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CHAPTER VII

HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PRACTICES IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY IN INDIA


In highly skilled intensive and knowledge intensive industries like information technology industry, human resource plays a vital role. This industry is highly competitive, dynamic and technical industry, whose growth and development depends upon its human resource much more strongly than other resources. This industry needs highly skilled, talented and well-learned human resource. The quality of products and services both depend upon the quality of human resource, which needs continuous and multiple-skill training. Thus, to attain such human resource, there must be emphasis on developing and nurturing a strategy-based on human resource development practices in the information technology organisations. Human resource development comprises of many components like selection procedures, training policy, performance and promotion policy, transfer policy, wages, compensation, social-security policy, worker's welfare policy, recreational policy, employee- employee/employer/management relations, trade union, health policy, etc. All these components help to develop highly skilled, efficient, effective and dynamic human resource in these organisations. For the success of information technology organisations, it is necessary that right person must be placed at right job and his potential must be enhanced through multiple and continuous training. Thus, this sector must give more emphasis on the development of human resources by prevailing upon different aspects of human resource development practices in their organisations. All the components of human resource development practices must be integrated with the human resource policy of the organisation. The success of IT/ITES, sector is basically due to skilled, efficient and energetic human resource in Indian information technology sector. In India, the other reason for the growth of information technology industry is the availability of English language

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proficient labour class. The present study attempts to explore the practices of human resource development in various information technology organisations. The employees of information technology organisations covered in this study are Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), Wipro Technologies, Infosys Technologies Ltd., Hindustan Computer Ltd. (HCL), Dell International, Birlasoft, Pyramid Consulting Inc., Quack Inc., SemiConductor Laboratory (SCL Ltd), Alcatel-Lucent Technologies, Attra, Kanbay International Inc. and Omnia Technologies from Delhi, Bangalore, Pune, Chandigarh, Mohali respectively. Through detail questionnaire the implementation of human resource development practices in information technology organisations, have been estimated. An effort has also been made to measure the human resource development climate in information technology organisations. The sample-size of five hundred employees has been taken in this study. The questionnaire has been divided into three parts. Part (a) includes detailed information of personal and demographic data of the employees, about age, sex, educational qualification, nature of job, marital status, background, work-experience, monthly income and nature of appointment of employees in information technology industry. Part (b) includes various aspects of human resource development selection, training, performance and promotion, transfer, wages and compensation, relation among employees, health and welfare policies, which are practiced in information technology industry.

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Table 7.1 Age of Employees Age of Employee No. of Employees Percentage Source: Primary Survey H0: No. of employees in various age groups are equal H1: No. of employees in various age groups are not equal Chi-square (2Test) (Calculated value) = 667.056 (2)
2

<20yrs 10 2

20-30yrs 359 71.8

30-40yrs 130 26

>40yrs 1 0.2

Total 500 100

(Tabulated value)=11.3449 d.f. =3

is significant at 1% level

Table 7.2 Sex of Employees Sex No. of Employees Percentage Source: Primary Survey H0: No. of employees of different sex groups are equal H1: No. of employees of different sex groups are not equal Chi-square ( 2Test) (Calculated value) = 159.048 (2) (Tabulated value)=6.63490 d.f. =1 2 is significant at 1% level Male 391 78.2 Female 109 21.8 Total 500 100

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(a)

General Characteristics of Employees in Information Technology Industry:


Followings are the general characteristics of employees, covered in the survey.

1.

Age of Employees: India is a nation of youth and majority of Indians belong to

this group. In India there are nearly above fifty nine percent people in the age group of 15-60 years. They are also known as working population. Higher proportion of working young population is a good indicator for the growth of Indian economy. Young

population, have good or excellent stamina to do work efficiently and effectively and they are also dynamic by nature who change, as the nature of the organisation changes. Table 7.1 depicts that in Indian information technology industry, near about 71.8 percent employees are in the age group of 20-30 years, whereas 26 percent employees are in the age group of 30-40 years. It means that in Indian information technology industry, majority of employees are that is 97.8 percent are in the age group of 20-40 years. Data from the above table reveals that, just two percent employees are even less than the age of twenty years and point two percent employees are of more than forty years. In our survey (2Test= 667.056) > (2=11.3449) means calculated value is greater than tabulated value, so null hypothesis is rejected and it is significant at 1% level. It shows that the number of employees in various age groups is not equal. 2. Sex of Employees: In information technology industry, there is majority of male

employees as compared to female employees. It means that there is a wide gender gap between male and female employees. Table 7.2 reveals that near about 78.2 percent male employees are employed in information technology industry, whereas just 21.8 percent female employees are employed in this industry, which is much lower as compared to male employees. Participation of female employees is lower as compared to male employees in this industry in India, due to economic factors as well as other factors like cultural, social and ideological factors, or they also play a vital role in the determination of participation of female employees in information technology industry. Another reason may be that in information technology industry especially in BPO-ITES, there are night shifts because of 365x24x7 services of the organisations. Long-working hours are also, another hindrance, for the low participation of female employees. Survey shows that (2 Test =

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159.048) > (2=6.63490), the H1 is accepted and Chi-square is significant at 1% level. It means the number of employees of different sex groups is not equal. There is low participation of female employees as compared to male employees in information technology organisations. 3. Educational Qualification of Employees: Education, training and skill

acquisition is one of the key features of employees in the information technology industry. The information technology industry being a knowledge-based industry, entry to the labour market in this sector is restricted to the employable people with at least minimum level of education in general or technical education. In this survey, employees have been categorized into two categories of education that is general and technical education. In information technology industry most of employees are technically qualified people. Out of five hundred sample-sizes of employees, ninety five employees are with general qualification, whereas 405 employees are with technical qualification. General education includes arts, commerce and science faculty with B.A., M.A., B.Com, M.Com, B.Sc., M.Sc., etc., whereas technical education includes B.C.A, M.C.A, B-tech, M-tech, M.B.A, PGDCA, M.Sc. (IT) etc. In general education 51.58 percent, 46.32 percent and 2.11 percent employees are graduate, postgraduate and under-graduate, whereas in technical education 36.30 percent employees are MCA, 24.69 percent are BCA, 21.98 percent are B-Tech, 9.38 percent are M-tech, 7.16 percent are MBA and point forty nine percent are of other qualification like Diploma in Computer Science or P.G. Diploma in Computer Applications etc. It proves that in information technology industry most of the employees are technically skilled employees. General education depicts, (2Test = 41.66) > (2 =9.21034), so null hypothesis is rejected and alternative hypothesis is accepted. It means employees with different general education are not equal. This test is significant at 1% level. Again in technical education (2 Test= 212.99) > (2 =15.0863), which means number of employees having different technical education are not equal. Alternative hypothesis is accepted and it is significant at 1% level.

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Table 7.3 General Educational Qualification Edul. Qualification (General) No. of Employees Percentage Source: Primary Survey H0: No. of employees having different general education are equal H1 : No. of employees having different general education are not equal Chi-square ( 2 Test) (Calculated value) = 41.66 ( 2) (Tabulated value)=9.21034 d.f. =2 U.G. 2 2.11 Graduates 49 51.58 P.G. 44 46.32 Total 95 100

2 is significant at 1% level

Table 7.4 Technical Educational Qualification Edul. Qualification (Technical) No. of employees Percentage Source: Primary Survey H0: No. of employees having different technical education are equal H1: No. of employees having different technical education are not equal Chi-square (2 Test) (Calculated value 2) = 212.99 (2) (Tabulated value)=15.0863 d.f. =5 2 is significant at 1% level BCA 100 24.69 MCA 147 36.30 B-TECH 89 21.98 M-TECH 38 9.38 MBA 29 7.16 Other 2 0.49 Total 405 100

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Table 7.5 Background of Employees Background No. of employees Percentage Source: Primary Survey H0: No. of employees of different background are equal H1: No. of employees of different background are not equal Chi-square ( 2Test) (Calculated value) = 247.808 (2) (Tabulated value)=6.63490 d.f. =1 2 is significant at 1% level Rural 74 14.8 Urban 426 85.2 Total 500 100

Table 7.6 Marital Status of Employees Marital Status No. of employees Percentage Source: Primary Survey H0: No. of employees of having different marital status is equal H1: No. of employees of having different marital status is not equal Chi-square ( 2 Test) (Calculated value) = 20.808 (2 ) (Tabulated value)=6.63490 d.f. =1 2 is significant at 1% level Married 199 39.8 Unmarried 301 60.2 Total 500 100

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4.

Background of Employees: Most of information technology organisations are

located in metro cities, like National Capital Region (Delhi), Mumbai, Bangalore etc. It is because of availability of good infrastructure as well as skilled employees in these areas. Table 7.5 shows that most of the employees engaged in information technology industry are having urban background. A majority of employees that is 85.2 percent are of urban background and on the other hand just 14.8 percent employees are of rural background. In background of employees again (2Test = 247.808) > (2 =6.63490), so it is significant at 1% level. H1 is accepted which means the number of employees from different background that is from urban and rural areas, are not equal. There are majority of urban background employees. 5. Marital Status of Employees: Marriage is an important custom of Indian society.

In traditional Indian society, people used to get married at early age but now the trend has been changed. Now, people dont believe in early age marriage. They are career conscious now. With the spread of education particularly among females, the trend of early marriage is declining and the same is reflected in our study findings.

Table 7.6 shows that just 39.8 percent employees are married and 60.2 percent employees are unmarried. It means, a majority of employees are unmarried. In marital status, (2Test = 20.808) > (2=6.63490), so it is significant at 1% level. H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted. It means that the numbers of employees having different marital status are not equal.

6.

Nature of Job of Employees: In any type of organisations, there is need for

various employees having different skills. Nature of job can be classified as follows technical, non-technical, managerial and others like administrators, allied services providers including clerks, peons, secretaries, P.A. and maintenances staff etc. In our study, we have even included the security staff because they are an integral part of the

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organisations. They are good observers as well as good informers. They also play a vital role in the security of the organisations through collecting the information and identification of the visitors. Even some time in large scale organisations visitors are also checked by security staff. Table 7.7 reveals that majority of employees are engaged in technical department that is near about 74.8 percent, whereas, in non-technical, managerial and other department, 19 percent, 5.8 percent and 0.4 percent employees are engaged. Information technology industry is a technical industry and hence needs more technical employees as compared to others. Here, (2Test = 697.968) > (2 = 11.3449), so H1 is accepted which means number of employees in different nature of job are not equal. It is significant at 1% level. 7. Work Experience of Employees: In information technology industry, a majority

of young employees are employed. Many employees have just completed their graduation and post graduation at early age and also get job early. In BPOs most of employees have just completed their +2 or graduation at the age of 19-20 years.

Table 7.8 shows, that there is no employee having more experience than thirty years. On the other hand, a large number of employees that is 61.6 percent are having experience less than five years, 30.4 percent of employees are having experience between five to ten years and 7.6 percent of employees are having experience ten to twenty years. Out of five hundred employees just two employees have experience between twenty to thirty years. Our survey reveals that near about 92.0 percent employees having experience between one to ten years. There may be senior employees are having experience more than 30 years but they did not participate in this survey. Some of them directly refused to take participation in our survey. Data reveals that, (2Test = 694.16) > (2 = 13.2767) so, alternative hypothesis is accepted, whereas null hypothesis is rejected. It shows that number of employees in various work experience categories is different from each other. This test is significant at 1% level.

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Table 7.7 Nature of Job of Employees Nature of job No. of Employees Percentage Source: Primary Survey H0: No. of employees in different nature of jobs are equal H1: No. of employees in different nature of jobs are not equal Chi-square (2Test ) (Calculated value) = 697.968 ( 2) (Tabulated value) = 11.3449 d.f.
2

Technical 374 74.8

Non-technical 95 19

Managerial 29 5.8

Others 2 0.4

Total 500 100

=3

is significant at 1% level

Table 7.8 Work Experience of Employees Work Exp. No. of employees Percentage Source: Primary Survey H0: No. of employees having different experienced are equal H1: No. of employees having different experienced are not equal Chi-square (2Test) (Calculated value) = 694.16 (2 ) (Tabulated value) = 13.2767 d. f. = 4 2 is significant at 1% level <5 yrs 308 61.6 5-10yrs 152 30.4 10-20yrs 38 7.6 20-30yrs 2 0.4 >30yrs Total 500 100

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Table 7.9 Monthly Income of Employees Monthly Income Not disclosed <20 20-30 30-40 >40 Total (Rs.000s) (Rs.000s) (Rs. 000s) (Rs. 000s) (Rs. 000s) No. of Employees 266 43 64 76 51 500 Percentage 53.2 8.6 12.8 15.2 10.2 100

Source: Primary Survey H0 : No. of employees having different monthly income are equal H1 : No. of employees having different monthly income are not equal Chi-square (2 Test) (Calculated value) = 350.78 (2 ) (Tabulated value) = 13.2767 d.f.
2

=4

is significant at 1% level

Table 7.10 Nature of Appointment Nature of Appointment Trainee Trainee & likely to be permanent Permanent Purely temporary Total Source: Primary Survey H0: No. of employees having different nature of appointment are equal H1: No. of employees having different nature of appointment are not equal Chi-square (2Test) (Calculated value) = 486.68 (2 ) (Tabulated value) = 11.3449 d.f. 2 is significant at 1% level =3 No. of Employees 30 91 335 44 500 Percentage 6 18.2 67 8.8 100

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8.

Monthly Income of Employees: Salary in the software industry is one of the

most flexible feature and at the same time one of the most closely guarded secret in the industry. There are no fixed norms regarding the wage payment made to the employees. Information technology industry provides one of the highest salary levels in comparison to any other sector for same level of skills. The salary level in this sector has ushered in a new class of young urban upwardly mobile group of information technology employees. The high rates of salary in the industry are attracting workers from other sectors. Table 7.9 depicts, that the large number of employees did not disclose their monthly salaries. It means 53.2 percent of employees did not give any idea regarding their monthly salaries. The 15.2 percent of employees are getting salary between the ranges of Rs. 30-40 thousand per month. Approximately 12.8 percent and 10.2 per cent of employees are getting their monthly salaries between the range of Rs. 20-30 thousand and more than Rs. 40 thousand per month. Near about 8.6 percent employees are getting their salaries less than Rs. 20 thousand per month. It shows that (2Test = 350.78) > (2 = 13.2767), so null hypothesis is rejected and alternative hypothesis is accepted. All employees in information technology organisations, having different monthly income and chi-square are significant at 1% level. 9. Nature of Appointment: Information technology sector in India is well organized sector which includes public sector, private sector and MNCs. Though information technology industry is primarily in private sector, the nature of appointment in information technology sector is similar to that in the public sector. Some of employees are permanent, trainees, trainee and likely to be permanent and purely temporary. In information technology industry most of the employees are permanent because this industry spends a lot of resources and time on its employees by providing training and development. It is in the interest of organisations to have permanent employees. Table 7.10 reveals, that 67 percent of employees are permanent and 18.2 percent are trainees and likely to be permanent. The 8.8 percent employees are purely temporary and 6 percent employees are just trainees. It means that 85.2 percent employees are permanent in the nature of appointment. Here, (2Test = 486.68) > (2 = 11.3449), so alternative hypothesis is accepted. It means numbers of employees having

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different nature of appointment are not equal. Most of them are permanent. Hence, chisquare is significant at 1% level.

Human Resource Development Practices in Information Technology Industry:


During 1990s, the development of human resource practices has played a significant role in the performance of organisations. There has been a paradigm shift in the attitude of organisations towards human resource function. So, various organisations are embarking on the development of human resource. Human resource development practices depend upon human resource development culture and human resource development learning processes. Human resource development culture can be developed by providing multiple-training, promotion and welfare facilities to employees. It helps in fulfilling the satisfaction of the employees. The learning process includes communication and human resource development values. Communication may be upward, downward and lateral but it must be effective. Human resource development values include autonomy, collaboration, trust and openness among employees. By this type of human resource development practices, an organisation may get higher level of competent employees and better utilization of human resources in the form of outcome (Fig. 7.1). The present study attempts to explore employees perception of the adequate and effective implementation of human resource development practices in the information technology organisations. In these organisations various human resource development systems like effective selection procedure, multiple-training, performance and promotion policy, employees welfare, transfer policy etc., have been implemented for organisational growth and development. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of human resource development practices in the sample survey of information technology organisations - the level of satisfaction of employees has been estimated.

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Fig. 7.1 HRD Practices

HRD Culture

HRD Learning Processes

Multiple Training

Promotions Welfare of Employees

Communication

HRD Values

Upward
Communication

Downward
Communication

Lateral
Communication

Openness Collaboration Trust Autonomy

HRD Outcomes

Employees Competence

Better Utilization of Human Resource

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Table 7.11 Criteria of Selection Multiple Choices Through open interview/test Through placement agencies Through campus interview Through contacts If any other, specify, Total Source: Primary Survey No. of Employees 353 48 68 30 1 500 Percentage 70.6 9.6 13.6 6 0.2 100

Table 7.12 Fairness of Selection Procedure Choices Totally Fair Generally Fair Not Fair Total Source: Primary Survey No. of Employees 297 203 500 Percentage 40.6 59.4 100

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1)

Selection Procedure: In human resource development, emphasis must be placed

on selection procedure because it is the process through which an organisation makes the balance between jobs requirement and candidates qualification. The selection of any candidate is done on the basis of his educational qualification, experience, physical ability, mental ability and his behaviour in the organisation etc. To make selection procedure more effective and to keep right person at right place, various types of written tests, interviews, practical tests etc. are organized by information technology industry. a) Criteria of Selection Table 7.11, reveals the various criteria of selection procedure, which include open interview/test, placement agencies, campus interview, contacts are used by the information technology organisations. Out of five hundred employees majority of employees are selected by open interview/test method that is 70.6 percent. It is followed by campus interview, through which 13.6 percent employees are selected. Next is 9.6 percent and six percent employees are selected by placement ag encies and by contacts. The 0.2 percent employees are selected by other methods. Hence, in information technology industry main mode of selection of employees is open interview/test mode, which is more effective to find out right person for right job. In some cases the unskilled employees at low level are appointed without any interview or written test.

b)

Fairness of Selection Procedure For the success of any organisation, it is the necessary condition that selection

procedure must be fair. Table 7.12 shows that 59.4 percent employees consider that selection procedure in information technology organisations is generally fair. On the other hand 40.6 percent of employees consider that selection procedure is totally fair. None of employees says that it is unfair. It means employees are selected on the basis of their capabilities, knowledge and skills in these organisations.

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c)

Satisfaction with Selection Procedure Table 7.13, is related to the satisfaction of employees with selection procedure.

Near about, 87.2 percent employees are satisfied with selection procedure but 12.8 percent employees show their dissatisfaction regarding this procedure.

d)

Ability of Selection Procedure to Keep Right Person at Right Place An effective selection procedure is that, which has ability to select right person

and to keep him at right place also. In these organisations 86.4 percent employees, agree that organisations are capable to keep right person at right place but just 13.6 percent employees disagreed regarding this (Table 7.14).

2. Training Policy: Training is one of the most vital sub-systems of human resource development. It is generally carried out either formally or informally in almost all organisations irrespective of the size of the organisations. Training refers to the activities carried on by the organisations to increase knowledge, skill and efficiency of employees to achieve organisational goals. It also helps the new as well as old employees to cope up with the pressures of changing environment of the modern and dynamic organisations.

a)

Provision of Training in the Organisation Table 7.15 shows that in all the organisations there are provisions of training.

Near about 89 percent employees consider that each and every organisation in information technology sector has provided training facility to its employees. But 11 percent employees oppose it. Now-a-days, in knowledge oriented industries like information technology, there is need of multiple-skilled employees. So, these organisations are providing multiple-skill training to their employees. Near about 89 percent employees consider that multiple-skill training is provided to them and just 11 percent employees say that it is not provided. Data regarding the provision of training and multiple-skills training is almost the same. It means information technology industries are providing multiple-skill training

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Table 7.13 Satisfaction with Selection Procedure Choice No. of employees Percentage Source: Primary Survey Yes 436 87.2 No 64 12.8 Total 500 100

Table 7.14 Ability of Selection Procedure to Keep Right Person at Right Place Choice No. of employees Percentage Source: Primary Survey Yes 432 86.4 No 68 13.6 Total 500 100

Table 7.15 Provision of Training in the Organisation Choice Is there provision of training in the organisation Yes 445 (89) Is there provision of multiple training in the organisation 445 (89) Is training programme need based 423 No 55 (11) 55 (11) 77 Total 500 (100) 500 (100) 500 (100)

(84.6) (15.4) Source: Primary Survey Braces in table shows % of number of employees

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Table 7.16 Level of Employees at Which Multiple-skills Training is Provided Multiple Choice New Junior level Middle level Senior level All Total Source: Primary Survey No. of Employees 42 16 28 22 392 500 Percentage 8.4 3.2 5.6 4.4 78.4 100

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to its employees. It is necessary that training must be provided according to the requirements of the organisations as well as employees. In information technology organisations, 84.6 percent employees agree that the need based training is provided to them, whereas 15.4 percent employees do not agree regarding this. In competitive era, multiple-skills and need-based-training must be provided to the employees to improve quality. b) Level of Employees at Which Multiple-skills Training is Provided Table 7.16, depicts that multiple-skill training should be provided to the different levels of employees new employees, junior level, middle level, senior level and to all levels of employees. The new employees usually need multiple-skill training before they assume their posts, according to the requirement of organisation. The senior employees too require multiple-skills training to increase their quality in dynamic organisations. In these organisations, multiple-skill training is given regarding communication skills, voice accent, HR policy, leadership, time management, personality development, financial management, various computer software and hardware work, e-learning, C++, UBC, edge, multi-media etc. Table 7.16 shows that 78.4 percent employees consider that multiple-skill training is provided to all employees at different levels. Followed by 8.4 percent employees consider that it is provided to new employees of the organisation. Next 5.6 percent, 4.4 percent and 3.2 percent employees consider that multiple-skill training is provided to middle level, senior level and junior level employees.

3.

Performance and Promotion Policy: Performance policy is practiced in most of

the organisations of the information technology industry. For effective performance of employees, multiple-skill training is provided to the employees at various levels. If the employees performance is satisfactory promotion is given by the organisation. Promotion refers to the movement of employees to the higher position. It results in an increase of status, prestige, pay-scale, responsibilities and also a greater personal satisfaction of employees.

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a)

Provision of Adequate Career Development Opportunities in the Organisation Provision of adequate career development opportunities in these organisations

helps in improving the performance of employees. Table 7.17 shows that in the information technology organisations, 84.2 percent employees accept that there are adequate career development opportunities but 15.8 percent employees do not accept it. b) Satisfaction with Promotion Policy Satisfaction with promotion policy means that either the employees are satisfied with the up-gradation in the organisation or they are satisfied that able person/employee is achieving higher position with his hard work, experience and knowledge. This type of satisfaction is must for effective human resource development climate. If not, then it can create conflicts and groupism in the organisation, which is harmful for the growth of an organisation. In information technology industry, majority of employees that is 83.4 percent, are satisfied with the promotion policy and 16.6 percent are dissatisfied (Table 7.18). Methods adopted for granting promotion to employees are generally of two types formal and informal. Formal methods include 360 degree flexible method of performance appraisal, half-yearly goal assessments, performance-matrices, career success factors, are adopted by information technology organisations to assess the performance. Performance is also evaluated on yearly basis, twice in a year and according to targets. c) Nature of Promotion Evaluation Methods Table 7.19 shows that 85.2 percent employees consider that the information technology organisations mostly adopted formal methods for performance evaluation. Just 14.8 percent employees consider that informal methods are adopted for the performance evaluation.

d)

Mechanisms Used by the Organisation for Rewarding Good Performance

Various mechanisms are used by organisations for rewarding good performance. These mechanisms are - salary increments, cash awards, promotion, foreign travel, appreciation,

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Table 7.17 Provision of Adequate Career Development Opportunities in the Organisation Choice No. of Employees Percentage
Source: Primary Survey

Yes 421 84.2

No 79 15.8

Total 500 100

Table 7.18 Satisfaction with Promotion Policy Choice No. of employees Percentage Source: Primary Survey Yes 417 83.4 No 83 16.6 Total 500 100

Table 7.19 Nature of Promotion Evaluation Methods Nature of Promotion Evaluation Formal Informal Total Source: Primary Survey No. of Employees 426 74 500 Percentage 85.2 14.8 100

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Table 7.20 Mechanisms Used by the Organisation for Rewarding Good Performance (No. of Employees = 500) Multiple Choice Salary Increments Cash Awards Promotion Foreign Travel Appreciation Advanced Training At Reputed Institutions Study Tours Any Other, Specify Source: Primary Survey Table 7.21 Types of Transfer Policy Types of Transfer Policy As Per Workers Convenience Company's Requirement Both Total Source: Primary Survey No. of Employees 16 153 331 500 Percentage 3.2 30.6 66.2 100 No. of Employees 435 356 413 149 428 87 57 7 Percentage 87 71.2 82.6 29.8 85.6 17.4 11.4 1.4

Table 7.22 Employees Satisfaction with Transfer/Initial Placement Policy Choice No. of Employees Percentage Source: Primary Survey Yes 438 87.6 No 62 12.4 Total 500 100

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advanced training, study tours etc. Table 7.20 shows that majority of employees that is 87 percent employees consider that salary increments, is one of the most popular methods adopted for rewarding good performance. Next are appreciations, promotion and cash awards which are accepted by 85.6 percent, 82.6 percent and 71.2 percent employees are well known methods for rewarding good performance. On the other hand rewards like foreign travel, advance training at reputed institutions, study tours are 29.8 percent, 17.4 percent and 11.4 percent are relatively less used methods. Other rewards include gifts, holiday are accepted by 1.4 percent employees, which is very low.

4.

Transfer Policy: Transfer is a process of placing the employees in position, where

they are likely to be more effective and get more job satisfaction. It is a movement of an employee from one section or department to another at the same or other place, where his remuneration, status and responsibility is same. a) Types of Transfer Policy Table 7.21 shows that transfer of an employee is done on the basis of workers convenience, companys requirement and keeping in both the requirements. Table 7.21, depicts that 66.2 percent employees consider that a transfer is done on the basis of keeping in view both the requirements. The transfer policy on the basis of companys requirement is 30.6 percent, whereas on the basis of workers convenience, it is just 3.2 percent, which is relatively very low. b) Employees Satisfaction with Transfer/Initial Placement Policy Employees must be satisfied with the transfer policy of the organisation. If any employee is not satisfied with the transfer policy of the organisation, he will not do his work conveniently and there will be adverse effect on the productivity of that employee. Majority of employees state, that is 87.6 percent, they are satisfied with the transfer policy but just 12.4 percent of employees are dissatisfied with this policy in the information technology organisations, as shown by table 7.22.

5. Wages, Compensation, Social Security and Working Conditions Policy: Information technology organisations invest in their employees by improving wages and

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compensation, social security and working conditions, so as to increase the productivity and profitability of the organisations. a) Employees Satisfaction with Wages and Perks Salary and wages of the employees are not fixed in information technology industry. They vary from person to person, location to location and accordingly to organisational size. In information technology organisations, wages of the employees are much higher than other organisations. Table 7.23 reveals that 94.6 percent employees are satisfied with their wages and perks, whereas just 5.4 percent employees are not satisfied.

b)

Factors for Job Changing

Another feature of information technology industry is that its employees change jobs frequently in their career. The average duration of the information technology employees in a firm is very short, as compared to traditional employees. Employees in these organisations are highly professional, so they change their jobs because of following reasons higher salaries and perks, better working conditions, better job satisfaction and better career growth. Table 7.24 shows that 74.6 percent employees change their jobs for higher salaries and perks, 63.8 percent for better job satisfaction, followed by 53.4 percent for better working conditions and 31.4 percent employees for better career growth/opportunities. Around 7.8 percent of employees consider that they dont want to change their jobs for any reason because they are highly satisfied with their existing jobs. Employees Satisfaction with Job Security in the Organisation Job security is the main issue for any employee belonging to any organisation. An employee will put his full efforts only when his job is secure. In information technology industry, maximum employees consider that their jobs are secure. In private organisations attrition rate is also very high. Table 7.25 shows that 77.2 percent employees accept that there is job security in the information technology organisations. But 22.8 percent employees do not accept that their jobs are secure.

c)

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Table 7.23 Employees Satisfaction with Wages and Perks Choice No. of Employees Percentage Source: Primary Survey Yes 473 94.6 No 27 5.4 Total 500 100

Table 7.24 Factors for Job Changing (No. of Employees = 500) Multiple Choice Higher Salaries and perks Better working conditions Better job satisfaction Better career growth If any other, specify None Source: Primary Survey No. of Employees 373 267 319 157 39 Percentage 74.6 53.4 63.8 31.4 7.8

Table 7.25 Employees Satisfaction with Job Security in the Organisation Choice No. of Employees Percentage Source: Primary Survey Yes 386 77.2 No 114 22.8 Total 500 100

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Table 7.26 Type of Social Security Benefits Provided by the Organisation (No. of Employees= 500) Multiple Choice Pension Provident Fund Gratuity Health Insurance Compensation in case of major accident Compensation in case of death Any other, specify Source: Primary Survey No. of Employees 155 493 441 456 361 187 Percentage 31 98.6 88.2 91.2 72.2 37.4 -

Table 7.27 Provision of Adequate Paid Leave Facilities and Holidays Choice No. of Employees Percentage Source: Primary Survey Yes 471 94.2 No 29 5.8 Total 500 100

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d)

Type of Social Security Benefits Provided by the Organisation In India to achieve the goal of employees welfare, several laws have been

enacted by the government to provide social security to the workers. Some of the wellknown laws are The Employees Provident Funds - 1952, The Employees State Insurance Act - l948, The Payment of Gratuity Act - 1972, The Maternity Benefit Act 1961, etc. There are various types of social security benefits such as pension, provident fund, gratuity, health insurance, compensation in case of major accident and compensation in case of death, maternity benefit, survivors benefit etc. are provided to employees to secure their future and for their welfare. Table 7.26 conveys that approximately 98.6 percent, employees reported that provident fund is provided to them, followed by 91.2 percent employees reporting that health insurance is provided. The 88.2 percent employees accept that gratuity benefit is provided to them. Compensation in case of major accident is given to employees, is accepted by 72.2 percent. Just, 37.4 percent and 31 percent employees say that compensation in case of death and pension benefit is given to them, which is comparatively very low. e) Provision of Adequate Paid Leave Facilities and Holidays In information technology industry most of organisations provide, five days work weeks to their employees. In most of these organisations Saturday and Sunday are off. To permit for leave or not depends upon the work-schedule. In this industry, there is provision of adequate holidays and leave as per employees requirement and organisational policy. Majority of employees 94.2 percent consider that there are adequate provisions of leave facilities and holidays in information technology industry. But a very low percentage that is 5.8 percent employees say that they are not satisfied with the provision of adequate paid-leave facilities and holidays in this industry (Table 7.27).

f)

Over Time Working Hours in the Organisation

In information technology organisations working hours are nine hours which include one hour for the rest time. In these organisations, especially in software organisations, projects are given to its software specialist employees to complete work within given

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time period. There are relaxed periods as well when there are not many projects or the projects are at the beginning stages. But if projects are nearing completion, working hours would extend to any tenure of time. The software organisations provide the option of flexible office time depending on the convenience of the workers. The number of hours of work in the IT product and services are much longer than that of the ITES sector. Table 7.28, shows that 47 percent employees say that they work for longer hours

than as per schedule and they are not paid any over time allowances for extra hours they work, whereas 53 percent employees say that there are no over-working hours. They do work, according to the fixed working hours decided by the organisation. If they do overwork then company pay extra amount to them as an overtime allowance. Hence, there is fifty-fifty proportion about longer working hours in information technology industry. g) Usual or Exceptional Working Hours Working hours further have been divided into two parts usual working hours and exceptional working hours. Usual working hours mean to do work for more than eight hours in routine, while exceptional working hours mean to do work more then eight hours but rarely. The 55.32 percent employees state that it is exceptional that they work for more than eight hours on an average in a day. But 44.68 percent employees state that they usually work for more than eight hours (Table 7.29). 6. Recreational Facility: Information technology being a high-tech industry and highcompetitive industry, the employees in this industry face more stress and depression. This industry is a dynamic industry in which technologies are ever changing. So, various types of tensions related to skill, knowledge, competition, government policies, market fluctuations are faced by organisations which increase the stress level of employees. In order to overcome stress among employees industry provides recreational facilities.

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Table 7.28 Over Time Working Hours in the Organisation Choice No. of Employees Percentage Source: Primary Survey Yes 235 47 No 265 53 Total 500 100

Table 7.29 Usual or Exceptional Working Hours Choice No. of Employees Percentage Source: Primary Survey Usual 105 44.68 Exceptional 130 55.32 Total 235 100

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Table 7.30 Provision of Recreational Facility in the Organisation Choice No. of Employees Percentage Source: Primary Survey Yes 492 98.4 No 8 1.6 Total 500 100

Table 7.31 Types of Recreational Facilities (No. of Employees=500) Multiple Choice Gym Indoor/Outdoor games Meditation/ Yoga classes Music/ Television facilities Library facility Late night parties Club facilities If any other, Specify Source: Primary Survey No. of Employees 374 333 348 339 350 290 90 7 Percentage 74.8 66.6 69.6 67.8 70 58 18 1.4

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a)

Provision of Recreational Facility in the Organisation To overcome the tension, depression, stress and tiredness among employees and

to make them energetic, active and refresh, information technology sector provides various types of recreational facilities. Table 7.30 shows that majority of employees near about 98.4 percent employees agree that organisations provide all these facilities to them but just 1.6 percent employees say that organisations do not provide such facilities. b) Types of Recreational Facilities The activities like gym, indoor/outdoor games, meditation/yoga classes, music/ television facilities, library facilities, late night parties and club facilities, are provided to the employees for their relaxation. In the era of high competition employees need these types of facilities to minimize their stress and work pressure. In these organisations, 74.8 percent employees accept that gym facility is provided to them for their fitness. After this 70 percent, employees state that library facility is provided to them to upgrade their knowledge and skill. Meditation/yoga classes are provided to them is accepted by 69.6 percent employees. Music/television facilities are provided to employees and this is accepted by 67.8 percent employees. Indoor/outdoor games facilities are provided to employees and this is accepted by 66.6 percent employees. Near about 58 percent employees state that late night parties are provided to them. In information technology industry, 18 percent employees accept that club facilities are provided to them. Only 1.4 percent employees state that other facilities like holiday tour, may be domestic or foreign tour are provided to them (Table 7.31). Thus, in general good recreational facilities are provided to the employees. 7. Employees-Employees/Employer/Management Relations: For the success of

any organisation rapport relation among employee-employee/employer/management must be strong and cordial; there must be an atmosphere of mutual understanding and mutual trust. Now a days, there is open and direct communication among all types of members. TCS, Infosys, Wipro are the set examples, which tell the success stories of these huge information technology organisations due to strong and harmonious employee-relationship.

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a)

Organisation Encourage Teamwork

In information technology industries, projects are undertaken by the organisations. To complete these projects there is a need for teamwork, in which members openly communicate with each other, share their views with each other, respect each others views and show mutual understanding within the group. Success of any organisation is not a contribution of single person, but is a contribution of all members from top to bottom level. Table 7.32 depicts that 90.2 percent employees state that there is an encouragement for teamwork in the organisation but just 9.8 percent employees disagree with it. The 91.4 percent employees accept that there is freedom to communicate with their seniors, colleagues and juniors or even with the employees of other departments. There is not any type of restriction in communication with any one. But just 8.6 percent employees believed that there is lack of communication. Now-a-days, the management promotes employees participation in decisionmaking. In new industries, like information technology industry in the decision- making process, an employee can also express his views more openly. The 78.6 percent employees state that they have opportunity to take part in decision-making process but 21.4 percent employees state that they do not have freedom to take participation in the process of decision-making. b) Managements Attitude towards Employees Relation between employee and management generally depends upon the attitude of management. If management is co-operative, friendly, inspiring and has strong leadership quality then, it can establish good, strong and harmonious relation with its employees. By this, an organisation can achieve its set targets. TCS, Infosys, Wipro, Dell International are the set examples of such kind of attitude. On the other hand if managements attitude is dictatorial and indifferent, it cannot motivate its employees in positive ways. In table 7.33, 79.6 percent and 71.6 percent, employees state that managements attitude towards them is corporative, friendly and inspiring. Leadership by self example is moderate according to 43.6 percent of employees. Whereas 9.6 percent and 3.8 percent employees consider that the managements attitude towards them is dictatorial and indifferent, this is relatively lower. This type of attitude is unfavourable for any organisation.

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Table 7.32 Organisation Encourage Teamwork Choice Is there encouragement for teamwork Freedom to communicate with senior and co-workers Participation of employees in Yes 451 (90.2) 457 (91.4) 393 (78.6) No 49 (9.8) 43 (8.6) 107 (21.4) Total 500 (100) 500 (100) 500 (100)

decision-making process

Source: Primary Survey, Braces in table shows % of number of employees

Table 7.33 Managements Attitude towards Employees (No. of Employees = 500) Multiple Choice Leadership by self-example Co-operative and Friendly Inspiring Dictatorial Indifferent Source: Primary Survey No. of Employees 218 398 358 48 19 Percentage 43.6 79.6 71.6 9.6 3.8

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Table 7.34 Encouragement to Employees to Experiment/Risk-Taking Choice No. of Employees Percentage Source: Primary Survey Table 7.35 Trade Union in Information Technology Industry Choice Does trade union exist in your organisation Yes Should there be a trade union 46 (9.2) Is there an effective joint conflict management machinery 239 No 500 100 454 (90.8) 261 Total 500 (100) 500 (100) 500 (100) 500 (100) 500 (100) Yes 390 78 No 110 22 Total 500 100

(47.8) (52.2) Is there grievances redressal machinery in the organisation 252 248

(50.4) (49.6) Are the employees satisfied with grievances redressal machinery 234 266

(46.8) (53.2) Source: Primary Survey, Braces in table shows % of number of employees Table 7.36 Methods of Resolving Conflicts

(No. of Employees = 500) Methods By informal discussion By negotiation b/w workers and management By HR department By some formal committees If any other, specify Source: Primary Survey No. of employees 288 183 449 86 5 Percentage 57.6 36.6 89.8 17.2 1

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c)

Encouragement to Employees to Experiment/Risk-Taking In these days managements attitude towards employees has strongly changed.

Management encourages their employees to do experiments/risk-taking in advance industries like information technology. Table 7.34 shows that 78 percent employees accept that their management encourages them to do experiment/risk-taking but 22 percent employees think otherwise.

8.

Trade Union: Trade unions are the associations of employees formed to maintain

industrial peace and protect the rights of employees. Generally, trade unions exist in all types of organisations but in information technology industry, trade unions dont exist. a) Trade Union in Information Technology Industry There is no trade union in information technology industry. Its reason is that all basic facilities are provided by organisations to its employees or if there are any types of conflict then they are sorted out by a committee. In information technology industry, employees also leave the organisation almost within few years because they may get a better opportunity which reduces the importance of trade union in information technology industry. On the other hand just 9.2 percent employees state that there is need for trade union but majority of employees that is 90.8 percent do not want any trade union. Table 7.35 shows that 52.2 percent employees state that there is not any effective joint conflict management machinery; whereas 47.8 percent employees say that there is machinery to manage conflict effectively. Grievances redressal machinery exists, is accepted by 50.4 percent employees but 49.6 percent employees refuse it. The 46.8 percent employees are satisfied with grievance redressal machinery while 53.2 percent are not satisfied with it. b) Methods of Resolving Conflicts In information technology industries, no trade union exists. So, if there is any type of conflict or dispute, it is sorted out by different measures by some formal committees, by informal discussion, by negotiation between workers and management, by human resource department. In table 7.36, approximately 89.8 percent employees accept that maximum conflicts are sorted out by human resource department whereas 57.6 percent employees say that they are solved by informal discussions. A low percentage of employees that is 36.6 and 17.2, accept that conflicts are sorted out by negotiation

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between workers and management and by some formal committees. Just one percent employees state that for this other methods are used. Hence, in information technology industry, instead of trade union, HR department plays a vital role to solve the conflicts.

9.

Health Facility: Now-a-days, several health facilities are provided to employees

by the organisations because they know that efficiency in work is possible only when an employee is healthy. If the employee is not healthy, there will be a high rate of absenteeism and turnover, industrial discontent and indiscipline, poor performance and low productivity in organisations. a) Provision of Medical Facility in the Organisation In information technology industry various types of health facilities are provided to employees like medical facilities and improved working conditions. In various information technology organisations, medical check-ups of employees are done at the time of recruitment to check their physical fitness to perform work efficiently. Table 7.37 shows that hundred percent employees state that medical facilities are provided to them by these organisations.

b)

Work Related to Health Hazards in the Organisation Despite good health facilities in information technology organisations, majority of

employees face work related health hazards. In information technology organisations there are various health hazards because of stressful job and long-working hours. These health hazards create various health problems like obesity problem, backache problem, joint pain, eyes stress. In information technology organisations, near about 82.6 percent employees are facing problems related to eyes because of long time working on computer screen. Other problems are backache problem, neck pain and obesity problem which is accepted by 89.2 percent, 50 percent and 39 percent employees. Joint pain problem is faced by 24.8 percent employees, 2.6 percent employees face other health problems like headache, swelling on feet etc (Table 7.38). In information technology industry, eyes stress is the main health hazard which is faced by employees in majority, followed by backache and neck pain.

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Table 7.37 Provision of Medical Facility in the Organisation Choice No. of Employees Percentage Source: Primary Survey Yes 500 100 No Total 500 100

Table 7.38 Work Related to Health Hazards in the Organisation (No. of Employees =500) Multiple Choice Obesity Problem Backache Joint Problem Joint Pain Neck Pain Eyes Stress Any Other, Specify Source: Primary Survey No. of Employees 195 296 124 250 413 13 Percentage 39 59.2 24.8 50 82.6 2.6

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Table 7.39 An Equal Opportunity/No Bias Institution Multiple Choice Yes No Dont Know Whether the organisations are equal opportunity/no bias institution Are the organisations encourage to women workers and consciously promotes no gender discrimination Are unmarried female workers want to continue their job after marriage Are married female workers feel difficult to pull on with their job 108 (99.08) 17 1 (0.92) 92 109 (100) 109 (100) 457 (91.4) 416 (83.2) 4.3 (8.6) 8 (1.6) 76 (15.2) 500 (100) 500 (100) Total

(15.60) (84.40)

Source: Primary Survey Braces in table shows % of number of employees

Table 7.40 Facilities to Women Workers (No. of Employees = 500) Multiple Choice Maternity Leave Hostel Facility Crche Facility Exemption From Night Shifts Special Convenience Facility If Any Other, Specify Source: Primary Survey No. of Employees 497 48 100 307 338 7 Percentage 99.4 9.6 20 61.4 67.6 1.4

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10. Other Aspects: It includes other relevant aspects of human resource development practices like whether the organisations are equal opportunity/no bias institutions. Other welfare measures like housing, schools, hospitals, transportation facilities, provision of stock option, adequacy staff and the stressfulness of job etc. are covered under other aspect. a) An Equal Opportunity/No Bias Institution As per Indian Law - equal wage must be paid for equal work without any bias for caste, community and gender. In information technology industries, the participation of female employees is less because of social constraints and long-working hours. But in these industries, there is not any gender bias. The 91.4 percent employees state that it is an equal opportunity institution but just 8.6 percent employees opted otherwise. Likewise 83.2 percent employees state that information technology industry encourages the woman employees to participate and promotes conscious no gender discrimination policy. The 15.2 percent employees do not know and express their ignorance about gender sensitivity issue. The participation of female employees is low in information technology industry. In case of female employees 84.40 percent feel that they dont find it difficult to pull on with their jobs after marriage, but 15.60 percent female employees feel otherwise. However, 99.08 percent of female employees want to continue their jobs even after marriage (Table 7.39). b) Facilities to Women Workers Information technology provides several facilities to the woman employees for their welfare and to increase their participation ratio. There are provisions of maternity leave facility in these organisations. Table 7.40 conveys that near about 99.4 percent employees consider that maternity benefit is provided to female employees when required. The 67.6 percent employees consider that special conveyance facility is provided to female employees, whereas 61.4 percent employees accept that exemption from night shift facility is provided to female employees. Twenty percent employees state that creche facility is provided. The 9.6 percent employees reports that hostel facility and 1.4 percent state that other facility are provided to female employees. So, information technology industry plays a vital role in the welfare of women employees by providing them special facilities.

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c)

Other Welfare Measure Other welfare facilities like housing facility, co-operatives, schools, hospitals,

sponsorship for high education and transportation facilities are also provided to employees. Many information technology organisations have already established schools and hospitals for the welfare of their employees and provide services at low charges. These organisations provide transportation facilities to its employees, 96.4 percent of employees accepted it. The 51.6 percent employees state that hospital facility is provided to them and 43.2 percent employees state that housing facility is also provided to them. Sponsorship for higher education facility is accepted by 39.4 percent employees. The 22.4 percent employees accepted that school facility is provided to them by organisations. A very low percentage of employees that is 14.2, consider that co-operative facility is provided to them (Table 7.41).

d)

Provision of Stock Option in the Organisation Today, several organisations are providing the stock option to their employees. It

means that employees can buy the share of the organisations but this facility is provided mainly to the senior employees only. In table 7.42, 50.8 percent employees consider that there is provision of stock option for them but 49.2 percent employees state that there is no provision of such facility. Thus, there is fifty-fifty proportion response of employees about stock option facility in information technology industry.

e)

Adequate Staff in Organisation In table 7.43, 50.8 percent employees state that there are adequate staff members

in the organisations but 49.2 percent employees disagreed. There is fifty-fifty ratio of employees who have different opinions regarding adequacy of staff in organisations.

f)

Stressfulness of Job

Information technology, being a high-tech sector there is a lot of pressure or stress on the employees to achieve desirable goals. Although, several welfare facilities and recreational

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Table 7.41 Other Welfare Measure (No. of Employees =500) Multiple Choice Housing facility Co-operatives Schools Hospital Sponsorship for higher education Transportation Any other, Specify.
Source: Primary Survey

No. of Employees 216 71 112 258 197 482 Table 7.42 Provision of Stock Option in the Organisation

Percentage 43.2 14.2 22.4 51.6 39.4 96.4 -

Choice No. of Employees Percentage Source: Primary Survey

Yes 254 50.8

No 246 49.2

Total 500 100

Table 7.43 Adequate Staff in Organisation Choice No. of Employees Percentage Source: Primary Survey Table 7.44 Stressfulness of Job Choice No. of Employees Percentage Source: Primary Survey Yes 444 88.8 No 56 11.2 Yes 254 50.8 No 246 49.2

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facilities are provided to the employees to reduce their stress but still 88.8 percent employees confess that it is really a stressful job. Just 11.2 percent employees deny that it is stressful job (Table 7.44). The emergence of information technology industry in India has brought numerous changes in Indian economy. The information technology industry is a knowledge intensive, hi- tech and a multi-skill industry. This sector has converted Indian economy from traditional economy to highly knowledgeable and highly competitive economy. In India, there are several information technology organisations whose product and services are not only well known in India but also in foreign countries like USA, UK etc. These organisations have provided work to unemployed population. Hence, this sector has proved a backbone for Indian economy. Success of information technology industry lies in its knowledgeable, skilled and competitive labour-force. These organisations have given more emphasis to its human resources. Various organisations in this industry have achieved many awards for being best employers. In information technology industry many favourable human resource development practices have been implemented. These are selection procedure, transfer policy, training policy, performance and promotion policy, wage compensation, social security and working conditions policy, recreational policy, employee-employee/ employer/ management relations and health policy. Thus it can be calculated that in information technology sector, most of young and technical skilled people are employed belonging to urban-areas and majority of them are male employees. The participation of women employees is relatively lower because of socio constraints, night-shifting, long-working hours and highly challengeable nature of jobs. Data reveals that in this industry majority of employees are unmarried. The nature of the job of most of employees is technical. In this industry majority of employees are young, so majority of them have experience less than five years. The monthly income of employees in information technology organisations is very high as well as flexible, which differs from location to location and varies with size of organisations and skill of employees. Large organisations are offering high salaries and benefits to their workers as compared to their smaller counterparts. In this survey maximum employees do not disclose their monthly income. Most of employees are permanent in nature of

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appointment, because industry spends a large amount of resources on the training of their employees. Data reveals that information technology industry selects its employees through several fair interview and test rounds in organisations, so that they can get skilled and efficient employees. Majority of employees are also satisfied with selection procedure of surveyed organisations. Maximum employees also accept that selection procedure has ability to keep right person at right place. Information technology industry is high-tech and dynamic industry, so it provides multi-skills and need-based training to all employees employed at any level, to tackle with competition and stress. In information technology industry, majority of employees state that there is provision of adequate career development. In this sector to evaluate the nature of promotion, formal method is adopted and majority of employees are satisfied with promotion policy. For good performance, rewards like salary increments, cash awards, promotions, foreign travel etc. are given to employees. Most of employees state that salary increment method is one of the most popular methods for rewarding good performance. Majority of employees are satisfied with transfer policy and it is done on the basis of workers convenience and companys requirement. Data conveys that industry pays high wages, compensations, social securities and perks, job security. Employees are highly satisfied with these facilities. Majority of employees state that if they will change the present job they will do so for higher salaries and perks. The working conditions in these organisations are well improved. The sanitation, ventilation, proper lighting is taken into consideration. Provident fund, gratuity, health insurance facilities and compensation in case of major accidents are provided to most of the employees. In this sector, there is provision of leave facilities and holidays. These organisations pay for overtime to employees. In information technology industry, to meet the set targets, employees are constantly under the pressure of work because of long-working hours, to complete the projects within the specific time limits. Many types of recreational facilities - gym, indoor /outdoor games, meditation /yoga classes, library facilities and late night party facilities are provided to them for their entertainment and to reduce work pressure. Majority of employees said that the top management in information technology sector is

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very co-operative, friendly, encouraging and inspiring. There is no trade union. If there is any type of conflict then it is solved by human resource department and other formal or informal committees. Health facilities are provided to employees, are accepted by all surveyed employees. In spite of good health facility majority of employees face health hazards mainly related to eyes, neck pain and obesity. In these organisations there is not any type of discrimination among male and female employees. Various facilities are provided to female employees to increase their participation ratio in this industry. Here, all employees are equal and have open communication among them. For the welfare of employees various facilities like medical, transportation, co-operative, hostel and hospital facilities are provided to them. There is also provision of stock option for employees. There is provision of adequate staff in this industry. Majority of employees accept that in information technology work is really stressful. In spite of this majority of employees are satisfied with the prevailing human resource development practices in information technology industry in India.

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