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Practical TITLE Aim Introduction

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5 Ammonia, Sulphuric Acid and Nitric Acid To prepare ammonium salt fertilizer 1. Ammonium sulphate, chemical compound, (NH4)2SO4, a colorless-to-gray, rhombohedral crystalline substance that occurs in nature as the mineral mascagnite. 2. It is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol or liquid ammonia. It is prepared commercially by passing ammonia, obtained from destructive distillation of coal, into sulfuric acid and is used as a fertilizer, in preparing other ammonium compounds, and for fireproofing. 3. Ammonia is manufactured in industry by the Haber process. Nitrogen and hydrogen are mixed in the ratio of 1: 3 volumes and passed over iron fillings (catalyst) mixed with aluminium oxide (promoter) at 4500C 5500C. The optimum pressure used in this process is 200 atmospheres. 4. Nitrogen is obtained from air by fractional distillation of liquefied air. 5. Hydrogen is obtained from the reaction of steam with charcoal or natural gas. 6. The use of low temperatures and high pressures is not cost effective as the rate of production becomes slower, even though the percentage production of ammonia increases. 7. Thus the optimum temperature and pressure used here are 4500C 5500C and 200 atmosphere. About 15% of NH3 is obtained in this way and the unreacted nitrogen and hydrogen gases are recirculated through the catalyst tower.

Materials / Apparatus

Ammonia solution (2M), dilute sulphuric acid (1M), beaker, glass rod, Bunsen burner, tripod stand, wire gauze, filter funnel and filter

Procedure

1. 30 cm of dilute sulphuric acid is poured into a beaker. (Figure 1)

Figure 1

2. The ammonia solution is added little by little into the beaker while stirring the solution. (Figure 2)

Figure 2

3. Did not add any ammonia solution when the solution smells amniotic. 4. The solution is heated until it become 1/3 of the original volume.( Figure 3 and 4)

Figure 3

Figure 4

5. The solution is cooled in a mixture of ice and water. (Figure 5) The salt crystals produced using the filter funnel and filter paper.(Figure 6 and 7)

Figure 5

Figure 6

Figure 7

Figure 8 : Preparation of ammonium salt fertilizer

Result

The white crystals formed are ammonium sulphate

Discussions

1. Write a balance equation to represents the formation of ammonium sulphate in this experiment. 2 NH3 + H2 SO4 (NH4)2 SO4

2. How does the addition of ammonium sulphate affects the pH of the soil? Untuk meneutralkan tanah atau mengurangkan keasidan tanah.

3. Beside fertilizers, ammonium sulphate is also used as an agriculture spray adjuvant for water soluble pesticides. Explain the function of ammonium sulphate in this area. Ammonia digunakan sebagai bahan untuk menghasilkan racun serangga perosak.

4. Name three examples of natural fertilizer which are used in farming. a. Baja najis b. Bahan bakar (kompos) c. Baja organic

5. Name three examples of synthetic fertilizer which are used in agriculture. a. Urea b. Ammonium nitrat c. Ammonium fosfat

6. Write chemical equations to represent the formation of: a) ammonium phosphate NH3 + H3 PO4 b) ammonium nirate NH3 + HNO3 c) urea CO + 2NH3 CO (NH2)2 H2O NH4 NO3 (NH4)2 PO4

7. .Calculate the percentage of nitrogen in 1 mole of the fertilizers. [Relative atomic mass: H,1; C,12; N,14; O,16; P,31; S,32 ] Relative atomic Mass of nitrogen %N = ---------------------------------------------------Relative Molecular mass of fertiliser X 100

a) ammonium phosphate

b) ammonium nirate

c) urea

8. Which of the above fertilizer is the most suitable for the growth of plants? Explains your answer. Baja ammonium, ialah baja bernitrogen yang dapat membekalkan unsur nitrogen untuk tumbuhan. Tidak balas peneutralan yang berlaku antara larutan ammonia, NH3 (ak), dengan larutan asid menghasilkan garam ammonium, NH4, yang dapat digunakan sebagai baja. Conclusion :

The white crystals formed are ammonium sulphate.

References

: Low Swee

Chan See Leong,Chong Kum Ying, Choo Yan Tong, Neo,(2009).Fokus Ace PMR, Science.Selangor,Pelangi Sdn.Bhd.

Chong Kum Ying & Chang See Leong. (2002). Fokus Ungu SPM Sains. Bangi, Selangor : Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

Mah Chee Wai & Lim Swee Kim. (2011). Nexus SPM Chemistry. Petaling Jaya: Sasbadi Sdn. Bhd.

Tan Yin Toon,Loh Wai Leng,Tan On Tin,(2009) Success Chemistry SPM.Oxford Fajar.Shah Alam ,Selangor Toh Kim Kau,(2009). NEXUS VISTA SPM, CEMISTRY Selangor, Sasbadi Sdn.Bhd. S.H. Chan.(2011). Kimia SPM; Kuasai Melalui Diagram. Selangor: SAP Publications.

Suhaila Ahmad & Doris Siaw Hie Kiew. (2011). Memory Mastery Through Visual Maps & Diagrams Chemistry SPM. Selangor: PNI Neuron(M) Sdn. Bhd. 7

Vijaya Viswanathan & Catherine Lee. (2012). Suplemen SPM Chemistry .Selangor: Marshall Cavendish (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd.

Vijaya Viswanthan, Catherine Lee.(2009) New vision 3G SPM: Chemistry Marshall Cavendish . Shah Alam .Selangor

http://www.mse.vt.edu/faculty/staley/2034/2034module.4.pdf

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