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OBJECTIVE To Determine the Lowest Moisture Content at Which the Soil Behaves Plastically.

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LEARNING OUTCOME At the en o! this e"#eriment$ stu ents are a%le to& Con uct the #lastic limit e"#eriment. ' enti!y the #lastic limit value !or soil. ' enti!y the im#ortance an a##lication o! #lastic limit test.

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INTRODUCTION The !ollowin) moisture con itions * li+ui unlit$ #lastic limit$ alon) with shrin,a)e limit are re!erre to as the -Atter%er) Limits-$ a!ter the ori)inator o! the test #roce ures. Semi*Soli .Sta)ySoli State Atter%era Limits an 'n ices. The #lastic limit$ also ,nown as the lower #lastic limit$ is the water content at which a soil chan)es !rom the #lastic state to a semisoli state. A #lastic limit set is an a##aratus that is use to etermine the #lastic limit o! soil.

The chan)e !rom a semisoli state to a #lastic state o! soil is a )ra ual #rocess. Accor in) to a stan ar em#irical e!inition$ the #lastic limit is the water content at which a soil #assin) a 0..2/mm sieve can %e rolle into threa s one* ei)hth inch in iameter without the soil %rea,in) into #ieces. 0enerally$ the terms #lastic limit an li+ui limit are use to)ether !or soil i enti!ication an classi!ication.

Definition The metho escri%e herein is %ase u#on A1AS2T3 Desi)nation T45 which has %een mo i!ie !or 6ew 7or, State De#artment o! Trans#ortation use. The li+ui limit o! a soil is the moisture content$ e"#resse as a #ercenta)e o! the wei)ht o! the oven* rie soil. at the %oun ary %etween the li+ui an #lastic states o! consistency. The moisture content at this %oun ary is ar%itrarily e!ile as the water content at which two halves o! a soil ca1Le will !low to)ether$ !or a istance o! l$* in.812.9 min: alon) the %ottom o! a )roove o! stan ar ro##e 2/ times !rom hei)ht o! 0.(5(9 in. 810 nun: at the rate o! two ro#s;secon . imensions se#aratin) the two halves$ when the cu# o! a stan ar li+ui limit a##aratus is

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THEORY Plastic limit 8 P w : o! soil is e!ine as the water content at which a soil will <ust %e)in to crum%le when rolle into a threa o! a##ro"imately ( mm in iameter. 't is water content at the %oun ary %etween the #lastic an semi*soli states o! consistency o! the soil. Plasticity in e" 8P' or 'P: is the numerical i!!erence o! the li+ui an #lastic limit$ an in icates the ran)e o! water content throu)h which the soil remains #lastic. PI = LL PL =or !ine )raine soils$ eterminin) the natural water content 8the water content o! a soil in an un istur%e con ition in the )roun : an relatin) it to the #lastic an li+ui limits can #rovi e an in ication o! the soil>s consistency an ;or sensitivity #otential. 3ne such relationshi# is the li+ui ity in e".
IL = w PL PI

Consistency in e" is e!ine as the ratio o! the li+ui limit minus the natural water content to the #lasticity in e" o! a soil.
Cr = LL w PI

Plasticity In e!

De"#ee of Plasticity

Ty$e of %oil

&IP o# PI' 0 6on*Plastic San ?9 Low*Plastic Silt 9*19 Me ium Plastic Silty clay or clayey silt @ 19 2i)hly Plastic Clay Classification of soil acco# in" to $lasticity( Li)*i ity In e! &IL o# LI' Consistency ? 0.0 Desiccate 8 ry: har soil 0.0*0.2/ Sti!! 0.2/*0./0 Me ium to so!t 0./0*0.9/ So!t 0.9/*1.00 Aery so!t @1.00 Li+ui s Classification of soil acco# in" to li)*i ity in ices(

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TE%T E-UIPMENT% 1. The most im#ortant #iece o! a##aratus !or this test is the han o! o#erator$ which shoul %e clean an !ree !rom )rease.

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Bva#oratin) ish. (. A se#arate )lass #late reserve !or rollin) o! threa s. This shoul %e smooth an !ree !rom scratches$ an a%out (00 mm s+uare an thic,. The sur!ace con ition o! the #late can a!!ect the threa s$ an the use o! unscratche )lass re uces iscre#ancies. An alternative is to reserve

10mm %ehavior o! rolle the li,e lihoo o!

one si e o! the mi"in) #late !or threa rollin)$ an avoi mi"in) the soil on this area. .. /. C. /.0 1: mi"in) #late. Two #alette ,nives or s#atulas. A short len)th 8say 100 mm: o! (mm iameter metal ro . Stan ar moisture content a##aratus 8container$ %alance an oven: PROCEDURE% =irst o! all a soil #aste is #re#are an a #art o! it is #lace on the )lass

2: (: .:

The soil is allowe to ry to such an e"tent that it %ecomes #lastic an can %e sha#e into a %all. The %all is then moul e %y #ressin) )ently %etween !in)ers an #alms so that it ries u# an crac,s a##ear on the soil. The soil is then ivi e into two su%*sam#les an se#arate etermination #rocess is carrie out !or %oth the sam#les. Moisture is evenly s#rea on %oth soil sam#les %y #ressin) them %etween !in)ers. A threa is !orme o! a%out Cmm iameter %etween the !irst !in)er an thum% o! each han .

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The threa is rolle %etween the !in)ers$ !rom the !in)er*ti# to the secon <oint$ o! one han an the sur!ace o! the )lass rollin) #late. The #rocess is re#eate until the threa shears %oth lon)itu inally an transversely when it has %een rolle to a%out (mm iameter$ as )au)e %y a ro . Moisture content measurement & This is #lace in a num%ere moisture content container$ which is wei)he $ oven rie an wei)he as in the stan ar moisture content #roce ure accor in) to BS 1(99& Part 2& 1550. i. Wei)ht the em#ty moisture content container ii. Ta,e a moisture content sam#le o! a%out 10 ) !rom the area #enetrate %y the cone$ usin) the ti# o! a small s#atula. iii. Wei)ht the wet sam#le iv. Dry in the oven !or a%out 2. hours 8overni)ht: v. Wei)ht the ry sam#le

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

P#ocess to ta.e a /oist*#e content(

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RE%ULT% 1 ANALY%I% 1 CALCULATION DATA %HEET

Test Number Can Number Mass of can + moist soil (Mcws) Mass of can + dry soil (Mcs) Mass of can (Mc) Mass of dry soil (Ms)

Units gram gram gram gram

1 12 11.4 9.0 2.4

2 12 11.6 9.9 1.7

3 11.5 11.0 9.3 1.7

4 11.8 11.2 9.0 2.2

Mass of water (Mw) Water content lastic limit

gram % % 26.30

0.6 25

0.4 23.53 26.30

0.5 29.41

0.6 27.27

Plastic limit Li+ui limit Plasticity in e"

D D

E E E

D Li+ui Limit F Plastic Limit D

a:

To ete#/ine t2e 3al*e of /ass of #y soil &M%' Test N*/9e# Can N*/9e# Mass of can 6 #y soil &Mcs' Mass of can &Mc' Units )ram )ram : 1
11.4 9.0

; 2
11.6 9.9

< (
11.0 9.3

+ .
11.2 9.0

Mass of #y soil &Ms' 4 5Mass of can 6 #y soil &MC%'7 8 5Mass of can &MC'7

i:

Mass o! ry soil 8Ms:

D 11.. * 5.0 D 11.C * 5.5 D 11.2 F 5.0

D ;(+ " D :(= " D ;(; "

ii: Mass o! ry soil 8Ms: iii: Mass o! ry soil 8Ms: iv: Mass o! ry soil 8Ms:

D 11.0 * 5.(0 D :(= "

%: To ete#/ine t2e 3al*e of /ass of >ate# &M?' Test N*/9e# Can N*/9e# Mass of can 6 /oist soil &Mc>s' Mass of can 6 #y soil &Mcs' Units )ram )ram : 1
12 11.4

; 2
12 11.6

< (
11.5 11.0

+ .
11.8 11.2

Mass of >ate# &M?' 4 5Mass of can 6 /oist soil7 8 5Mass of can 6 #y soil 7

i:

Mass o! water 8MW:

D 12.0 * 11..0 D ,(0 " D 12.0 F 11.C0 D ,(+ " D 11./ F 11.00 D ,(@ " D 11.4 F 11.20 D ,(0 "

ii: Mass o! water 8MW: iii: Mass o! water 8MW: iv: Mass o! water 8MW:

c' To ete#/ine t2e 3al*e of >ate# contentA B Test N*/9e# Can N*/9e# Mass of #y soil &Ms' Mass of >ate# &M>' Units )ram )ram : 1
2.4 0.6

; 2
1.7 0.4

< (
1.7 0.5

+ .
2.2 0.6

?ate# contentA > 4 i: Water content$ w D 0.C G 100 2.. ii: Water content$ w D 0.. G 100 1.9 iii: Water content$ w 1.9 D 0./ G 100

! :,,B D ;@B

D ;<(@<B

D ;C(+:B

iv: Water content$ w D 0.C G 100 2.2

D ;=(;=B

' To ete#/ine t2e 3al*e of $lastic li/it an $lasticity in e! Plastic li/it 4 a3e#a"e of t2e >ate# content PL D 2/ H 2(./( H 25..1 H 29.29 . D ;0(<,B Plasticity in e! 4 Li)*i Li/it 8 Plastic Li/it D /4.10E F 2C.(0 E D 2(.(/E =(, D(, DI%CU%%ION CONCLU%ION

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-UE%TION% &
!U"#T$%N# 1

&a' ?2at is t2e efinition of $lastic li/itE The #lastic limits is ar%itrarily e!ine as the water content at which a silt or clay will <ust %e)in to crum%le when rolle into a threa

a##ro"imately Both o! these e!initions

(.2 mm in iameter 8ASTM D .(14*54$ 2000:. are %ase on em#irical conce#ts.

8%: A sa/$le of >et clay an its containe# >ei"2 :,; "( Afte# o3en #yin" t2e sa/$le an t2e containe# >ei"2 0, "( ?2at is t2e >ate# content $lastic li/it fo# t2e soilE an

Wet clay soil H container Dry soil H container Container So$ ry soil$ An wet soil$

D 102 ) D C0 ) D C) M2 D C0 F C D /. ) M1 D 102 F C F /. D 5C )

w =

M1 M 2 5C /. 100E = 100E = 99.94E M2 /.

T2e#efo#eA $lastic li/it fo# t2e soil is ==(=DB

-UE%TION% ; &a' ?2at is t2e iffe#ent 9et>een li)*i li/it an $lastic li/itE Di!!erent %etween li+ui limit an #lastic limit is %ehavior chan)e %etween the li+ui an #lastic states an %etween the #lastic an semisoli states o! a silt or clay. Li+ui limit is ar%itrarily e!ine as the water content at

which a #art o! soil$ cut %y a )roove o! stan ar will !low %lows in a e!ine as the water crum%le when rolle into a

imensions an

to)ether !or a istance o! 12.9mm un er the im#act o! 20 stan ar li+ui limit evice. Plastic limit is ar%itrarily content at which a silt or clay will <ust %e)in to threa a##ro"imately (.2mm in iameter.

8%: A sa/$le of >et clay >ei"2s :=0 "( Afte# o3en #yin" t2e sa/$le 0, " an its containe# is =(<; "( ?2at is t2e >ate# content an fo# t2e soilE Wet clay soil H container Dry soil H container Container So$ ry soil$ An wet soil$ D 19C ) D C0 ) D 9.(2 ) M2 D C0 F 9.(2 D /2.C4 ) M1 D 19C F 9.(2 F /2.C4 D 11C )

>ei"2

$lastic li/it

w =

M1 M 2 11C /2.C4 100E = 100E = 120.2E M2 /2.C4

T2e#efo#eA $lastic li/it fo# t2e soil is :;,(;