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cn

CAPACITY-DEMAND CURVES

METHOD FOR PERFORMANCE/

DISPLACEMENT-BASED SEISMIC

DESIGN

L. P. Ye

1

Department of Civil Engineering

Tsinghua University

Beijing P. R. China 100084

Ylp@tsinghua.edu.cn

Abstract

Based on the visual graphical procedure of capacity spectrum method (CSM), a new

method, called capacity-demand curves method (CDCM), is proposed for

performance/displacement seismic design in this paper. The new method can be drawn

from CSM but could avoid its disadvantages in difficult determination of demand

point and larger error induced for long period system. Then the method is developed to

determine the seismic performance/displacement including damage degree of

structures and the corresponding probability under multiple earthquake hazard levels.

All the procedures are presented in illustrative format which are easy to be understood

and the values are easy to be determined. The demand curves, reflecting the relations

of elastic and inelastic response, are based on the suggestion of R-

d

relations in

previous studies, and comparison of different models is discussed.

1 Int roducti on

In recent year, studies on performance/displacement-based seismic design method were taking out

around the researchers of earthquake engineering in the world. The seismic design method innovation is

promoted for that designer want to evaluate and verify the structures (existing or to be designed)

performance under multiple earthquake hazard levels. Some evaluation and design procedures

incorporating with performance/displacement-based seismic design concept were developed in some

requirements and documents, such as Vision 2000

1

, ATC-40

2

and new seismic design provision in

J apan

3

. Among them, the so-called capacity spectrum method (CSM), which compares the capacity

spectrum of structure with demand spectrum of earthquake ground motion using visual graphical

procedure, was become popularity. This visual graphical procedure is easy to be understood for the

seismic performance of the structures existing or to be designed.

The CSM (see Fig. 1) was developed by Freeman

4,5

, and some modifications both in determining

capacity spectrum of structure and demand spectrum of earthquake ground motion were made in recent

years

6,7,8

. Besides the problems to obtain more reasonable and accuracy of the both spectrum curves,

CSM has two other following disadvantages in practical use,

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(1) The demand point must be determined by the intersection of the capacity spectrum and the demand

spectrum with corresponding damping factor or ductility factor. The inelastic seismic demand spectrum

are usually provided in a set of damping factors or ductility factors, so it makes some trouble to find the

proper demand spectrum corresponding to the demand point at the capacity spectrum.

(2) For long period structure, the resistance strength of structure capacity curve is usually small, which

results in a small value of capacity acceleration in the capacity spectrum. It may cause a large error in

finding the demand point due to flat demand spectrum curves in long period range.

But the visual graphical procedure of capacity spectrum method is attractive in determining the seismic

performance. Thus, the author proposed a new visual graphical procedure, called capacity-demand

curves method (CDCM), for performance/displacement seismic design in this paper. The new method,

without the above two disadvantages of CSM, is firstly drawn from CSM to present its concept. Then

the method is developed to determine the seismic performance of structures under multiple earthquake

hazard levels. All the procedures are presented in illustrative format which are easy to be understood.

Finally, demand curves in CDCM of different models are discussed.

2 CONCEPT OF CAPACITY-DEMAND CURVES METHOD

Fig. 2 shows CSM used for a serials of structure system with same initial period T . The straight line OA

in Fig. 2 represents the elastic capacity spectrum of the structure equivalent SDOF system (the

structure equivalent SDOF system will be omitted when structure capacity spectrum is used in the

paper following). Line OA and elastic demand spectrum intersect at point A, which is the seismic

demand for the elastic system. The spectral acceleration of point A is taken as S

A,E

.

Elasto-plastic capacity spectrum of structure is supposed to be used for inelastic system. The yielding

spectral acceleration of the inelastic system capacity spectrum is expressed by S

A,E

/R. The factor R is

called strength reduction factor due to inelastic properties of inelastic system, such as ductility and

hysteretic energy dissipation. With a definite value R, say R

1

or R

2

, a corresponding capacity spectrum

curve can be obtained, see Fig, 2. As for the capacity spectrum corresponding to factor R

1

, the demand

point (point B in Fig. 2) can be determined using CSM. And another value R

2

corresponds to another

demand point (point C in Fig. 2). In this way, a demand curve (i.e., the curve ABC in Fig. 2), can be

obtained for serials of reduction factor by connecting the demand points. If the demand curve can be

given before hand for any initial period (Fig. 3), the intersection of the capacity spectrum and the

Figure 1 Capacity Spectrum Method

S

A

S

D

Demand spectrum corresponding to point A

Realistic response point

Capacity spectrum #1

Demand spectrum corresponding to a set

of damping factors or ductility factors

Capacity spectrum #2

0

A

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demand curve (notice the difference between demand curve and demand spectrum) can be determined

to obtain the inelastic response without interpolation calculation as CSM.

In a more comprehensive illustration, the capacity spectrum and the demand curve can be expressed in

force-displacement coordinate system, as shown in Fig. 4. Actually, the capacity spectrum in

acceleration-displacement coordinate system is converted from the capacity curve of structure in

force-displacement coordinate system by dividing the force by the effective mass of equivalent SDOF

system

5,7

. Thus, the capacity curve and the demand curve can be used to determine the seismic response

point of an inelastic system by illustration procedure in force-displacement coordinate system, so the

method is called capacity-demand curves method (CDCM). Because the demand curve across the

capacity curve around 90 degree angle and a proper scale of force-displacement coordinate system can

be used for a special initial period in the CDCM, the intersection point between the two curves is easy

to be determined for any initial period system. Thus, the two disadvantages stated previously can be

overcome.

Figure 2 Concept of Demand Curve Based on CSM

S

A

S

D

Demand spectrum corresponding to point C

Demand point of Capacity spectrum of R

2

Capacity spectrum of R

2

Elastic demand spectrum

0

C

Elastic response point

Demand spectrum corresponding to point B

Demand point of Capacity spectrum of R

1

Capacity spectrum of R

1

S

A,E

S

A,E

/R

1

S

A,E

/R

2

B

Demand curve

T

A

S

A

S

D

Elastic demand spectrum

0

Demand curve for T

1

T

1

Figure 3

Demand curve for T

2

T

2

Demand curve for T

3

T

3

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From previous description, the suggested CDCM not only has the advantages in CSM with a whole

performance evaluation in spectrum way (Fig. 3), but also can be used for a special case of initial period

(Fig. 4, this expression of the CDCM will be used in following of this paper). With the elastic response

point being determined from the elastic demand spectrum and the known corresponding demand curve,

the performance/displacement-based seismic design procedure, stated by Fajfar

7

, can be also adopted in

the CDCM. Fajfar

7

has also pointed out that the inelastic seismic demand can be determined without

constructing the demand spectra. The determination of demand curves will be discussed later in this

paper.

3 PERFORMANCE UNDER MULTIPLE EARTHQUAKE HAZARD

LEVELS

The structure performance should be evaluated under multiple earthquake hazard levels in the

performance/displacement-based seismic design. This can also be made by the CDCM in an easy way.

Three earthquake hazard levels, representing small, moderate and severe earthquake intensities, are

considered. The three demand curves corresponding to the three levels are assumed proportional to the elastic

responses, as shown in Fig. 5. Thus, the intersections of capacity curve and the demand curves give the

performance estimation under the three earthquake hazard levels.

In Fig. 5, the yield strength of capacity curve is shown larger than the elastic force response at small

earthquake level. This is essential for structure within elastic range and obvious damage is not allowed under

small earthquake, so the demand curve of small earthquake is not shown. From the intersections of capacity

curve and the demand curves under moderate and severe levels, the damage degree of structure can be

estimated as,

c u

d

DM

,

= (1)

where, DM is damage degree value of structure, DM=0 represents no damage and DM=1 represents total

damaged;

d

is the demand ductility factor,

d

=D

d

/D

y

; D

d

is the demand displacement (D

d,M

or D

d,L

in Fig. 5

for moderate and severe earthquake intensity), which is determined by the intersection of capacity curve and

demand curve; D

y

is the yield displacement of the equivalent SDOF system of structure;

u,c

is the ultimate

ductility factor under cyclic (earthquake) loading, which can be determined by Fajfars suggestion

9

that

u,c

can be obtained from the ultimate ductility factor

u,m

under monotonic loading by considering hysteretic

Force

Displacement

0

Demand curve

K

Figure 4 CDCM in Force-Displacement Coordinate System

Elastic response

Inelastic response

Capacity curve

Capacity limit

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energy accumulation under ground oscillation. If the damage degree limits are given for moderate and severe

earthquake levels, it is easy to determine the yield strength F

y

by the CDCM.

4 PROBABILITY OF STRUCTURE PERFORMANCE BY CDCM

Another important value that should be estimated in performance/displacement -based design is the

reliable (or lose) probability of the structure performance. Supposing that the exceeding probability of

an certain earthquake intensity at the building site is known by the history earthquake investigation and

earthquake risk analysis, the damage probability of the structure can also be estimated by the CDCM.

Fig. 6(a) shows probable frequency curve of earthquake intensity. The horizontal axis is earthquake

intensity, I

S

, I

M

and I

L

represent the small, moderate and larger (severe) earthquake intensity

respectively. The vertical axis is probable frequency corresponding to the earthquake intensity. The

exceeding probability of a earthquake intensity, say moderate earthquake intensity I

M

, is the area under

the probable frequency curve at the right of I

M

(shade area in Fig. 6(a)), it can be calculated by Eqn. (2).

The exceeding probability curve is shown in Fig. 6(b).

=

=

I x

dx x p I P ) ( ) ( (2)

As the elastic response is approximately proportional to earthquake intensity, so the exceeding

probability of elastic response and then the corresponding demand curve is same as that of the

earthquake intensity, for example, P(F

e,S

)=P(I

S

), P(F

e,M

)=P(I

M

) and P(F

e,L

)=P(I

L

), etc. Thus,

considering a continuos earthquake intensities, the exceeding probability curve of damage degree for a

given capacity curve, saying capacity curve #1 in figure 7, can be determined used the illustration

procedure as shown in figure 7. By this way, the structure damage probability under the potential

earthquake intensities can be evaluated. In figure 7, it is easy to understand that the larger yield strength

of capacity curve with the same ultimate ductility capacity, the less exceeding probability of damage

Note: Point S, M and L represent elastic responses under small, moderate and severe

earthquake levels; D

d,M

and D

d,L

represent demand displacements of moderate

and severe earthquakes, respectively; F

e,S

, F

e,M

and F

e,L

represent elastic force

responses of small, moderate and severe earthquakes, respectively.

Figure 5 Performance under Multiple Earthquake Hazard Levels

Force

Displacement

0

Demand curve of severe level

K

M

Capacity curve

L

S

F

y

D

y

D

d,M

D

d,L

Demand curve of moderate level

F

e,L

F

e,M

F

e,S

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degree. Thus, designer can make a proper decision for the designed structure with an expecting damage

degree probability.

p(I)

Earthquake intensity I

I

I

M I

S

Exceeding probability of I

M

0

(a) Probable frequency curve

Figure 6 Probability of earthquake intensity

P(I)

Earthquake intensity

I

L

I

M

I

S

P(I

M

)

0

(b) Exceeding Probability curve

P(I

S

)

P(I

L

)

1.0

Force

Displacement

0

Demand curve of severe level

K

M

Capacity curve #1

L

S

D

y D

d,M

D

d,L

Demand curve of moderate level

P(F

e,L

)=P(I

L

)

Probability 1.0

P(F

e,M

)=P(I

M

)

P(F

e,S

)=P(I

S

)

(a) Relation between demand curve and probability of earthquake intensity

Capacity curve #2

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In above procedure, because the demand curve is the average one for certain earthquake intensity, the

exceeding probability is corresponding to the average demand response. The response randomness

under certain earthquake intensity should also be considered in determining the exceeding probability

in future study.

5 DEMAND CURVES

The demand curves are in fact the response relations of inelastic system and elastic system. For the equivalent

SDOF systemof structures and an elasto-plastic force-displacement relation being used, the demand curves

can be expressed as,

e

d

d

D

R

D

= (3)

where, D

d

is the demand displacement of inelastic system for an earthquake intensity; D

e

is the elastic

displacement response under the same earthquake intensity; R is strength reduction factor, R=F

e

/F

y

; F

e

is the

elastic force response under the same earthquake intensity; F

y

is the yield strength of the inelastic system. If

the relations between the strength reduction factor R and the demand ductility

d

are known, the demand

curves can be obtained.

The Newmark and Halls

10,11

equal energy and equal displacement rules may be regarded as the first

and simple R-

d

relations suggestion. But Newmark and Halls suggestion did not consider the

continuous influence of initial period of the systems and sometime underestimate inelastic response.

Several following researches

12-19

, including the method of equivalent damped linear elastic system of inelastic

system

13

, were made on establishing the R-

d

relations. An excellent and thorough review of the

previous efforts before 1994 on the relations can be found in the work by Miranda and Bertero

16

.

Based on the previous researches, R-

d

relation depends on the initial period T of the systems, hysteresis

energy dissipation capacity and site types. Recently, Ordaz

17

found that elastic displacement spectrum had

relations to the strength reduction factor R, and so to the demand curves. But Ordazs suggestion can only be

used for individual earthquake motion with its elastic displacement spectrum or maximum displacement of

ground motion given. Akiyama

18

and the author of this paper

19

deduced the relations based on energy concept.

The author has also discussed the continuous influence of initial period of systems based on energy input

spectra. In those studies, the energy-based approach may be the one to give a reasonable theory explanation

about the response relation between inelastic systems and elastic systems, while the others were mainly based

on response properties and statistics analysis.

Figure 7

(b) Probability of damage degree

P(DM)

DM

0

Probability curve of Capacity curve #2

0.5

1.0

Probability curve of Capacity curve #1

P(DM(

d,M

))=P(I

M

)

P(DM(

d,L

))=P(I

L

)

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The R-

d

relations suggested by the previous researches are not presented in detail in this paper, but Fig. 8

shows their comparison in 1/RD

d

/D

e

relation (same pattern as the demand curves) for short and middle

initial period systems. It could be noticed in Fig. 8(a) that Newmarks equal energy rule appear to be the

average of the other researchers suggestion in short period field, this is due to that other models chosed a

proper initial period parameter. It could also be noticed in Fig. 8(b) that Newmarks equal displacement rule

is on the safe side in middle period field when strength reduction factor R is larger than a reasonable low

value, and the Akiyamas suggestion is shown to be the lower bound because it toke a perfect elasto-plastic

0 0. 1 1. 2 2. 3

0.

0.

0.

0.

1

Newmark equal energy rule

Vidic, /T

G

=0.5

Miranda, T=0.25s(rock site)

Shibata, <TG

Ye, T<T

G

, =0.6

Akiyama, T<TG,

Ordaz, /D

max

=0.3

Nassar, =0.25s

D

d

/D

e

(a) In short period field

1/R

0 0. 1 1. 2 2. 3

0.

0.

0.

0.

1

Newmark equal displ. rule

Vidic, >T

G

Miranda, T=2s(rock site)

Shibata, T>T

G

Ye, T>T

G

,

Akiyama, T>TG,

Ordaz, D/Dmax=1.5

Nassar, T=2s

D

d

/D

e

(b) In middle period field

1/R

Figure 8 Demand Curves of Different Models

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hysteresis model.

Another thing the author should mention is that calculated results with inelastic time history analysis method

were found larger than any demand curves suggestions in cases, especially for low strength reduction factor

in short period field

19

. Thus, the seismic response randomness and the reliable probability of demand curves

suggestion need further study. Nevertheless, the suggestion of R-

d

relations in previous studies can provide

reasonably accurate both for the CDCM and capacity spectrum method for seismic design situations.

6 CONCLUSIONS

With the merits of visual graphical procedure and without the disadvantages of difficult determination

of demand point and larger error may induced in long period by CSM, the CDCM proposed in this paper

has shown to be a more useful method for performance/displacement-based seismic design for new

built structure and evaluation of existing buildings. The CDCM can also be used for evaluating the

performance and damage degree of structures under multiple earthquake levels. If the exceeding

probability of earthquake intensities is known, the reliability probability of performance and exceeding

probability of damage degree of structures can also be evaluated by the CDCM in illustration format.

The accurate of the CDCM is mainly based on the demand curves, which many researches had been

done. The reliable probability of demand curves due to the seismic response randomness is worthwhile

to investigate in further study both for CDCM and CSM. But the suggestion of R-

d

relations in

previous studies can provide reasonably accurate both for CDCM and CSM for seismic design and

evaluation.

REFERENCES

[1] SEAOC Vision 2000 Committee(1995). Performance-based Seismic Engineering. Report Prepared

by Structural Engineering Association of California, Sacramento, California, U.S.A.

[2] ATC(1996). Seismic evaluation and retrofit of concrete buildings. Vol.1, ATC-40, Applied

Technology Council, Redwood City.

[3] S. Otani, H. Hiraishi, etc(2001), New Seismic Design Provisions in J apan. Proc. of International

Conference on Advanced Technologies in Design, Construction and Maintenance of Concrete

Structures, Hanoi, 1-10

[4] S. A. Freeman, J . P. Nicoletti and J . V. Tyrell(1975). Evaluations of exiting buildings for seismic

risk-A case study of Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton. Washington. Proc. 1st U.S. National

Conf. Earthquake Engng., EERI, Berkeley, 113-122.

[5] S. A. Freeman(1998). Development and use of capacity spectrum method. Proc. 6th U.S. National

Conf. Earthquake Engng., Seattle, CD-ROM, EERI, Okland,.

[6] H. Krawinkler and G. D. P. K. Seneviratna(1998). Pros and cons of a pushover analysis for seismic

performance evaluation. Engng. Struct. 20. 452-464.

[7] P. Fajfar(1999). Capacity spectrum method based on inelastic demand spectra. Earthquake Engng.

Struct. Dyn. 28, 979-999.

[8] V. V. Bertero(1992). Tri-service manual methods. in Vision 2000, Part 2, Appendix J , Structural

Engineering Association of California, Sacramento, California, U.S.A, 1995.

[9] P. Fajfar(1997). Equivalent Ductility Factor Taking into Account Low-cyccle Fatigue, Earthquake

Engng. Struct. Dyn., 21, 837-848.

[10 ] A. S. Veletsos and N. M. Newmark(1960). Effect of Inelastic Behavior on the Response of

SimpleSystem to Earthquake Motion. Proc. of Second World Conference on Earthquake

http://www.paper.edu.cn

Engineering, 895-912.

[11] N. M. Newmark and W. J . Hall(1982). Earthquake Spectra and Design, Earthquake Engineering

Research Institute, Berkeley.

[12] A. Nassar and H. Krawinkler(1991). Seismic demands for SDOF and MDOF systems. Report 95,

The J ohn A. Blumn Earthquake Engineering Center, Stanford University

[13] A. Shibata(1975). Study on inelastic response of nonlinear structures for earthquake motion by

equivalent linear system method, Report of Northeast University, No.16, (in J apanese)

[14] T. Vidic, P. Fajfar and M. Fischinger(1994). Consistent inelastic design spectra: strength and

displacement, Earthquake Engng. Struct. Dyn. 23, 502-521.

[15 ]E. Miranda(1993). Site-dependent strength reduction factots. J . Struct. Engng. ASCE, 119(12),

3503-3519.

[16] E. Miranda and V. Bertero(1994). Evaluation of strength reduction factor for earthquake-resistant

design. Earthquake Spectra 10(2), 357-379.

[17] M. Ordaz and L.E. Perez-Rocha(1998). Estimation of strength-reduction factors for elastoplastic

systems: a new approch, Earthquake Engng. Struct. Dyn. 27, 99-901.

[18] H. Akiyama, Earthquake-resistant limit-state design for buildings, university of Tokyo Press, 1985

[19] L. P., Ye and S. Otani(1999). Maximum seismic displacement of inelastic systems based on energy

concept. Earthquake Engng. Struct. Dyn. 28, 1483-1499

[20] H. L. Li, W. H. Sang and H. O. Young(1999). Determination of ductility factor considering

different hysteretic medels. Earthquake Engng. Struct. Dyn. 28, 957-977

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