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# A Seminar Report on

Submitted by:

## 10ECS-35 MOHD YASIR KHAN 10ECS-43 PRANJAL PATNI

ECS 612 (6th Semester Examination) Department of Electronics & Comm. Engg. Faculty of Engineering & Technology Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi

CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT EVOLUTION OF GPS WHAT IS GPS? TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION (PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION) INFORMATION IN A GPS SIGNAL GPS ELEMENTS (GPS SEGMENTS ) TRACKING APPLICATIONS OF GPS COST OF THE SYSTEM CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I extend my sincere gratitude towards Prof. M.T.Beg, Head of Department for giving us his invaluable knowledge and wonderful technical guidance. I express my thanks to all the other faculty members of Electronics & Communication Engineering Department, Jamia Millia Islamia for their kind cooperation and guidance for preparing and presenting this seminar. I also thank all my family members and friends for their help and support.

ABSTRACT

EVOLUTION OF GPS

WHAT IS GPS ?

TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION (PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF GPS) The principle behind GPS is the measurement of distance (or "range") between the receiver and the satellites. The satellites also tell us exactly where they are in their orbits above the Earth. It works something like this-If we know our exact distance from a satellite in space, we know we are somewhere on the surface of an imaginary sphere with radius equal to the distance to the satellite radius. By measuring its distance from a second satellite, the receiver knows it is also somewhere on the surface of a second sphere with radius equal to its distance from the second satellite. Therefore, the receiver must be somewhere along a circle which is formed from the intersection of the two spheres. Measurement from a third satellite introduces a third sphere. Now there are only two points which are consistent with being at the intersection of all three spheres. One of these is usually impossible, and the GPS receivers have mathematical methods of eliminating the impossible location. Measurement from a fourth satellite now resolves the ambiguity as to which of the two points is the location of the receiver. The fourth satellite point also helps eliminate certain errors in the measured distance due to uncertainties in the GPS receiver's timing as well.

## Here's how GPS works in five logical steps:

The basis of GPS is "triangulation" from satellites. To "triangulate," a GPS receiver measures distance using the travel time of radio signals. To measure travel time, GPS needs very accurate timing, which it achieves with some tricks. Along with distance, you need to know exactly where the satellites are in space. High orbits and careful monitoring are the secret. Finally you must correct for any delays the signal experiences as it travels through the atmosphere.

## INFORMATION IN A GPS SIGNAL

The GPS signal contains ephemeris and almanac data. Ephemeris data is constantly transmitted by each satellite and contains important information such as status of the satellite (healthy or unhealthy), current date, and time. Without this part of the message, your GPS receiver would have no idea what the current time and date are. This part of the signal is essential to determining a position, as well see in a moment. The almanac data tells the GPS receiver where each GPS satellite should be at any time throughout the day. Each satellite transmits almanac data showing the orbital information for that satellite and for every other satellite in the system.

## GPS ELEMENTS ( GPS SEGMENTS )

Space Segment:
The GPS technology is based on the NAVSTAR (NAVigation Satellite Timing And Ranging) constellation composed of 24 satellites in space, the space segment of the GPS system. There are often more than 24 operational satellites as new ones are launched to replace older satellites. The satellite orbits repeat almost the same ground track (as the earth turns beneath them) once each day. These 24 satellites (21 navigational satellites and 3 active spares) are in 6 circular orbits (with nominally four SVs in each), equally spaced (60 degrees apart), at an inclination angle of 55 degrees. These satellites weigh 1900 lbs in orbit, travel at speeds of about 14,000 kilometres per hour or 8700 miles per hour with a 12hr period (precisely 11hr 58 min).

Control Segment:
It consists of a system of tracking stations located around the world. The control segment is composed of all the ground-based facilities that are used to monitor and control the satellites. This segment is usually unseen by the user, but is a vital part of the system. The NAVSTAR control segment, called the operational control system (OCS) consists of 5 monitor stations, a master control station (MCS) and 3 uplink antennas. The satellites send down subsets of the orbital ephemeris data. The monitor stations track GPS satellites in view, collect and send information from the satellites back to the master control station that computes the precise orbits. The master station uploads the data which is necessary for proper operation of the satellite, like ephemeris and clock data to the satellites. Then the information is formatted into updated navigation messages that are transmitted through ground antennas.

User Segment:

TRACKING
GPS tracking means to trace something or someone with the Global Positioning System. The below diagram illustrates the basic AVL system. It shows the GPS signal arriving from satellite to vehicle. The vehicle location is communicated to the PC (Control Center) via wireless network. But for thousands of years Homosapiens has had the opportunity to observe the movement and general habits of members of his own species as well as of wildlife, particularly by following their tracks. It was a hard and particular unsafe affair. Hence the development of satellite tracking by the Argos consortium was a quantum leap in the human Tracking business. Since 1994 the Global Positioning System has been available for civilian use at no cost. Nowadays GPS makes it available to everyone to track nearly everything. Objects as well as persons can be
.

tracked if they are fitted out with a GPS receiver estimating the respective location. The GPS location data is stored on board of the GPS receiver. Modern GPS tracking systems are able to send such GPS position data from the object directly to a receiving station. A receiving station can be a stationary receiver of a tracking service company (in case of car tracking f. ex.) or provider of a mobile phone company, or just a PC. Nowadays the GPS location data can be also received by small mobile gadgets like laptops, handsets etc. The AVL tracking system consists of a GPS receiver inside the vehicle and a communications link between the vehicle and the control Center as well as pc-based tracking software for dispatch. The communication system is usually a cellular network similar to the one used by your cell phone.

APPLICATIONS OF GPS

## GPS in marine system:

Marine GPS receivers feature waterproof casings, marine chart plotter maps, and even fishing tables and celestial schedules. Most can also store highway map information, so you can use your marine GPS to get you to the marina and then out to the fish.

## GPS for Private and commercial Use:

The GPS system is free for everyone to use, all that is needed is a GPS receiver, which costs about \$90 and up (March 2005). This has led to widespread private and commercial use. An example of private use is the popular activity Geocaching where a GPS unit is used to search for objects hidden in nature by traveling to the GPS coordinates. Commercial use can be land measurement, navigation and road construction.

## GPS on Air Planes

Most airline companies allow private use of ordinary GPS units on their flights, except during landing and take-off, like all other electronic devices. The unit does not transmit radio signals like mobile phones, it can only receive. Note, however, that some airline companies might disallow it for security reasons, such as unwillingness to let ordinary passengers track the flight route.

## GPS For Visually Impaired

The projects of the navigation system using GPS for the visually impaired have been conducted quite a few times. GPS was introduced in the late 80s and since then there have been several research projects such as MoBIC, Drishti, and Brunel Navigation System for the Blind, NOPPA, Braille Note GPS and Trekker. MoBIC MoBIC means Mobility of Blind and Elderly people interacting with Computers, which was carried out from 1994 to 1996 supported by the Commission of the European Union. It was developing a route planning system, which is designed to allow a blind person access to information from many sources such as bus and train timetables as well as electronic maps of the locality. The planning system helps blind people to study and plan their routes in advance, indoors.

## GPS for Horticulture

In orchards, GPS is used mainly for orchard mapping or electrical mapping. The GPS system allows orchardist's to accurately keep records of chemical applications, which is extremely important where the government is concerned. It can keep track of orchard costs, record and track yields. GPS also allows for the fine-tuning of orchard management techniques for the grower.