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Short Circuit Force Calculation

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ETHS1S/3002074160/ED2.104.001

SHORT-CIRCUIT FORCE CALCULATION ON FLEXIBLE CONDUCTOR FOR 400 kV Switchyard at O P Jindal Super Thermal Power Plant, 4X600 MW Units, Tamnar, Raigarh, Chattisgarh

**Client : Jindal Power Limited
**

Name Author: Mohd. Sharib Approval: Saurabh Jain Department SPEL SPEL Telephone 4344251 4344046 Place Gurgaon Gurgaon Date 25.08.10 25.08.10 Signature

Index of Revisions: Rev: Date Revised Items Page Remarks Name of Reviser Name of Approver

**Siemens Power Engineering Pvt. Ltd.,
**

Copying of this document, and giving it to others and the use or communication of the contents thereof, are forbidden without express authority. Offenders are liable to the payment of damages. All rights are reserved in the event of the grant of patent or registration of a utility model or design.

400 kV Switchyard at O P Jindal Super Thermal Power Plant

Page 1 of 11

…………………………………………………………………………… .0 5.…………………………………………………………………………… 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 System Data .0 6..104... Calculation ....…………………………………………………………………………… Conclusion References ..0 8.…………………………………………………………………………… Conductor Data…………………………………………………………………………….0 Introduction ETHS2S/3002074160/ED2... Installation Data……………………………………………………………………………......0 2.…………………………………………………………………………… Attachments ...0 4..…………………………………………………………………………… 400 kV Switchyard at O P Jindal Super Thermal Power Plant Page 2 of 11 ...001 Page ...0 7....s Contents 1...0 3.

004 6. 2 System Data Switchyard 1 2 3 4 5 6 Nominal System Voltage System Frequency Short Circuit Fault Current at Bus Duration of Fault Current Average (daily ambient) Temperature Maximum Operating Temperature 400 50 50 1 32 75 kV Hz kA sec °C °C 3 Conductor Data ACSR MOOSE 1 2 3 4 5 6 Conductor Diameter Total Cross-sectional Area Conductor Weight Modulus of Elasticity Mass of Spacer Unit Effective distance between sub-conductor in bundle 31. This conductor force is in addition to the static tension on the conductor (measured from sag-tension calculation) and is sustained by the supporting structures.001 In installations with strained flexible conductors the short circuit current carried by the conductors causes development of stress in the conductors due to the electromagnetic force amongst the conductors in par-allel phases.s 1 Introduction ETHS3S/3002074160/ED2.104. The objective of this calculation is to determine the maximum force generated on the conductor bundle during a short circuit in order to design the switchyard structures to sustain such forces.73E+10 1. Further for line-to-line short circuits. conductor swing out typically results in decreasing phase-to-phase clearance between conductors strung in parallel.843 m m 400 kV Switchyard at O P Jindal Super Thermal Power Plant Page 3 of 11 .45 mm mm 2 kg/m N / m2 kg m 4 Installation Data 1 2 Phase-to-Phase Spacing Length of Insulator String . In this calculation the 'spacer span' on conductor bun-dle is determined to optimize the tensile forces to values that enables maintaining of the minimum air clearances between phases during horizontal span displacements of conductor bundles at L-L short circuit.94 0.77 597 2.TWIN ACSR MOOSE 7 3.

the minimum air clearance between phase conductors at maximum swing out position due to short circuit shall be at least 50 % of the mandatory phase-to-phase clearance. 2.Calculation of Effects.104. The curves give the maximum force in the conductor and the 'critical spacer span' at which it occurs. . 400 kV outdoor switchyard with rated Lightning Impulse Withstand voltage of 1425 kV. For design of support structure the maximum value of short circuit force to be considered is to be decided from Attachment 3. Drop Force ( F f ) and Tensile Force ( Ft) against the spacer span varying from 1. 6 Attachments Attachment . 2.001 The basic methodology of this is as explained in IEC-865 (Part 1) : 1993 and further elaborated in the so-lved examples of IEC-865 (Part 2) : 1994. 8.DRAWING NO.0 m through every 0.3: Summary of Results. (0)-G71770-AD152-L153-001 400kV CLEARANCE DIAGRAM PLAN & SECTION.Common Rules 4.5 m. IEC-61936 (Part 1) : 2002 Power installations exceeding 1 kV a. 3. Clause 5.2 of IEC-865 (Part 1). As per the values obtained in the calculation. 5.4.Calculation of Effects. Minimum air clearance is determined for the force optimized with the selected spacer span and with the value of static normal tension as the minimum tension under no wind condition (from sag-tension calculation) for line-to-line fault current. 7 Conclusion 1. IEC-865 (Part 1) : 1993 Short Circuits Currents . (0)-G71770-AC152-L152-001 400kV ELECTRICAL LAYOUT SECTION . the mandatory phase-to-phase clearance is 4 m.3). (0)-G71770-AD152-L156-001 400 kV Switchyard at O P Jindal Super Thermal Power Plant Page 4 of 11 . Attachment . 2. IEC-865 (Part 2) : 1994 Short Circuits Currents .2: Characteristic curves showing behavior of Short Circuit forces against spacer span for arrangement of conductors in different spans.DRAWING NO.4.1: Detailed Calculation for TWIN ACSR MOOSE conductor of 137 m. 400kV ELECTRICAL LAYOUT PLAN .c. Technical Specification for 400 kV Switchyard 6 7. 2 under clause no. All the terms . This includes the tensile forces owing to dead load of conductor and wind load on conductor. we have plotted curves of Pinch Force ( F pi ). This force shall be applied to two Phases of the girder supporting them whereas the third phase shall have normal static tension from sagtension calculation. Thus the minimum air clearance shall be greater than 2 m. Attachment . This is as per note no. 8 References 1. As per IEC-61936 (Part-1.s 5 Calculation ETHS4S/3002074160/ED2.0 m to 10.DRAWING NO. The actual spacer span selected is a span lower than the critical spacer span. factors and some miscellaneous data used in the calculation are as defined in IEC-865 (Part 1) : 1993. Technical Data sheets for ACSR Moose Conductor Manufacturer. and has been expressed on 'per phase' basis.

0 Input Data Attachment .0 Detailed Calculation Calculation for Short Circuit Forces 2.73E+10 N/m2 6.81 50000 137.m.49 2.: Vendor Data} {selected} 1.38 m m kg / m kg / m {ref.81} Hz {ref.001 Detailed Calculation for TWIN ACSR MOOSE conductor of 137 m Following are the input data for the calculation.40 50 9. Other terms.of sub-conductor x 7005 x 9.of sub-conductor x 3062 x 9.00E+05 N/m 50 1. permeability of vacuum Factor for the calculation of peak short circuit current Time constant of the network Factor for the relevant natural frequency estimation 7 4.004 2.00 2.: Vendor Data} {ref.77 0.97E+02 5.1 ETHS1S/3002074160/ED2.73E+10 137428.5 1 kg m Sec -2 {ref.: Vendor Data} {ref.: Vendor Data} = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = m m mm 2 m2 mm m 6.8 0.2lb-2li) Length of one insulator string Beam Depth Mass per unit length of one sub-conductor Resultant mass per unit length of one subconductor after considering the mass of spacers within the span = m' + {(ns x mz)/(n x lc)} Conductor Type No.: Tech Spec.315 m 3.1 The characteristic Electromagnetic Load per unit length on flexible main conductor in 3 φ system is given by : 400 kV Switchyard at O P Jindal Super Thermal Power Plan Page 5 of 11 . factors and data used in the calculation are as defined in IEC-865.} {ref.} m/s 2 A m {ref. (l .257E-06 N A 1.: Tech Spec.: Vendor Data} {ref. Part-I.03177 {ref.50E-01 5.96 60068.: Layout Plan} {assumed} {ref.94 2. a: as : As : ds : E: Fst (max): Fst (min): f: gn : I"k3 : l: lc : li : lb: m' : ms' : Centre line distance between conductors (phase to phase spacing) Effective distance between sub-conductors Cross-section of one sub-conductor Diameter of the sub-conductor in bundle Final value of Young's modulus of elacticity of the sub-conductor Max Initial static tensile force in main conductor Min Initial static tensile force in main conductor System frequency acceleration due to gravity 3φ initial symmetrical short circuit current (r.: IEC-865-Part 1} n: S: ns : mz : ls : Tk1 : µ0 : κ: τ: γ: 1.: Layout Plan} 127.00 2 N/m N{No.s 1.97E-04 31.81} N{No. of spacers in the span Mass of one set of connecting pieces (spacer) Distance between two adjacent spacer Duration of first short circuit current flow Magnetic constant.104. of sub-conductor in a main conductor bundle Resultant spring constant of both supports of one span Nos.s) Centre line distance between supports (main conductor span) Cord length of the main conductor in the span.8425 1.: IEC-865-Part 2} ACSR MOOSE 2 TWIN {ref.: Vendor Data} {ref.042 1.

Tres. 21 of IEC-865-I} 2. 25 of IEC-865-I} 2.80 m m {ref.7 Actual Young's modulus of conductor.00E+07 5. 19 of IEC-865-I} 2. 29 IEC:865-1} δk = 2δ1 for : (Tk1/Tres) > 0.60 sec sec {ref. 400 kV Switchyard at O P Jindal Super Thermal Power Plan Page 6 of 11 .00 {ref.: Eqn. 2.5 or δk = degrees Duration of the first short circuit current flow is given by: Tk1 = 0. 24 of IEC-865-I} 2.: Eqn. => Es {ref.4 The equivalent static conductor sag at midspan is given by : bc = = (n x m's x gn x l2 ) / (8 x Fst) 0.3+0. the value of Tk1 (=0.: Eqn.68E-05 1/N 1/N {ref.: Eqn. therefore.: Eqn.2. E s. 23 of IEC-865-I} 2.001 Detailed Calculation for TWIN ACSR MOOSE conductor of 137 m (µ0/2π) x (0.8 The stiffness norm is given by: N = = {1/(S x l)} + {1/(n x Es x As)} 1. 20 of IEC-865-I} 2. the span will have oscillated out of the steady state to the angle given by: δ1[1-cos(3600 xTk1/Tres)] degrees for :0 ≤ (Τk1/Τres) ≤ 0.1 ETHS2S/3002074160/ED2.46 sec now.: Eqn. T.75) x (I"k32/a) x (lc/l) 49.9 The stress factor. as per Cl.1 of IEC 865-1. 22 of IEC-865-I} 2.3. 26 IEC-865-I} where.: Eqn. of the main conductor is given by: ζ = = (n x gn x ms' x l)2 / (24 x Fst3 x N) 0. 28 of IEC-865-I} 2.7 x sin{Fst /(n x As) x (900 /σfin)}] E 5.8 x (bc / gn)}1/2 1.06 {ref.s F' = = Attachment .: Eqn.104.6 The resulting period.77 degrees degrees {ref.5 {ref. No.3 The direction of the resulting force exerted on the conductor is given by : δ1 = = tan-1 r 46.5 The period. is given by: Es = = σfin = = E[0.: Eqn.78 N/m N/m {ref. of conductor oscillations is given by : T = = 2π x {0.64 sec Tk1/Tres= 0.: Eqn.2 The ratio of electromagnetic force under short circuit to gravitational force on a conductor is given by : r = = F'/(n x m's x gn) 1. 27 of IEC-865-I} 2.38 sec sec {ref.00E+07 N/m2 N/m2 N/m2 N/m2 for : Fst/nAs ≤ σfin for : Fst/nAs > σfin {ref. ζ.: Eqn.10 During or at the end of the short circuit current flow.4T) shall be used to calculate δk where. of the conductor oscillation during the short circuit current flow is given by : Tres = = T/[{1+r2}1/4 x {1-(π2/64) x (δ1/900)2}] 1.

is given by: Fst(1 + ϕψ) Ft = 1. 45 of IEC-865-I} where. 50 of IEC-865-I} 400 kV Switchyard at O P Jindal Super Thermal Power Plan Page 7 of 11 .16.: Eqn.13 Span reaction factor.17 Tensile force.1 ETHS3S/3002074160/ED2. 46 of IEC-865-I} corresponding to this value of factor ν1.15 The 'drop force' is given by: 1. A.e.104. is given by: 1.65 N for : 0 ≤ ψ ≤ 1 {ref. the value of ν2 is observed from curve as: 1. is given as: 1-r sinδk for : 0 ≤ δk ≤ 900 χ = or χ for : δk > 900 = 1-r => χ = -0. sub-conductors in bundle clash against each other during short circuit.00 {ref.11.25 cos-1χ for : 0.s => δk = 92. Fpi.1] 3[r x sin(δk) + cos(δk) -1] 1. v2.95 N => Fν 2.68 the factor.11 Maximum swing out angle during or after short circuit current flow.1 x Fst(1 + ϕψ) or Ft = => Ft = 156199. χ.: Eqn.766 or δm = degrees 1800 for : χ < -0. bundled conductor for : r > 0.ζ).001 Detailed Calculation for TWIN ACSR MOOSE conductor of 137 m degrees 2.7 of IEC-865-I} for : j ≥ 1. is given by figure 8 of IEC:865-1. 32 of IEC-865-I} {ref.57 N 2.: Eqn.: Eqn.16. δm ≥ 700 for : r < 0.67 degrees 2. 33 of IEC-865-I} {ref.caused by pinch effect is given as: Fst x {1+ (νe/εst) x ξ} Fpi = {ref.{sin(4πfTpi-2γ) + sin2γ} / 4πfTpi + fτ / fTpi x (1-e-2fTpi/fτ) x sin2γ-8πfτsinγ/{1+(2πfτ)2} x ν2 = [{2πfτ x cos(2πfTpi-γ)/2πfTpi + sin(2πfTpi-γ)/2πfTpi} x e-fTpi/fτ + (sinγ-2πfτcosγ)/2πfTpi] 2. is calculated as a real solution of the equation: ϕ2ψ3 + ϕ(2 + ζ)ψ2 + (1 + 2ζ)ψ − ζ(2 + ϕ) = 0 => ψ = 0.16. ϕ.766 ≤ χ ≤ 1 δm {ref. 31 of IEC-865-I} = degrees 100 + cos-1χ for : -0. ψ (ϕ. 30 of IEC-865-I} or => ϕ 2.38 for : Tk1≥ Tres/4 for : Tk1< Tres/4 {ref. the factor.2 ν2 = 1.6.: AnnexA. as a function of factor v 1 which is in turn given as: {f /sin(1800/n)} x [{(as-ds) x m's}/{(µ0/2π) x (I"k3/n)2 x (n-1)/as}]1/2 ν1 2.1 = = 3.: Eqn.14 The 'short circuit tensile force'.06 therefore δm = 103. δm. F t. is given by : ν3 {(ds/as)/sin(1800/n)} x [{(as/ds)-1}1/2 / {tan-1{(as/ds)-1}1/2}] 2.16 Short circuit current force between sub-conductors in a bundle is given as: (n-1) x (µ0/2π) x (I"k3/n)2 x (ls/as) x (ν2/ν3) Fν = {ref. δm < 700 {ref.2 x Fst √(1+ 8ζ x δm/1800) Ff = or Ff = non-significant => Ff = 164929. 35 of IEC-865-I} 2.: AnnexA.: Eqn.024 (approximately) 2.: Eqn.985 ≤ χ < 0.1 where. Quantity for the maximum swing-out angle. is obtained as follows: ϕ ϕ = = = 3[ √(1+r2) .3 = = 0.985 or δm = degrees 2.6 of IEC-865-I} {ref.12 The load parameter.6. v3. {ref. i. A.20 = 5946. single conductor for : n ≥ 2.: Eqn.30 Attachment . 34 of IEC-865-I} for : n = 1.: Eqn.

4. for : j ≥ 1.: Eqn. 37 of IEC-865-I} 400 kV Switchyard at O P Jindal Super Thermal Power Plan Page 8 of 11 . 53 of IEC-865-I} = N.: Eqn.17.14 thereby the magnitude of Pinch Force.: Eqn.17.17.3. N Ft Fst = 1. ν4 = 0. 49 of IEC-865-I} = 0.3 distance but don't clash during short circuit. i. the factor νe is given as: 1/2 + [9/8 x n(n-1) x (µ0/2π) x (I"k3/n)2 x N x ν2 x {ls/(as-ds)}4 x [{sin(1800/n)}4 / ξ3] x [1 νe = -{tan-1√ν4} / √ν4]-1/4]1/2 {ref.40401 N {ref.ds) / (as -η(as . sub-conductors in bundle reduce their 2.Fst) = where.54E-08 1/N 75703.3.92 εpi 0.03 3 2.A for : j < 1.17.3 and η is given by the real solution of η +εstη−εpifn=0 1/2 x {as-η(as-ds)} ya = = 2.: Eqn. determines the bundle configuration during short circuit current flow and is given as: {εpi / (1 + εst)}1/2 j = {ref.104.34E-03 at final conductor Temperature (=75°C ) = = = 8. Fpi.2. 47 of IEC-865-I} = 123. {ref.3 kA 2.ds) / ds with.375 x n x {(Fν x ls3 x N)/(as-ds)3} x {sin(1800/n)}3 = {ref.17. ν4 = {ref.1 2.44 asv3/asw fn = => η= 0.3582 where the strain factors characterizing the contraction of the bundle shall be calculated from : εst 1.s or Fpi = Fst x {1+ (νe/εst) x η2} Attachment . 52 of IEC-865-I} (as .4 Now.17.1 => νe = 408.17. 51of IEC-865-I} => νe = N.001 Detailed Calculation for TWIN ACSR MOOSE conductor of 137 m for : j < 1.03 2. the factor νe is given as: 1/2 + [9/8 x n(n-1) x (µ0/2π) x (I"k3/n)2 x N x ν2 x {ls/(as-ds)}4 x [{sin(1800/n)}4 / η4] x [1 = -{tan-1√ν4} / √ν4]-1/4]1/2 {ref.: Eqn.03 Now. 48 of IEC-865-I} = 16.17.3 2.1 ETHS4S/3002074160/ED2.ds)) = {ref.18 The elastic expansion is given by : εela N x (Ft .16 N Calculation for Horizontal Span Displacement and Minimum Air Clearance Note: Values of all parameters are at 75 °C (maximum conductor temperature ) and L-L fault current of 43.17.1 2.2 2.1 2. 36 of IEC-865-I} 2.2 2.2.17.4. 54 of IEC-865-I} The parameter j.2 with.: Eqn. 56 of IEC-865-I} 2.A for : j2/3 ≤ ξ ≤ j and ξ is given by the real solution of ξ3 + εst ξ2 −εpi = 0 => ξ = NA {ref. νe 2.2 2.: Eqn.17.31 N 60068.4.19 The thermal expansion is given by : cth {I"k3/(n x As)}2 x Tres/4 εth = cth {I"k3/(n x As)}2 x Tk1 or εth = for : Tk1≥ Tres/4 for : Tk1< Tres/4 {ref.: Eqn.17.2E-01 as x (2ya/as) / sin(1800/n) x {(1-2ya/as)/2ya/as}1/2/arctan{(1-2ya/as)/2ya/as}1/2 asw = 0. 55 of IEC-865-I} η(as .e.3.: Eqn.: Eqn.: Eqn. is calculated as : Fpi = 137753.5 x {(Fst x ls2 x N)/(as-ds)2} x {sin(1800/n)}2 = {ref.

001 Detailed Calculation for TWIN ACSR MOOSE conductor of 137 m m4/A2sec for : Aluminium. 41 of IEC-865-I} CF CD bc sinδm for : δm < δ1 or bh = => bh = 2.97 +0.7E-19 Attachment .20 Dilation factor.: Eqn. bc εela εth = {1 + 3/8 x (l/bc)2 x (εela +εth)}1/2 {ref. 42 of IEC-865-I} amin = 2. cth I"k3 Tk1 Tres => εth = = = = = 2.97 sec 2. 39 of IEC-865-I} or CF = 0.96E-04 2.83 m = 1. 38 of IEC-865-I} = 2. b h.21 Form factor.8 < r < 1.22 The maximum horizontal displacement within a span.2bh amin = {ref.8 for : r ≥ 1.8 or CF = 1.1r for : 0. due to short circuit in spans with strained conductors connected to potrals with tension insulator strings is given by: CF CD bc sinδ1 bh for : δm ≥ δ1 = {ref.46 m where.06 at final conductor Temperature (=75°C ) = 1.104. CD.: Eqn.05 2.: Eqn.30 kA 0. allows for sag increase caused by elastic and thermal elongation of the conductor is given by: CD where.: Eqn.05 {ref. CF.08 m 400 kV Switchyard at O P Jindal Super Thermal Power Plan Page 9 of 11 . δm at final conductor Temperature (=75°C ) = 86.s where.21 sec 1.1 ETHS5S/3002074160/ED2.65 degrees 2.34E-03 = 1.96E-04 2. allows for a possible increase in the dynamic sag of the conductor caused by a change in shape of the conductor curve and is given by: for : r ≤ 0. aluminium alloy & aluminium/steel conductors with cross-section ratio of Al/St >6 at final conductor Temperature (=75°C ) at final conductor Temperature (=75°C ) 43.23 The distance between the midpoints of the two main conductors during a line-to-line two-phase short circuit is in the worst case given by: a .15 => CF = 1.8 CF = 1.

85 19 10.35 181316.20 8 4.5 156500.5 7.0 156823.2 167952.0 1.001 Sl.0 156737.24 5 3.08 148028.5 3.11 16 8.0 156952.18 187356.48 18 9.57 167882.29 17 9.64 141092.73 10 5.0 4.5 6. No.5 400 kV Switchyard at O P Jindal Super Thermal Power Plant n a p S r o f r o t c u d n o c E S O O M R S C A N I W T f o t n e m g n a r r a e h t r o f n a p S r e c a p S t s n i a g a s e c r o f t i u c r i C t r o h S f o r o i v a h e b g n i w o h s s e v r u c c i t s i r e t c a r a h C m 7 3 1 h t g n e L Short Circuit Forces Vs Spacer Span 200000 180000 160000 140000 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 Page 10 of 11 .2 ETHS1S/3002074160/ED2.3 167969.9 167981.83 167973.12 15 8.5 156995.5 156199.0 6.77 167965.08 167903. Spacer Span Tensile Force (Ft) Drop Force (Ff) Pinch Force (Fpi) (m) (N) (N) (N) 1 1.99 Short Circuit Forces (N) Tensile Force (N) Drop Force (N) Pinch Force (N) Spacer Span (m) 10.104.65 6 3.69 139675.83 167973.24 184034.0 154540.5 5.09 144260.93 167670.0 156608.36 167977.5 156866.17 167944.62 146715.61 150814.57 12 6.5 2.98 167766.5 156672.14 167936.0 2.57 167856.50 3 2.01 139415.83 152350.39 14 7.5 155467.3 182609.69 13 7.12 167928.59 167915.0 156973.11 2 1.5 4.0 7.57 167822.0 1.93 154012.0 3.1 189262.7 143116.0 9.88 4 2.5 156973.46 11 6.0 5.24 185635.5 156930.0 8.0 156371.27 167450.5 8.58 142050.5 156780.72 167956.s Attachment .5 9.0 156887.09 145483.0 155919.0 157016.84 9 5.36 149383.10 7 4.

Span (m) l 137 No.6 167822.4 Minimum air clearance amin for L-L fault (m) amin 2.001 SUMMARY OF RESULTS Serial No.30 1 400 kV Switchyard at O P Jindal Super Thermal Power Plant Page 11 of 11 .3 ETHS1S/3002074160/ED2.6 142050. of sub conductors Critical Spacer Chosen Spacer per phase Span Span (m) (m) ls n 2 7 2.5 Short Circuit Force at minimum temperature and Full Wind at 3-Ph fault (N) Fst Ft Ff Fpi 137429 156199.58 17107.104.2 Initial Static Tension at Maximum temperature and Full Wind (N) Fst 60068.076 Maximum Short Circuit Force per phase for design structures (N) (kg) 167822.s Attachment .

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