 Review 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9

Copyright c 2014 by Walter Carlip 32 Lecture 8

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