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Main Sentence pattern and structure

Tense words + subject + location words + adverb + verb + object complement Subject + Tense words + adverb + verb + object complement Or simply it into {Subject} + Adverbials (Time + Place + Other Adverbials) +{Subject +} Verb + Complement + Object For example:


jn tin xi w

zi gng yun l min d y c

wn le

w de n yu.



Subject Tense word

location words



Object Complement

English meaning

I kissed my girlfriend for first time at the part this afternoon.


Sentences are inner-linked structures. The most basic Chinese sentence structure is in two parts, the subjectand the predicate. The subject is the person, place, or thing talked about and the predicate tells what the subject does. The main word in the subject is a noun. Nouns often need modifiers

called attributives which precede a noun to indicate this nouns quality or category. The attributive may be a word, or a group of words, or a sentence. (de), is the grammatical mark to indicate the attributive before the noun which modifies the noun. As for words and phrases about Personal Pronouns and Representative pronounces, please read here. For example: / W zutin mi de sh hn yu ysi/ The book I bought yesterday is very interesting. "/Sh/book" is the subject-noun. "/W zutin mi de" is the attributive. It gives more information about the book. /hn yu y si/ Is very interesting is the predicate. The main word in the predicate is a verb or an adjective. The predicate-verb and predicate-adjective often need two modifiers called adverbials and complements Adverbials are placed before verbs to specify time, location, and other situations that describe how the action happens. Complements, on the other hand, are placed after the verb to show the result and degree of the action. A transitive verb requires an object. The object is a noun which can be modified by attributive. Therefore, in a Chinese sentence, it is possible for six elements to link with each other. These six elements as described above are: subject, predicate-verb or predicateadjective, object, attributive, adverbial, and complement. A subject-noun and a predicate-verbs or a predicate-adjective are the basic elements for any sentence. They are the foundation for a group of words that will become the sentence. Other elements are involved according to the meaning the sentence will express. 1 Subject ((zh y) ), the part of a sentence about which something is said. 2 Predicate ((wi y) ), the action of the sentence or what is said about the subject. 3 Object ((bn y) ), a noun or pronoun that comes after the transit verb in an sentence. 4 Attribute ((dng y) ), a word or a group of words placed before nouns to modify the nouns. 5 Adverbial ((zhung y) ), a word or a group of words placed before verbs to

modify the verbs. 6 Complement ((b y) ), a word or a group of words placed after verbs to complete the meaning of the verbs.

Patterns of Sentence structure 1 Subject + verb-predicate ( + )

Example: (w shujio) / I sleep. (T dji) / He fights. (Wmn chf) / We move. 2 Subject + verb-predicate + Object ( + + )

Example: ( w q zhnggu) / I go to China. (T kn sh) / She read the book. (N sho wnfn) / You make the dinner.

Subject + verb-predicate + complement ( + + )

Example: ( t po de hn kui) / He run fast. ( N chng de bng j le ) / You sing so well. ( W mn ch f de ti zo le) / We leave so early.

Subject + adjective-predicate ( + )

Example: ( w goxng) / I am happy. (No to be is needed between subject and adjective-predicate) ( Qin zhn du) / There is a lot of money here. ( Kngq hn xn xin) / The air is fresh.

Subject + adjective-predicate + complement ( + + )

Example: (w goxng jle ) / I am happy extremely. (T shui di le ) / He is handsome extremely. (T shn ling de rng w gn dng ) / She is so kind that moved me. Subject + linking verb(cabability verb) + object ( + (, ) + )

Example: ( w sh xushng) / I am a student. ( N ky huji) / You may go home. ( Tmn nng zudo) / They can make it.

Subject + adverbial + verb + complement + object

Example: . ( W zo shng zi ji ch wn zo fn rn hu q xu xio.) / In the morning I finish breakfast at home and then go to school.

Negative sentences In the Chinese language, it is not necessary to change word order in a negation. Instead, use the negative words - b or - mi : both mean no, and as adverbs, are placed before verbs to express negation. + verb is equivalent to the English do not, not going to, will not; and + verb is equivalent to the English did not. (mi yu)means do not have or did not. Example: / W b q t sh gun/ I will not go to library. / W mi q t sh gun/ I didn't go to library. / W mi yu q n l/ I didn't go there. (Note: In this sentence "/mi yu" means did not, adverb, "/q" means go, verb )

/ W mi yu tng xng zhng/ I don't have passport. (Note: In this sentence "/yu" means have, verb )

Time expression In the Chinese language, time is expressed by placing a time word before the verb or before the whole sentence to say when or how often the thing happens. It is not necessary to change the word order or verb form in the sentence. Chinese language uses about 20 time words as nouns equivalent to English expressions. Examples include/qu-nian: last year, /xia-xingqi: next week, /mingtian zaoshang - tomorrow morning, etc; More words or phrases about Time & Duration, please read here. More words or phrases about Date&Week, please read here. About 30 time words are used as adverbs equivalent to English expressions, including / jixu: continuous,/buzai: no longer, /jingchang: frequently, etc. The sentence structure with time expression words: subject + time word + verb + object. The sentence structure with time expression words, compared with English use of tenses: Present continuous: subject + (zhng zi) or (zi)+ verb Example: /T zhngzi liotin/ He is chatting now. / Xio shn din, w zi d din hu ne./ Keep quiet, I am on the phone now. subject + verb + (le); subject + verb + object + (le); Example: /T ch le/ He ate somthing. /T shu zho le/ She wen to sleep.

Past tense:

Present perfect: (le)

subject + verb + (gu) + object +

Example: /T kn gu sh le./ He read that book. /T mn q gu chng chng le./ They went to the Great wall. /N ch gu fn le me./ Did you eat? subject + (hu) + verb Example: /T hu q t sh gun./ He will go

Future tense: to library.

/Ko sh hu fng zi xi zhu w jn xng./ The test will be taken on next Friday. subject + (d sun)or (zhn bi)+ verb Example: /T zhn bi ch f./ He prepares to

To be going to : leave.

subject + (jing)or (yo), (jing yo)+ verb Example: /Tin yo xi y./ It will rain. /T zu zhng jing yo yng de b si./ She will win the game finally. More words and phrases about Tense, please read here. Interrogatives In Chinese language, it is not necessary to change sentence word order or verb forms to make question. Instead, specific question words are used to ask questions. Many question words exist, including auxiliary question words, pronoun question words, and adverb question words. As for words and phrases about pronouns, pronoun questions, and representative, please read here. There are two kind of question sentences:

General questions which ask about Yes or No, Do or Do not.

To ask a general question, just put the question words (ma)or (ne)(ba) (ya)at the end of the statement sentence, to ask about yes or no, do or do not. Example: ?/ N sh xio l ma?/ Are you Xiao Li?-----(General, Yes or no) ?/N hu kn sh ma?/ Do you read the book?----(General, do or do not)

If asking about......isn't he / she / it (aren't they) ? or ......doesn't he / she / it (don't they) ?, or ......can't he / she / it / they?, put the negative question words "...... ?" or "......?" or "......?"in the subject position. Example: / T sh xu shng, b sh me?/He is a student, isn't he? / T xing hu ji le, b xng me? / She may go home now, can't she? / W mn zi zhn bi wn hu, b k y me? /We prepare for the dinner, can't we? 2 Specific questions which ask about when, where, how, why, etc.

To ask specific questions: If asking about Who, What, Which, put the pronoun question words in the subject position. Example: / Shu sh lo sh?/Who is teacher? / Shn me sh f l?/ What is law? / N xi sh xn sh?/ Which are new books?

If asking about Whom, Whose, What or Which (here refers to object), put the pronoun question words in the object position. Example: / Zh sh shu de sh?/Whose book is it? / W yng gi wn shu ci nng zh do zhng qu d'n?/Whom should I ask for to get the right qnswer?

/ Zhen sh shn me?/ What's that? / N di bio shu?/ Whom are you represent for? / N di bio na yi fang?/ Which side are you represent for?

If asking about When, Where, How, Why, How often etc, put the adverb question words before the verb. Example: / N zi n'er zh / Where do you live? / N shn me sh hu q Bijng? / When will you go to Beijing? / N zn me hu ji de?/ How did you go home? / N wishnme b shng xu?/ Why don't you go to school? / N du ji q y c t sh gun?/ How often do you go to library? If asking How long, put the question words (duo chang shi jian) or (duo jiu) in the complement position, after the verb or object because the words ask about the result of an action. Example: / N q zhng gu du chng sh jin?/ How long will you stay in China? / N zi n bin yo shng hu du ji?/ How long will you stay there? Note: and means how long, also means how often, depends on their positions in sentence. If asking ... or..., put the linking words "((shi))....(hai shi)....'before the object, or before the verbs, after the Subject to ask others to give a choice. Example: / N sh yng gu rn hi sh mi gu rn?/ Are you English or American? ()/ N (sh) zu ch q hi sh zu l q?/ Do you arrive there by bus or by walk?

If asking (Whether)... or not..., put the negative word "(bu) "or " (mei)' between two same linging verbs or two same verbs before the object, after the Subjec or in complement to ask others to give a choice. Example Phrase: (shi bu shi), (you mei you), (xing bu xing), (ke bu ke yi)... Example: / W b zh do t sh b sh mi gu rn?/ I don't know whether he is American or not? / N yu mi yu qin?/ Do you have money or not? / Mng tin w mn kn din yng xng b xng?/ May we go to cinema tomorrow or not? / N k b k y jing zh bn sh ji gi w?/ Could you pleaselend this book to me or not?

Passive "(bi)" and "(b)"-Ba sentence "" (pronounce bi) is used to express passive in Chinese language. The sentence structure: Taking object to subject position + + original subject + verb + complement. For example: Passive: /Dn go bi w ch le/ The cake was eaten by me. from Active: /W ch le dn go/ I eat the cake. "" (pronounce b), after subject and followed by object + verb to become ba sentence. It is a special expression in Chinese language to emphasize the object. Ba sentence structure: subject + + object + verb For example: / W b mn gun shng / I closed the door. from the standard sentence: / W gun shng mn/ I closed the door.