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ABIDE, ABODE(ABIDED), ABODE(ABIDED) Abode is used archaically in the sense of dwell, remain: A man whose name abode on Northumbrian

tongues. Abided is used in combination abide by (be true to) He abided by his promises. ARISE, AROSE ARISEN AWAKE, AWOKE(AWAKED), AWOKE(N)(AWAKED) The past tense awa edis obsolete. In the past participle awa e is not common, and awo en is now regarded as incorrect; compare what is said of wa e! BE, WAS"WERE, BEEN BEAR, BORE, BORN(E) Born is used in conection with birth. He was born in Rome. Borne is used in the other senses , and of birth when the subject of the verb has an object or is followed in the passive construction by the converted subject. He has always borne up well. She has borne him five children . BEAT, BEAT, BEATEN The past participle bea# is now considered incorrect: He wont be beat. But survives dead$bea#! BE%O&E, BE%A&E, BE%O&E BE'A((, BE'E((, BE'A((EN BE)IN, BE)AN, BE)*N BE+O(D, BE+E(D, BE+E(D Be,olden is found only functioning as a predicative adjective: I am much beholden to you for your help. The use of m-., as an intensive adverb is however a reminder of the verbal origin of the word. BEND, BENT, BENT Bended is used in the archaic phrase:!on bended nee/! BEREA0E, BERE'T, BERE'T(BEREA0ED) Bere1# is used of matters other than death: He was bereft of home and friends. He acred as if he was bereft of reason. The blow bereft him of consciousness. Berea2ed is often used of death, but only adjectivally: A bereaved mother The bereaved "ith the verbal function hre is some uncertainty: A mother bereft bereaved of her child

BESEE%+, BESO*)+T, BESO*)+T BES3EAK, BES3OKE, BES3OKEN(BES3OKE) Be/4o e is used in: !very room is bespo"e. but also found as the opposite of ready$made: be/4o e boo#/5 be/4o e 6ood/5 a be/4o e #ailor/ /,o4 BET, BET(BETTED), BET(BETTED) Be# is used when the /#a e is stated: He bet me five dollars I could not do it. How much has been bet on him# Be##ed is used otherwise: They betted a good deal in those days. BID, BID, BID #$ BID, BADE, BIDDEN(BID) T,e 1ir/# /e# of forms are used with the sense of ma e a bid: He bid up to ten pounds. Nothing was bid. T,e in1le.#ed 1orm is used otherwise: I bade him go.$he was bidden to go. Soldiers must do as they are bidden. The past participle bid is also used in the e%pression: do a/ oyo- are bid! BIND, BO*ND, BO*ND BITE, BIT, BITTEN(BIT) Bi# is only used in the e%pression #,e bi##er bi#! B(EED, B(ED, B(ED B(END, B(ENDED(B(ENT), B(ENDED(B(ENT) B(ESS, B(ESSED(B(EST), B(ESSED(B(EST) Ble//ed is used in it!s verbal function : He has blessed me with riches. $$it!s used as an adjective pronounced &blesid': the blessed innocence of children ble/# is used in the sense ,ea2enly or /a2ed: the mansions of blest I am blest if I "now. B(OW, B(EW, B(OWN(B(OWED) Blowed is used in slang with the meaning damned: %e blowed to them. BREED, BRED, BRED BRIN), BRO*)+T, BRO*)+T BROAD%AST,BROAD%ASTED(BROAD%AST),BROAD%AST (BROAD%ASTED) Broad.a/# illustrates a fact applying to many verbs with both regular and irregular past tense and past participle forms, i.e., that the supplanting of the irregular forms by the regular forms applies more in the past tense than in the past participle. B*I(D, B*I(T, B*I(T B*RN, (B*RNED)B*RNT, B*RNT B-rned is no longer used in the sense of lon6ed #o:

She burned to as" where the boy lived. In (merican )nglish this verb is usually regularly inflected. B*RST, B*RST, B*RST B*7, BO*)+T, BO*)+T %AST, %AST, %AST %AT%+, %A*)+T, %A*)+T %+IDE, %+ID(%+IDED), %+IDDEN(%+ID, %+IDED) $egular inflected forms of this verb are preferred in (m.). %+OOSE, %+OSE, %+OSEN %(EA0E*+ ,-.IT), %(EA0ED( %(O0E, %(E'T), %(EA0ED( %(O0EN, %(E'T) /ote the following e%pressions: .lo2en 1oo#",oo15 .le1# 4ala#e5 in a .le1# /#i. %(EA0E(+,TI01),%(EA0ED(%(A0E), %(EA0ED %(IN), %(*N), %(*N) %(OT+E, %(OT+ED(%(AD), %(OT+ED(%(AD) %lo#,ed is used in the sense of .o2er or 4ro2ide .lo#,/ She was fed and clothed at my e&pense. Hewclothed his thoughts in words. %lad is used as a mannered e%pressioninstead of dre//, i.e., of the appearance of the clothing: 4oorly .lad, li6,#ly .lad! In addition .lad occurs in many combinations, such as /now$.lad! %O&E, %A&E, %O&E %OST, %OST, %OST %ROW, %ROWED(%REW), %ROWED #f the .rowin6 o1 a .o. both past tense forms are used: The coc" crew$crowed. %rowed is used in other usages: He crowed over me. %*T, %*T, %*T DEA(, DEA(T, DEA(T DI), D*), D*) DO, DID, DONE DRAW, DREW, DRAWN DREA&, DREA&ED(DREA&T), DREA&T(DREA&ED) In addition to the circumstances mentioned at the beginning there is a distinction between dream# as the usual form and dreamed in formal usage: Dream# is used with the usual meaning: 'ou must have dreamt. Dreamed is used in the sense ima6ine, belie2e: He little dreamed that this was going to happen. DRINK, DRANK, DR*NK(DR*NKEN) Dr-n used adjectivally is predicate: He is drun". Dr-n en is used attributively: A drun"en man( his drun"en habits In the sense ,abi#-ally dr-n , however, dr-n en is also predicative:

He was drun"en and dissolute. DRI0E, DRO0E, DRI0EN DWE((, DWE(T, DWE(T EAT, ATE, EATEN A#e in Br.). is pronounced &et', rarely &eit'. In (m.). however, &eit' is the received pronunciation. 'A((, 'E((, 'A((EN 'EED, 'ED, 'ED 'EE(, 'E(T, 'E(T 'I)+T, 'O*)+T, 'O*)+T 'IND, 'O*ND, 'O*ND '(EE, '(ED, '(ED '(IN), '(*N), '(*N) '(7, '(EW, '(OWN 'ORBEAR, 'ORBORE, 'ORBORNE 'ORBID, 'ORBADE('ORBAD), 'ORBIDDEN 'ORE%AST, 'ORE%AST($ED), 'ORE%AST($ED) 'OR)ET, 'OR)OT, 'OR)OTTEN('OR)OT) 'or6o##en is preferred in Br.)., whereas in (m.) 1or6o# 'OR)I0E, 'OR)A0E, 'OR)I0EN 'ORSAKE, 'ORSOOK, 'ORSAKEN 'REE8E, 'RO8E, 'RO8EN )ET, )OT, )OT()OTTEN) )o##en is normal in (2)$I0(/ )nglish; it e%sts in Britis )nglish only in the e%pression: ill$6o##en 6ain/ )I(D, )I(DED, )I(DED ( )I(T) )I(DED is used in its verbal function: I had my silver nec"lace gilded. (s attributive adjectives, the past participle forms are used as follows: )il#(li#eraly): 6il# ed6e/ 5a boo wi#, a 6il# #o4 )ilded(metaphorically and formally): 6ilded /4-r/, #,e 6ilded /-mmi# o1 #,e mo-n#ain )IRD, )IRDE()IRT), )IRDED()IRT) )ir# is now found only in formal )nglish. Silence girt the woods 0ompare an i/land 6irded by #,e /ea and a /ea$6ir# i/le )I0E, )A0E, )I0EN )O, WENT, )ONE )RIND, )RO*ND, )RO*ND )ROW, )REW, )ROWN +AN), +*N)(+AN)ED), +*N)(+AN)ED) +an6ed is only used with reference to e9e.-#ion: He was hanged for murder. But also in the e%pression: Ill be hanged if I "now. +A0E, +AD, +AD

+EAR, +EARD, +EARD +EA0E, +EA0ED(+O0E), +EA0ED(+O0E) +o2e is found only in nautical language: A ship hove in sight. #therwise the regular forms are used: She heaved a sigh. +EW, +EWED, +EWN(+EWED) +IDE, +ID, +IDDEN(+ID) +idden is used adjectivally: a ,idden #rea/-re In the verbal function ,idden is the normal form ,id as past participle is boo3ish. +IT, +IT, +IT +O(D, +E(D, +E(D +*RT, +*RT, +*RT KEE3, KE3T,KE3T KNEE(, KNE(T(KNEE(ED), KNE(T(KNEE(ED) The irregular form is still more commonly used than the regular form. KNIT, KNITTED(KNIT), KNITTED(KNIT) Kni##ed is used in the literal sense: She "nitted a pair of soc"s. Kni# is used metaphorically: They are closely "nit in friendship. A well)"nit frame A closely "nit argument KNOW, KNEW, KNOWN (ADE, (ADED, (ADEN (A7, (AID, (AID (EAD, (ED, (ED (EAN, (EANED((EANT), (EANED((EANT) (EA3, (EA3ED((EA3T), (EA3ED((EA3T) (EARN, (EARNED((EARNT), (EARNT((EARNED) No#e that in the adjective learned! the ending is pronounced &id': He is a learned person. (EA0E, (E'T, (E'T (END, (ENT, (ENT (ET,(ET, (ET (IE, (A7, (AIN (I)+T, &(IT((I)+TED), (IT((I)+TED) In literal sense the regular and irregular forms are both common: He has lit$lighted a cigar. (i6,#ed is used as an attributive adjective: A lighted cigar. (i# is used metaphorically: Her eyes lit up. .i3ewise in many combinations: /#ar$li#, 1lood$li#(but also 1lood$li6,#ed) (I)+T(/e##le) also has two forms: The snow fla"e lit$lighted on my hand.

(OSE, (OST, (OST &AKE, &ADE, &ADE &EAN, &EANT, &EANT &EET, &ET, &ET &E(T, &E(TED, &E(TED(&O(TEN) &ol#en is used only as an attributive adjective, and only of high melting points: mol#en /#eel, mol#en 6old, mol#en la2a( and even in such cases mel#ed also occurs). But only mel#ed b-##er! &OW, &OWED, &OWN(&OWED) &own is used as an attributive adjective: mown 6ra// 4erbally both forms are common: The lawn was mown$mowed yesterday. O0ER%O&E, O0ER%A&E, O0ER%A&E 3A7, 3AID, 3AID 3*T, 3*T, 3*T :*IT, :*ITTED(:*IT), :*ITTED(:*IT) READ, READ, READ REND, RENT, RENT RID, RID(RIDDED), RID RIDE, RODE, RIDDEN RIN), RAN), R*N) RISE, ROSE, RISEN RI0E, RI0ED, RI0EN(RI0ED) R*N, RAN, R*N SAW, SEW, SAWN(SAWED) Sawn is used as an attributive adjective: /awn wood In the verbal function /awn is more often used than /awed: wood #o be /awn"/awed SA7, SAID, SAID SEE, SAW, SEEN SEEK, SO*)+T, SO*)+T SE((, SO(D, SO(D SEND, SENT, SENT SET, SET, SET SEW, SEWED, SEWN(SEWED) Sewn is used adjectivally: ,and/ewn 5sed verbally, the regular and irregular forms are interchangeable: She has sewed$sewn the button on. S+AKE, S+OOK, S+AKEN S+A0E, S+A0ED, S+A0ED(S+A0EN) S,a2en is used adjectivally: He is well shaven. S+EAR, S+EARED(S+ORE), S+ORN(S+ARED) S,ore is obsolete. S,orn is used adjectivally: A shorn lamb In its verbal function both forms of the past participle are found:

*e have shorn$shared the sheep. S+ED, S+ED, S+ED S+INE, S+ONE, S+ONE S+OE, S+OD, S+OD S+OOT, S+OT, S+OT S+OW, S+OWED, S+OWN(S+OWED) S,own is the usual past participle. S,owed *past participle) is rare when followed by its objects and non6e%istent in the passive. S+RED, S+REDDED(S+RED), S+REDDED(S+RED) S+RINK, S+RANK, S+R*NK(S+R*NKEN) S,r-n en is used only adjectivally: Shrun"en limbs S+RI0E, S+RO0E(S+RI0ED), S+RI0EN(S+RI0ED) S+*T, S+*T, S+*T SIN), SAN), S*N) SINK, SANK, S*NK(S*NKEN) S-n en is generally used as the attributive adjective: /-n en$eye/".,ee / But it does occur predicatively: His chee"s were sun"en. S-n en has no passive value, this being e%pressed by /-n : Sun" ships *ships that have been sun3en) Sun"en ships *ships that have sun3) SIT, SAT, SAT S(A7, S(EW, S(AIN S(EE3, S(E3T, S(E3T S(IDE, S(ID, S(ID S(IN), S(*N), S(*N) S(INK, S(*NK, S(*NK S(IT, S(IT, S(IT S&E((, S&E(T(S&E((ED), S&E(T(S&E((ED) SOW, SOWED, SOWN(SOWED) Sown is used adjectivally: The sown seed In the verbal function the past participle has both forms: He has sown$sowed the fieled with wheat. S3EEK, S3OKE, S3OKEN S3EED, S3ED(S3EEDED), S3ED(S3EEDED) Both are used for ra4id mo2emen#: The car sped$speeded along the road. In the special sense in.rea/e in #,e /4eed o1 only the regular inflected forms are used: Hespeeded up. He speeded the wor". S3E((, S3E(T(S3E((ED), S3E(T(S3E((ED) S3END, S3ENT, S3ENT S3I((, S3I(T(S3I((ED), S3I(T(S3I((ED)

S4il# is used adjectivally in: #o .ry o2er #,e /4il# mil ! S3IN, S3*N, S3*N S3IT, S3AT(S3IT), S3AT(S3IT) S3(IT, S3(IT, S3(IT S3OI(, S3OI(ED(S3OI(T), S3OI(T(S3OI(ED) S4oiled is used in the sense 4l-nder, rob: They spoiled the town. In the other sense the verb has both forms: She spoiled$spoilt the child. The frruits spoiled$spoilt in the hot weather. S3READ, S3READ, S3READ S3RIN), S3RAN), S3R*N) STAND, STOOD, STOOD STI%K, ST*%K, ST*%K STINK, ST*NK, ST*NK STREW, STREWD, STREWN(STREWED) SRIDE, STRODE, STRIDDEN STRIKE, STR*%K, STR*%K(STRI%KEN) STRI%KEN is used only adjectivally: 'e2er$/#ri. en5 4o2er#y$/#ri. en5 /orrow$/#ri. en5 ,orror$/#ri. e /ote also #,-nder$/#r-. STRIN), STR*N), STR*N) STRI0E, STRO0E, STRI0EN SWEAR, SWORE, SWORN SWEAT, SWEATED(SWEAT), SWEATED(SWEAT) SWEE3, SWE3T, SWE3T SWE((, SWE((ED, SWO((EN(SWE((ED) In the verbal function /wollen is more common than /welled! Swollen is the usual adjectival form: a /wollen ri2er /ote the difference between a /wollen ,ead(wi#, #,e li#eral 2al-e), and (a /welled ,ead (o1 .on.ei#) SWI&, SWA&, SW*& SWIN), SW*N), SW*N) TAKE, TOOK, TAKEN TEA%+, TA*)+T, TA*)+T TEAR, TORE, TORN TE((, TO(D, TO(D T+INK, T+O)+T, T+O)+T T+RI0E, T+RO0E(T+RI0ED), T+RI0EN(T+RI0ED) T+ROW, T+REW, T+ROWN T+R*ST, T+R*ST, T+R*ST WAKE, WOKE, WOKEN WEAR, WORE, WORN WEA0E, WO0E, WO0EN WED, WEDDED(WED), WEDDED(WED) In Br.). , the irregular form can be found particularly in formal language.

WEE3, WE3T, WE3T WIN, WON, WON WIND, WO*ND, WO*ND In the sense of /o-nd wind is regularly inflected. He winded$wound the bugle. WIT+DRAW WIT+DREW, WIT+DRAWN WIT++O(D, WIT++E(D, WIT++E(D WIT+STAND, WIT+STOOD, WIT+STOOD WORK, WORKED(WRO*)+T), WORKED(WRO*)+T) Wro-6,# is found in certain e%pressions: He wrought destruction. *rought)up nerves *rought iron WRIN), WR*N), WR*N) WRITE, WROTE, WRITTEN

;!<!<=!TRO*B(ESO&E 0ERBS
(IE, (IED, (IED *lai, laid, laid)6a minti (IE, (A7, (AIN (lai, lei, lein)6 a fi culcat, a fi intins, a 7acea (A7, (AID, (AID (lei, leid, leid)6 a pune jos, a culca, a ase7a ARISE, AROSE, ARISEN$ a se ridica, a se ivi + many difficulties arose RISE, ROSE,RISEN$ a se scula, a se ridica, a rasari, a i7vora RAISE, RAISED, RAISED$ a ridica, a destepta, a creste AR*OSE, ARO*SED, ARO*SED6 a tre7i, a destepta, a starni BAT+, BAT+ED, BAT+ED$a imbaia, a face baie BAT+E, BAT+ED, BAT+ED$ a *se) scalda 'IND, 'O*ND, 'O*ND( faind, faund, faund)6 a gasi, a procura, a afla 'O*ND, 'O*NDED, 'O*NDED( faund, faundid, faundid)6 a funda, a intemeia (EA0E, (E'T, (E'T(li:v, left, left)6 a lasa, a abandona, a pleca (I0E, (I0ED, (I0ED(liv, livd, livd)6 a trai, a locui, a sta (ET, (ET, (ET$ a permite, a ingadui, a inchiria (OSE, (OST, (OST*lu:7)6 a pierde, a6I scapa, a suferi pierderi (OOSE, (OOSED, (OOSED(lu:s)6 a de7lega, a detasa, a slabi *din stransoare) SIT, SAT, SAT(sit)6 a sedea, a se ase7a SEAT, SEATED, SEATED(si:t)6 a ase7a, a amplasa, a avea locuri *sala de spectacol) SET, SET, SET6 a pune, a ase7a, * o carte in raft), a potrivi, a monta

'A((, 'E((, 'A((EN$ a cadea, a se clasifica, a scadea *preturile) 'E((, 'E((ED, 'E((ED$ a tranti la pamant, a dobora prin taiere '(7, '(EW, '(OWN$ a 7bura, a pilota, a transporta cu avionul '(OW, '(OWED, '(OWED$ a curge, a *se) scurge, a decurge *din) '(EE, '(ED, '(ED$ a fugi, a scapa cu fuga *de), a parasi 'EE(, 'E(T, 'E(T$ a simti, a pipai, a presimti, a tatona 'I((, 'I((ED, 'I((ED6 a umple, a satura, a plomba*un dinte) STRIKE, STR*%K, STR*%K(STRI%KEN) *strai3)6 a lovi, a i7bi, a bate*ceasul) STROKE, STROKED, STRO%KED(stou3)6 a de7mierda, a dirija *pe vaslasi)