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SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR COMPLETION OF DEGREE
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY(MECHANICAL ENGINEERING)
SHRI RAM MURTI SMARAK COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (BAREILLY)
SUBMITTED BY: MOHIT SAXENA Roll No-0801440030 Batch-2008-2012 SUBMITTED TO : Er. SHAILENDRA DEVA (Head of Department-ME) Branch-Mechanical Engg.
This is hereby declare that the project work entitled “PROCESS OF SUGAR MANUFACTURING ” submitted by Mohit Saxena to LALIT HARI SUGAR FACTORY PILIBHIT (U.P.) for the award of the INDUSTRIAL TRAINING is a genuine record of the work carried out by them during the period of 15 JUNE, 2011 to 15 JULY, 2011. It is further certified that this project has been developed by Mohit Saxena , in original and has been the result of their personal efforts with little assistance wherever required.
Mr…………………… Project Incharge LALIT HARI SUGAR FACTORY PILIBHIT (U.P.)
A very special thanks to Mr. …………………..Training incharge (LHSF PILIBHIT) for providing us with the opportunity to avail the excellent facilities and infrastructure in terms of the faculty, the computer lab, the library, and last but not the least, the ambience which served as the turning point of my career.
We are also grateful to the college for providing us with the opportunity to work with them and undertake a project of such importance.
MOHIT SAXENA B.Tech. (VII SEMESTER) S.R.M.S.C.E.T., Bareilly
) is an authentic record of the work carried out by us during the period of 16/06/2011 to 15/07/2011 and that. It contains no material previously published or written by another person nor material which to a substantial extent has been accepted for the aware of any other degree or diploma of the university or other institute of higher learning except where the acknowledgement has been made in the text.P. to the best of our knowledge and belief. .DECLARATION We hereby declare that this submission is our own work which is being presented in the project work entitled “STUDY OF SUGAR MANUFACTURING“ in partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of the degree INDUSTRIAL TRAINING at LALIT HARI SUGAR FACTORY PILIBHIT (U.
H.sugar factory‟s profile Sugar manufacturing Process chart The Energy Aspects Millhouse Boilerhouse Powerhouse Clarification and boiling house: Boiling and curing house Cogeneration power Molasses Challenges for sugar industry Conclusions and suggestions .MOHIT SAXENA CONTENTS OF THE REPORT: Abstract L.
lower sugar recovery. Sugar industry covers around 7. It needs quality management at all levels of activity to enhance productivity and production. second largest agro-based processing industry afte the cotton textiles industry in country. lower sugarcane yield. understand it's problems and challenges in context of ongoing liberalization process. Attention is required on cost minimization and undertaking by product processing activities. Sugar mills (cooperative.A STRONG INDUSTRIAL BASE FOR RURAL INDIA ABSTRACT Indian sugar industry.5% of total rural population and provides employment to 5 lakh rural people. has a lion's share in accelerating industrialization process and bringing socio-economic changes in under developed rural areas.5 crore farmers are engaged in sugarcane cultivation in Inda. About 4. ever increasing production costs and mounting losses. Present paper is an attempt as to review progress of sugar industry in India. private. and public) have been instrumental in initiating a number of entrepreneurial activities in rural India. Indian sugar industry can be a global leader provided it comes out of the vicious cycle of shortage and surplus of sugarcane. MOHIT SAXENA .INDIAN SUGAR INDUSTRY .
The factory started its crushing operation in the year 1910.P.SUGAR FACTORY’S PROFILE L. The licensed crushing capacity of the plant was 300 TPD. Sugar Factories Ltd. 5500 TPD in 2001-02.H. 650 TPD. 8000 TPD in 2005-06. 6000 TPD in 2002-03. 10000 TPD in 2006-07 and now the capacity of the plant is 11000 TPD 49522 .). 7200 TPD in 2004-05.H.L.5 km. Nearest Railway Station is Pilibhit at the distance of 0. 3500 TPD in 1986-87. is located near Tanakpur Road in Pilibhit (U. In 1928‟ 1300 TPD in 1932-33.
is: Cane Crushing Capacity Process Used Steam Generation Total Power Generation(installed) Normal Power Generation Avg.Some important data related to L.000 TPD : Double Sulphitation : 245 Tonnes/Hour : 46 MWH : 40 MWH : 25 MWH : 15 MWH .S.H.F. Exported Power Plant Consumption : 10.
It was the major expansion of the Arab peoples in the seventh century AD that led to a breaking of the secret. Sugar Production Avg. In the 15th century AD. When they invaded Persia in 642 AD they found sugar cane being grown and learnt how sugar was made. as with many other of man's discoveries. European sugar was refined in Venice. it was difficult to transport sugar as a food grade product. The secret of cane sugar. The subsequent centuries saw a major expansion of western European trade with the East. Crusaders returning home talked of this "new spice" and how pleasant it was. including the importation of sugar. The first sugar was recorded in England in 1099. the "New World". for instance. confirmation that even then when quantities were small. In the same century. Sugar was only discovered by western Europeans as a result of the Crusades in the 11th Century AD. It is recorded. Avg. As their expansion continued they established sugar production in other lands that they conquered including North Africa and Spain. This equates to about US$100 per kilo at today's prices so it was very much a luxury. Molasses production Avg. Columbus sailed to the Americas. was kept a closely guarded secret whilst the finished product was exported for a rich profit. In 510 BC the Emperor Darius of what was then Persia invaded India where he found "the reed which gives honey without bees". Press Mud Prodution : 9000 Quintals/Day : 4000 Quintals/Day : 3500 Quintals/Day SUGAR MANUFACTURING The History It is thought that cane sugar was first used by man in Polynesia from where it spread to India. It is recorded that in 1493 he took sugar cane . that sugar was available in London at "two shillings a pound" in 1319 AD.
No doubt the vested interests in the cane sugar plantations made sure that it stayed as no more than a curiosity. a situation that prevailed until the Napoleonic wars at the start of the 19th century when Britain blockaded sugar imports to continental Europe. sugar tax in 1781 totalled £326. abolished the tax and brought sugar prices within the means of the ordinary citizen. At this stage sugar was still a luxury and vast profits were made to the extent that sugar was called "white gold". By 1880 sugar beet had replaced sugar cane as the main source of sugar on continental Europe.000. By 1750 there were 120 sugar refineries operating in Britain. This situation was to stay until 1874 when the British government. In Britain for instance. This latter activity is a form of overseas aid which is also practised by the USA. The climate there was so advantageous for the growth of the cane that an industry was quickly established. under Prime Minister Gladstone. Their combined output was only 30. Those same vested interests probably delayed the introduction of beet sugar to England until the First World War when Britain's sugar imports were threatened.000. An interactive World Map of Sugar production . One of the most important examples of governmental actions is within the European Union where sugar prices are so heavily subsidised that over 5 million tons of white beet sugar have to be exported annually and yet a million tons of raw cane sugar are imported from former colonies.000 tons per annum. Governments recognised the vast profits to be made from sugar and taxed it highly.plants to grow in the Caribbean. The EU's over-production and subsequent dumping has now been subjected to GATT requirements which should see a substantial cut-back in production over the next few years. Sugar beet was first identified as a source of sugar in 1747.000. a figure that had grown by 1815 to £3.
a root crop resembling a large parsnip grown mostly in the temperate zones of the north. rather like animals make fat. The plant takes in carbon dioxide from the air though pores in its leaves and absorbs water through its roots. gives the plants' leaves their green colour. The simplest of the sugars is glucose. People like sugar for its sweetness and its energy so some of these plants are grown commercially to extract the sugar: Sugar is produced in 121 Countries and global production now exceeds 120 Million tons a year. Chlorophyll is green which allows it to absorb the sun's energy more readily and which. C12H22O11. Sucrose. one of the family of sugars otherwise known as saccharides in the grouping called carbohydrates. a very tall grass with big stems which is largely grown in the tropical countries. C6H12O6.Introduction Sugar is made by some plants to store energy that they don't need straight away. . What we call sugar. contain carbon and hydrogen plus oxygen in the same ratio as in water. The saccharides is a large family with the general formula CnH2nOn. the chemist knows as 'sucrose'. Approximately 70% is produced from sugar cane. The process whereby plants make sugars is photosynthesis. The reaction of photosynthesis can be written as the following chemical equation when sucrose is being made: 12 CO2 + 11 H2 O = C12 H22 O11 + 12 O2 carbon dioxide + water = sucrose + oxygen This shows that oxygen is given off during the process of photosynthesis. a condensation molecule made up of two glucose molecules [less a water molecule to make the chemistry work]. is a disaccharide. of course. These are combined to make sugar using energy from the sun and with the help of a substance called chlorophyll. Carbohydrates. as the name implies. The remaining 30% is produced from sugar beet. although its physical chemistry is not that simple because it occurs in two distinct forms which affect some of its properties.
particularly in Europe where cane could not be grown. Beet sugar is easier to purify and most is grown where it is needed so white sugar is made in only one stage. The history of man and sugar is a subject in its own right but suffice to say that. it isn't easy to ship food quality sugar across the world so a high proportion of cane sugar is made in two stages. This resulted in it being considered a great luxury. even today. PROCESS CHART .Historically. sugar was only produced from sugar cane and then only in relatively small quantities. Raw sugar is made where the sugar cane grows and white sugar is made from the raw sugar in the country where it is needed.
sinense. Some varieties grow up to 5 metres tall. there are many cultivars available to the cane farmer. It produces sugar during the first year of growth in order to see it over the winter and then flowers and seeds in the second year. The beet stores the sucrose in the bulbous root which bears a strong resemblance to a fat parsnip.SugarCane Sugar cane is a genus of tropical grasses which requires strong sunlight and abundant water for satisfactory growth. usually hybrids of several species. S. It is therefore sown in spring and harvested in the first autumn/early winter. SugarBeet Sugar beet is a temperate climate biennial root crop. when cut. barberi and S. As for sugar cane. A typical sugar content for mature cane would be 10% by weight but the figure depends on the variety and varies from season to season and location to location. A typical sugar content for mature beets is 17% by weight but the value depends on the variety and it does vary from year to year and location to location. there are many cultivars available to the beet farmer. This is substantially more than the sucrose content of mature cane but the yields of beet per hectare are much lower than for cane so that the expected sugar production is only about 7 tons per hectare. Equally. The Latin names of the species include Saccharum officinarum. spontaneum. will re-grow in another 12 months provided the roots are undisturbed. In the right climate the cane will grow in 12 months and. . S. As with most commercial crops. the yield of cane from the field varies considerably but a rough and ready overall value to use in estimating sugar production is 100 tons of cane per hectare or 10 tons of sugar per hectare. The cane itself looks rather like bamboo cane and it is here that the sucrose is stored.
5 million tons Extraction .U.7 million tons 5.5 million tons 19 million Per Capita Consumption: 45 kg BRAZIL Exports: Production: Population: 6 million tons 14. Exports: 5.The World of Sugar Production : Mid 1990's AUSTRALIA Exports: Production: Population: 4.5 million tons 167 million Per Capita Consumption: 48 kg E.
called bagasse. Where possible the cane is fired before harvesting to remove the dead leaf material and some of the waxy coating. the drier is the residual fibre and hence the less sugar remaining in the fibre. The more accurately that the mills are set [adjusted]. The fire burns at quite high temperatures but is over very quickly so that the cane and its sugar .certainly up to 3 metres/10 feet tall . will contain 1 to 2% sugar. about 50% moisture and some of the sand and grit from the field as "ash". cane is processed within 24 hours of cutting. The more water that is used. whether deliberately or not. The extraction is actually conducted as a counter-current process using fresh hot water at one end being pumped in the opposite direction to the cane. Typically. the efficiency of extraction and therefore ultimately the profitability of operations: The manager needs to process the cane as soon as possible if sugar losses are to be avoided yet needs to have a sufficient supply in storage for times when cutting and transport are stopped. However shredding requires extra energy and more equipment.There are several important aspects to extraction which involve the energy balance of the factory. This is achieved with rotating knives and sometimes hammer mills called "shredders". the more sugar is extracted but the more dilute the mixed juice is and hence the more energy that is required to evaporate the juice. A typical cane might contain 12 to 14% fibre which. Cane preparation is critical to good sugar extraction. at 50% moisture content gives about 25 to 30 tons of bagasse per 100 tons of cane or 10 tons of sugar.and still has some green leaves when ripe although most leaves have dried off by then. Harvesting Cane grows very tall in good growing regions . particularly with diffusion extraction. A typical mixed juice from extraction will contain perhaps 15% sugar and the residual fibre.
Hand cut cane -. Machines can only be used where land conditions are suitable and the topography is relatively flat. In addition the capital cost of machines and the loss of jobs caused makes this solution unsuitable for many sugar estates.is cut at about ground level. the top green leaves are cropped off and then the stalk is bundled whole. Most machine-cut cane is chopped into short lengths but is otherwise handled in a similar way as hand cut cane. Harvesting is done either by hand or by machine.cane cutting is a hard and dirty job but can employ lots of people in areas where jobs are scarce -. However there is no environmental impact. the CO2 released being a very small proportion of the CO2 fixed with photosynthesis during growth and the improved sugar extraction meaning that less cane needs to be grown on fewer acres to satisfy the world's sugar demand. Evaporation . In some areas burning is not permitted because of the nuisance value to local communities of the smoke and carbon specs that are released. Once a complete bundle has been assembled it is removed from the field with a light cart and may then be transferred to a larger vehicle for transport to the mill.content are not harmed.
The greater the number of effects. the less steam is required to drive the first effect. is close to 80% sugar content. calcium hydroxide or Ca(OH)2. Each subsequent effect is heated by the vapour from the previous effect so has to be operated at a lower temperature and therefore lower pressure.The mixed juice from extraction is preheated prior to liming so that the clarification is optimal. Evaporation in a steam heated multiple effect evaporator is the best way of approaching the saturated condition because low pressure water vapours can be produced for heating duties elsewhere in the factory. is metered into the juice to hold the required ratio and the limed juice enters a gravitational settling tank: a clarifier. The milk of lime. The clear juice has probably only 15% sugar content but saturated sugar liquor. The juice travels through the clarifier at a very low superficial velocity so that the solids settle out and clear juice exits. The evaporator sets the steam consumption of the factory and is designed to match the energy balance of the entire site: the manager wants to avoid burning auxiliary fuel and equally wants to avoid paying to dispose of surplus bagasse. The juice and the sweet water are returned to process. required before crystallisation can occur. producing a sweet water . . The mud from the clarifier still contains valuable sugar so it is filtered on rotary vacuum filters where the residual juice is extracted and the mud can be washed before discharge.
called the "massecuite". Each subsequent step therefore becomes more difficult until one reaches a point where it is no longer viable to continue. However non-sugars inhibit the crystallisation. A typical cycle might be 4 hours long. Thus. [In practice the heating is done with a low pressure water vapour from the evaporator. This .] Some modern pans are continuous flow devices but most are batch devices which go through a discrete cycle and are then emptied for a new boiling. rejecting the non-sugars. is dropped into a receiving tank called a crystalliser where it is cooled down and the crystals continue to grow. This is particularly true of other sugars such as glucose and fructose which are the breakdown products of sucrose. The mixture of crystals and mother liquor from a boiling. The crystallisation step itself . Most remaining non-sugar in the product is contained in the coating of mother liquor left on the crystals The mother liquor still contains valuable sugar of course so the crystallisation is repeated several times.Boiling Physical chemistry assists with sugar purification during the crystallisation process because there is a natural tendency for the sugar crystals to form as pure sucrose. when the sugar crystals are grown in the mother liquor they tend to be pure and the mother liquor becomes more impure.a "boiling" .takes place in a vacuum pan: a large closed kettle with steam heated pipes.
F. others use the crystals as seed for the A boilings and others mix the B sugar with the A sugar for sale. From the crystalliser the massecuite is fed to the centrifuges. Some factories re-melt the B sugar to provide part of the A boiling feedstock. In a raw sugar factory it is normal to conduct three boilings. The sugar is usually used as seed for B boilings and the rest is re-melted. The "B" boiling takes longer and the retention time in the crystalliser is also longer if a reasonable crystal size is to be achieved.H.also releases the pan for a new boiling. The first or "A" boiling produces the best sugar which is sent to store. Various boilers which are used here in L. are: THERMAX BOILER CAPACITY WORK PRESSURE STEAM TEMRERATURE HEATING SURFACE INSTALLATION YEAR : : : : : 45 TPH 21 Kg/cm square 340 deg C 2204 m square 1991 LIPI BOILER CAPACITY WORK PRESSURE STEAM TEMRERATURE HEATING SURFACE INSTALLATION YEAR : : : : : 20 TPH 21 Kg/cm square 345 deg C 1026 m square 1998 WIL BOILER CAPACITY WORK PRESSURE STEAM TEMRERATURE HEATING SURFACE INSTALLATION YEAR : : : : : 45 TPH 45 Kg/cm square 445 deg C 2106 m square 2001 . The "C" boiling takes proportionally longer than the B boiling and considerably longer to crystallise.S.
. The factory designer attempts to balance the site such that bagasse is neither left over nor insufficient: any secondary fuel costs money and a large surplus of bagasse may cost money to dispose. more and more factories are considering power export as another by-product of sugar production. Factories are frequently in very undeveloped places and have no connection to an external power supply. Balancing is done by selecting the right mix of turbine and electric drives for major equipment and selecting the pressure of the steam to give the efficiency required. In many cases this does not recognise the full energy value of the bagasse and is therefore wasteful in an overall sense. Wives soon tell their husbands what happened to dinner when their spouses lost power! Sucrose extraction from beets is easier than with cane for several reasons of which keeping quality and diffusion characteristics are the two most important. Today.SISTON BOILER CAPACITY WORK PRESSURE STEAM TEMRERATURE HEATING SURFACE INSTALLATION YEAR : 120 TPH : 67 Kg/cm square : 525 deg C : 5359 m square : 2007 The Energy Aspects The steam is raised in bagasse fired boilers which usually have a secondary fuel to accommodate imbalances in bagasse supply and steam or power demand. To do this they are improving the efficiency of their thermodynamic cycles and converting equipment drives to optimise power output. This requires special techniques to start the factory and means that any breakdown in the power house impacts on the entire neighbourhood.
The dried pulp is then extruded into pellets . A typical raw juice from diffusion will contain perhaps 14% sugar and the residual pulp will contain 1 to 2% and a total of 8 to 12% solids. look somewhat like "potato sticks". The slicing is therefore done with sharp knives which cut a V section slice of 4 to 5 mm thickness. discharges from the end of the tube. The beets need protection from frost and from overheating in the piles but as a biennial plant it expects to survive over winter in order to come to life in spring and grow to seed. This results in a high purity juice without a lot of the cell material and other non-sugars found in cane juice. at around 70% moisture content. Pressing The spent slices are de-sweetened in large screw presses where a variable pitch screw pushes the pulp at ever increasing pressure through a perforated. The juice flows away and the pressed pulp. Typically 2 tons of pressed pulp and 0. this can be a much longer time with large ventilated piles kept at the factory to avoid process disruptions caused by an inability to harvest or transport the crop. it is important to avoid rupturing the cells of the beet because the sucrose is readily diffused out of whole cells and extraction can therefore be achieved preferentially. The slices.4 tons of molasses are dried to make 1 ton of dried pulp at 10% moisture content. It is generally harvested or stored on the farm and delivered to the factory up to 48 hours before harvesting.Stored correctly. Unlike cane extraction. however. usually conical tube. beet will keep for several weeks after harvesting without substantial loss of sucrose content. known as cossets in some parts of the world. In countries with very cold winters. Molasses is often added to the pressed pulp before drying in order to provide a higher sugar content animal feed.
some 1 to 3% of CaO on beet is used. As the layer of floc builds up in a leaf filter it increase the pressure drop across the system until the filter is effectively choked and taken off line for cleaning. The lime mud that is collected from either method is still wet with sugar liquor so it is de-sweetened by slurrying with water . The . The efficiency of the factory depends substantially on the use of multiple effect evaporation. the pH and temperature of the reaction are carefully controlled. The filtration is undertaken with rotary leaf filters where the liquor is pumped from the outside of the leaf to the middle where the clear liquor is collected or in a clarifier where settling occurs. as with the raw cane sugar factory. It is even more important for the beet factory because there is no surplus fibre available to porvide fuel for the power house. The clarifier is run continuously however.the resultant sweet water is used elsewhere in the process . Generally driers are large rotating drums with air at 600 to 900 °C used to drive the water out of the pulp. The mud is then dumped or used as lime on fields.to increase the density of the product and make it easier to store and handle. The drying process is energy intensive. using about 1/3 of the total factory fuel consumption. which is obtained from the manufacture of the lime in the first place. Beet factories use much more lime than cane factories. The gas. Ca(OH)2] to the liquor and bubbling carbon dioxide through the mixture. Carbonatation Carbonatation is achieved by adding milk of lime [calcium hydroxide. To obtain a stable floc. reacts with the lime to form fine crystalline particles of calcium carbonate which occlude the solids. Some new driers use steam so that the water driven off can be used as heat in the sugar manufacturing process.and re-filtering it to a mud with 50% or less moisture.
In a typical refinery with say 3 streams of liquor. the less steam is required to drive the first effect. Because of limitations in distributing the liquor across the width of large columns it is quite normal to split the total liquor flow into three or more parallel streams. . The first column of the pair has been in use for some time while the second column is fresher. Decolourisation Granular activated carbon is the modern equivalent of "bone char". each of which passes through a pair of columns. the second column becomes the first column and a column with fresh carbon becomes the second column. that column is switched out of line. In is not unusual to see 6 and sometimes 7 effects in a beet factory although many cane factories only have 3 or 4 effects. a carbon granule made from animal bones. is pumped through 2 columns in series.greater the number of effects. a column will come off line every three days so any one column has a life of 18 days of which 9 are hard working in the first column position. Today's carbon is made by specially processing mineral carbon to give a granule which is highly active but also very robust: it can withstand the mechanical abrasion that results from transporting it around the plant. Each subsequent effect is heated by the vapour from the previous effect so has to be operated at a lower temperature and therefore lower pressure. at about 65% dry solids. Decolourisation with granular activated carbon typically achieves 90% effectiveness: a 1200 colour liquor entering the system will depart at about 120 colour. The sugar liquor. perhaps 10 or more metres high. When the carbon in the first column reaches is practical limit of absorption. The carbon is used in the process in very large columns.
400h.MILLHOUSE: Mill house is the cane crushing unit which consists of cane carrier. POWERHOUSE: The high pressure steam generated by the boiler is utilized for production of power by the turbo-alternators.motors. The residue which comes out of the mill after extraction of juice is called bagasse. pass through different mills and the juice is extracted. o 900kwatt variable frequency drive hydraulic drive 900kwatt v.p hydraulic drive o 900kwatt v. The low pressure steam that comes out from the turbo alternator is utilized for boiling the extracted juice. The power produced is used for captive needs and the surplus power is exported to the government grid. The steam is used in powerhouse. 1000kw d. 522kwatt dc.d 500kwatt v.c. BOILERHOUSE: Boiler generates steam by burning the bagasse. These cane pieces then.f. .f. The steam required by the Sulphitation process varies from 42 . Various milling units used in LHSF are : Mill GRPF Mill GRPF Mill GRPF Mill GRPF Mill GRPF 500kwatt d. This process of cane cutting is called 'cane preparation.c.45 % on cane crushed per hour.d o 900kwatt v. Cane feeding to the cane carrier is done by unloaders and feeder table.C. boiling house. milling tandem.. bagasse carrier and conveyor. As the cane carrier moves.d. cane cutter having cutting knives. curing house. The mills are driven by D.f. the cane kicker evens out cane load in the cane carrier and then two sets of cane knives cut the cane into small pieces.
the „A‟ massecuite is passed on to the centrifugals for separating sugar crystals from the massecuite. This heating is called primary heating. The juice after evaporation is called as syrup. sugar melt . „B‟-heavy molasses is used for making „C‟-Massecuite in . where in clear juice is removed from the top and settled mud at the bottom is separated.„A‟-Light and „A‟-Heavy molasses are pumped to pan floor and are used for making „A‟. This syrup is normally of 60 % solids of its total weight. it is taken to vacuum filter in which juice and filter cake are separated. The secondary heating is done with vapours from second body of evaporator and vapours from the first body or exhaust steam.and „B‟-Massecuite respectively „B‟-Massecuite boiled in „B‟ pans is dropped into B. The treated juice is passed to clarifier.„A‟ light molasses and on „B‟-single cured sugar as seed. „B‟-single cured sugar is used as seed for A massecuite. „B‟-heavy molasses and „B‟-single cured sugar are obtained separately. This AMassecuite is boiled till it attains the required size of sugar crystal and it is dropped into crystallizers and cooled. The syrup is then sulphited in syrup Sulphitation tower. First body is heated by exhaust steam. The total water evaporated in the evaporator is 75-80 % percent. and other bodies by the vapours of the previous body. Clear juice from clarifier is taken to evaporator for evaporating its water content. To extract sugar from the mud. A. Juice is taken back to process and the mud is disposed as solid waste. in which. The separated 'A' sugar is bagged after drying. The heated juice is treated with milk of lime and sulphur-di-oxide to coagulate maximum impurities and sent for secondary heating. BOILING AND CURING HOUSE Sulphited syrup is taken to pan floor for making sugar crystal. First the juice is heated by the vapours from fourth and third bodies of evaporator in different heaters. A-massecuites is formed by boiling syrup.CLARIFICATION AND BOILING HOUSE: The juice extracted by the mills is measured by juice flow system. B and C Massecuites are boiled.Crystallizers and then it is cured in „B‟-Centrifugal machines. After exhaustion of sugar in solution. The measured juice is heated in juice heater in two stages. Three massecuites boiling systems is normally adopted.
COGENERATION POWER Cogeneration involves the use of high pressure Boilers for producing steam and Turbo generators for generating power. „C‟-double cured sugar is melted and is used in making 'A' Massecuite.C-pans. This cogeneration plant is the first plant in India to install Air cooled condensers instead of water cooled condensers for its turbines. Even though the Air cooled condensers incur a much higher investment cost than . Sugar discharged from 'A' Machine is dropped on to grass hopper conveyors. Final molasses and „C‟-single cured sugar are obtained. The high pressure steam passes through the turbine and generates power. „C‟-Massecuite is dropped into „C‟-Crystallizers where it is cooled. By passing hot air in hoppers the sugar is dried and taken to grader in which powder and rori‟s are separated. The low pressure steam from the turbine is used in the processing of sugar. „C‟-Massecuite is then taken to „C‟-fore worker centrifugal machines for curing. „C‟-light molasses are taken to pan floor and is used in making „C‟-Massecuite. This process of utilization of steam for generating power and for processing of sugar is called cogeneration. The required grade sugar is bagged. 'C' Single cured sugar is again cured in another centrifugal machine in which „C‟double cured sugar and „C‟-light molasses are obtained.
Unusual specimens of molasses. If the concept molasses is to be strictly defined it is necessary to distinguish between theoretical and practical molasses.e. Q represents the percentage of sugar in the total solid content of the molasses. the more closely a syrup approaches theoretical molasses. and the separation of the sugar crystals from the low-grade massecuite. thin layers of the syrup film) the crystallization might be so extended that with intensive centrifugation of the molasses a quotient (Q) of 49 would be attainable. such as the efficiency of the juice clarification. with no regard to time. The lower the purity or purity coefficient. the method of crystallization during boiling. MOLASSES The history of the Word „molasses‟ ( „Melasse‟ in German and Dutch) is not mentioned in Etymological dictionaries since it is quite definitely and clearly derived from the Romanic languages. approximately 48 % sugar is present in molasses whose solids .the water cooled condensers. The theoretically final molasses is a mixture of sugar. If relatively more favourable conditions for crystallization are maintained (low water content. with maintenance of the technical conditions promoting crystallization. nonsugars and water. long crystallization time.The amount of molasses obtained and its quality (composition) provide information about the nature of the beets (local conditions of growth and effects of the weather) and the processing in the sugar factory. from which no saccharose crystallizes under any conceivable physical and technically optimum conditions. low temperature. no significant additional amounts of saccharose can be recovered by further concentration. produced in experimental studies. The practically obtainable molasses is the end syrup from which. The objective of the sugar industry is to produce molasses whose purity is as low as possible. have quotients from 45 to 50. The term „molasses‟ is applied to the final effluent obtained in the preparation of sugar by repeated crystallization. i. Commercial molasses ordinarily have a quotient around 60. This is an important environment feature given the scarcity of water in the region and a positive step towards water conservation. it is environment friendly and they totally eliminate the use of water. In this sense molasses with purity quotients above 64 are no longer true molasses they are crystallisable syrups.
content is 80%. (Q denotes purity quotient of molasses. at the time of delivery and processing of the beets. a clear understanding of the influences of the nonsugar substances on the crystallization of the saccharose from aqueous solutions simplifies the study of the formation of molasses. The use of ion exchangers made it possible to start these investigations directly on molasses. .e. but they did not always correspond to the complicated relationships prevailing in molasses. (i) Mechanical theory of molasses formation This old theory is based on the decrease in the rate of crystallization which depends on the speed with which the dissolved sugar molecules are transported out of the liquid on to the crystal surface as well as on the rate at which they are built into the crystal lattice. Because of the economic significance of the composition of final molasses there is great permanent interest in the sugar industry in being able to calculate beforehand the amount of molasses that may be expected. S is sugar content. i. (ii) Chemical theory of molasses formation This theory is based on the mutual solubility influences in the system: water sugar. potassium and sodium have considerably stronger molasses-producing properties than calcium and lithium. T represents dry substance. pure substances or mixtures of pure substances have been employed. In many studies of the influence of the non sugar components on the solubility of sucrose. Since the formation of molasses and the problems of crystallization of sugar are closely related. The many studies along these lines can be divided fundamentally into two categories.) Efforts to understand and master the conditions leading to exhausted molasses are as old as the sugar industry itself. It has been found that nitrogenous materials have practically no effect with respect to the sucrose solubility. salts or non sugar components.
Molasses is a viscous by-product of the processing of sugar cane. grapes or sugar beets into sugar. though it is not true molasses. the amount of sugar extracted. Sweet sorghum syrup is known in some parts of the United States as molasses. The word molasses comes from the Portuguese word melaço. which ultimately comes from mel. The quality of molasses depends on the maturity of the sugar cane or sugar beet. the Latin word for "honey". and the method of extraction. .
Sickness in sugar industry has reached to an alarming proportion.CHALLENGES FOR SUGAR INDUSTRY India ranks first in sugar consumption and second in sugar production in world but it's share in global sugar trade is below 3%. Adequate and regular power supply to sugarcane growers and sugar factories would increase production andproductivity. industry has a great challenge of existence in global market. Sugar prices have been a political issue rather than economical issue. Mounting losses and decreasing networth of sugar factories have been responsible for sickness of sugar industry. Globalization has brought a number of opportunities but at the same time posed certain challenges before sugar industry. lower sugarcane yield. and frequent droughts in tropical and sub-tropical areas where sugarcane is grown ona large scale. This leads to escalation of production costs and weakness competitive edge of the industry. Low cash inflow due to piling stocks leads to serious financial crisis and finally to closing sugar factories. Most of sugar mills in India are having daily sugarcane crushing capacity of 1250 tonnes. Therefore. and resource as well as infrastructural problems. In recent years. Most of sugar units in India utilize production capacity below 50%. Special attention is needed to be given on water resource management. To enhance share of Indian sugar industry in global trade. quality and quantity of sugar needs to be enhanced. In addition. Many a times it worsens economy of sugar factories. Sugar recovery is also lower in comparison with other sugar manufacturing countries. These mills cannot have economies of scale so they have to incur high production costs. daily crushing capacity should be extended to 2500 tonnes. Low capacity utilization and inadequacy of raw material led to closer of 100 sugar factories in India. The main concern of sugar industry in India is fluctuations in sugarcane production due to inadquate irrigation facilities. sugarcane yield has been lower (59 Mts per hectare). Obviously. All the area under sugar cultivation should be brought under drip irrigation to conserve water as well as fertilizers. . Indian sugar industry has been cash striven for decades. sugarcane production in India has decelerated to a great extent due to water and power shortage. Indian sugar industry has been facing raw material. Indian sugar industry is characterized by high production costs.
and paper projects have tremendous scope for development in India. Most of the sugar units do not have byproduct utilization plants. Sugarcane prices should be fixed on basis of sugar recovery. and sugar recovery. particularly cooperative sugar factories in Maharastra and other states have been instrumental in building confidence among rural people and strengthening industrial base in rural India. and manufacturing excellent quality sugar at competitive prices. It needs quality management at every level of activity to enhance its performance. The need of the hour is to liberalize industry from clutches of unprofessional people. enhancing sugarcane productivity. sugra industry needs more competitive edge which can be given by way of modernization. . In future. Bagasses based power generation projects installed adjacent to each sugar factory would fulfill need of power.CONCLUSION & SUGGESTIONS Sugar industry is the second largest agro-based industry in India. Ethanol. enhancing productivity. alochol. Sugar factories. In the era of globalization. Attention is to be given on manufacturing quality sugar as per international standards at competitive prices. Research programme should be undertaken in area of sugarcane cultivation. 10-15% ethanol may be allowed to be blended with petrol. Projects based on bagasses and molasses should be initiated.
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