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51 Bar) o Minimum Level Use .344 Bar) Maximum Pressure o High End Use .80 psi max. hazardous materials) conveyance of fluids in specialized applications. high temperature. Hygienic and Comfortable occupancy for all Users of a Building. and must not contaminate the water supply system or source. • All habitable buildings must have a water supply that is potable (drinkable).• Plumbing is a Life Science concerned with the provision of infrastructural facilities to provide a Safe. the building must provide appropriate facilities for personal hygiene.PROCEDURE 1. • All water must discharge to a wastewater system to safeguard people from illness and protect them from odours and waste matter.5 psi (0. Calculate Total No. or liquid waste in ordinary domestic or commercial environments. WATER SUPPLY PIPING • • • Different Water Supply Systems o Pressurized closed systems o Gravity Open systems Minimum Adequate Pressure o High End Use .4 Bar) SIZING OF PIPES . Determine Supply Pressures available 4. working from the most remote fixture to the source point . and washing utensils. (5.41 Bar) to 80 psi max. and hot water that is safe and will not cause scalding. of Fixture Units 2.35 psi (2.515 Bar) o General Maximum Pressure . That water supply must be protected from contamination. (2. high pressure. whereas piping is often used to describe high-performance (e. Convert to LPM based on Probable Simultaneous Demand 3. • The term plumbing is generally used to describe conveyance of water. high flow. gas.35 psi min. Select sizing of pipes/branches. Determine Pressure Losses in Pipes based on lengths 5.g. • As part of that water supply system. (5.

Direct Pumping / Hydro-Pneumatic • Water is pumped directly into the Distribution System • Control Through Jockey Pumps. Direct Supply Systems • Direct Supply from Main Lines to User Points • Adequate Residual Pressure needs to be available • Most International/Developed Countries use Direct Systems even for Fire Fighting • Continuous Supply Systems required • In India. Direct Supply is generally not feasible for more than 2 – 3 floors due to low pressure and intermittent supply B. Service Floors / Break Floors may be required. Air Vessels • Advanced Control (Hydro-pneumatic Systems) clubbed with Variable Frequency Drives • System depends upon a constant power supply. leading to increased structural loads of the building • Distribution through Gravity • Additional Boosters may be required for Top Floors • In case of High Rise Buildings. Any failure in the system results in water supply breakdown • Overhead tanks may be eliminated however smaller size tanks are recommended as Buffers • User Point Pressure requirements can be designed as per requirements C. along with Pressure Control Devices . or booster • Overhead tanks of 30 to 50 % of water demand are required. Overhead Tanks Distribution • Overhead Tanks may be filled through direct Mains or through a re-lift pump. Pressure Switches.WATER SUPPLY PIPING A.

the nature of the ground in which the pipes are to be laid and the relative economics. Class C) • Galvanised steel – IS 1239 & IS 4736 • Ductile iron • Cast iron centrifugally cast (spun) – IS 1536 • Copper • Stainless Steel • RCC/Cement • uPVC • CPVC pipes – IS 15778 • HDPE • Composite Pipes (Pe/AL/PE etc. .COMMON FITTINGS FOR PIPING • Elbow • Coupling • Union • Reducer • Olets • Tee • Cross • Cap • Plug • Nipple • Barb • Valves WATER SUPPLY PIPES .MATERIALS Pipes and specials may be of any of the following types as specified: • Mild Steel / Galvanized Iron (Medium/Heavy.) • PP-R Pipes – IS 15801 • PE-AL-PE Pipes – IS 15450 • PB In choosing the material for piping and fittings. Class b. account shall be taken of the character of the water to be conveyed through it.

(Plastic Pipe / Copper Pipe may be used) • R. Metallic Pipes are more fire resistance than non metallic pipes.having are shorter than Non-Metallic Pipe.I (i) Unlined Metallic Pipes (ii) Metallic Pipes lined with cement mortar or epoxy lining. So it is difficult in handling the metallic pipes. Polyethylence. Glass Reinforced Plastic. Water may be corrosive (Use Plastic Pipe/SS) • Drinking Water (Plastic Pipes may be Carcinogenic) Temperature of Supply (Hot/Cold) • Plastic Pipes may have a limited ability to withstand high temperatures/joints may fail. • External Exposed. (ii) Plastic Pipes:. Jointing and Jointing and maintenance maintenance Structural Its good ability to resist internal Strengths pressures and external load.PVC. long life span. Structural Strength. • Hot water pipes are more prone to corrosion .. Fabrication Difficulty In Fabrication Meterial Cost Higher than the non metallic pipes Non-Metallic pipes have very less fire resistance.D. Easy In Fabrication Lower than the metalic pipes HOW TO DECIDE ON SELECTION OF MATERIAL? Location & Mode of Installation • Internal Exposed. 2 Life and Durability 2 Safety 3 4 5 6 7 8 Non Metallic Pipe (i) Reinforced Concreate. Hardness etc.Jointing and maintenance Its poor ability to resist internal pressures and external load. Buried.S. Asbestos Cement. Description Metallic Pipe 1 Type C.. TDS.I. Difficult in Laying.G.Bar wrapped Steel Cylinder Concrete..O.COMPARISON OF METALLIC & NON-METALLIC PIPES IN WATER SUPPLY SR. Loading Conditions Required Application and Expected Type of Fluid/Water Quality • Quality of water may be acidic/alkali. Transporation Metallic pipe is heavy in weight han and storage Non-Metallic pipes.No. Chased (Accessibility/Leakages) In Shafts/Ceilings/Terraces. So it is easy in handling the non-metallic pipes. Working Metallic Pipe can be worked at higher Pressure pressure Laying.Prestressed Concrete.M. etc. The life and durabilty of Metallic Pipes These pipes are more durable . Non-Metallic Pipe works are at low pressure Economical in Laying. Non-Metallic pipes have low weight.I.

or being buried below the level of freezing • be protected from damage • be wrapped in flexible material or sleeved when penetrating masonry or concrete. Skills required Life of the Systems Certifications Other Important Aspects • Insulation for Hot / Chilled Water Pipes • Corrosion Protection for Chased / Underground Buried Pipes • Control Valves. LAYING AND JOINTING OF PIPES AND FITTINGS General installation requirements Pipework must: • comply with the durability requirements of Building Code • be compatible with the support • be installed to allow for thermal movement • be protected from freezing by insulation.Required Pressure of Flow • Material & Class depends upon working pressure/water hammer pressures Size of Pipes • Availability of Commercial Sizes • Cost of Larger sizes for some materials is prohibitive Availability and Cost of Pipe Material. Jointing Materials. . Transport & Installation • Materials & Fittings to be readily / locally available • Heavier Metallic Pipes may be more expensive Ease of Installation / Modifications • Flexibility of Installation Type of Fittings Available. Flow Meters. Water Meters • Water Hammer • Suction. Delivery & Risers for High Rise Buildings • Sustainability considerations such as embodied energy.

Noise and air locks in pipework Water hammer Water hammer (or pressure surge) generally occurs in a high pressure system when the flow of water is suddenly stopped. Fast-acting taps such as lever taps with ceramic disc washers. they must have: • 600 mm cover under trafficked areas • 450 mm cover under lawns and garden areas (non-trafficked) Where pipes are under concrete. It is better to prevent water hammer than trying to fix the problem once a building is complete. the greater likelihood of water hammer. It is related directly to the water velocity – the faster the water travels. Access for maintenance and replacement Pipes installed in locations that are difficult to access should: • have a detailed durability statement for 50-year service from the manufacturer • if passing through a structural element. Where pipes cross other services below ground. although it can occur in plastic pipes. they must have 50-year durability. causing the pipe to vibrate making a ‘hammering’ sound. spring-closing valves and pumps are often a cause of water hammer.Where to lay pipework Pipework may be installed: • in a roof space • under a timber floor • below a concrete slab Where pipes are buried. A sudden fluctuation in flow velocity sets up shockwaves through the pipework. It mostly occurs in metal pipes. be sleeved in a larger pipe that is open at both ends to allow the pipe to be inspected or replaced if necessary • Be installed in a chase or duct which will provide ready access and will not compromise structural elements. solenoid valves such as those on washing machines. To reduce the likelihood of water hammer: • avoid direct contact of pipes with the structure • clip pipes with rubber insulated clips or clip over the pipe insulation . they must comply with the details shown in the following diagram.

• fix pipework rigidly to prevent movement • provide relief bends or flexible sections of pipe to absorb shock • fit grommets or cushioned packers where pipes pass through structural members • size pipework to avoid excessive water velocity (below 3. Low pressure pipes should be graded to allow air to exit from predetermined high points and to prevent air locks from occurring. Valves and controls Valves and controls are required – particularly in mains pressure systems – to protect water supplies from contamination and to achieve the desired water pressure. .0 m/s) • Limit system pressure – recommended is 350 kPa. If there is not enough pressure to push the air bubble through the pipe. the air lock will remain until the pipeline is manually purged. it will accumulate at high points and can restrict the flow of water. Air locks in water supply pipework If air enters a water supply system. flow and temperature. Air may enter the system from: • a cylinder vent • the tank if it runs low • water as it is heated.

" which would have a corresponding male connection of the same size and thread standard (in this case. An example of this is a "3/4 inch female adapter NPT. HOW TO DECIDE ON SELECTION OF MATERIAL? • Cost/installation etc. PIPE FITTINGS GENDER OF FITTINGS Piping or tubing are usually (but not always) inserted into fittings to make connections. Type A/B) • HDPE ETC. connections are conventionally assigned a gender of male or female.SEWAGE & DRAINAGE PIPING MATERIALS AVAILABLE • Cast Iron 1729/3989/LA Class • uPVC (Agriculture Class IS 4985) • uPVC (SWR Class. Same as Water Supply Issues • Access/Cleaning /maintenance/Rodding • Fire Resistance/ Rodent Resistance • Internal Abrasion/Chemical Resistance etc.I. NPT). DRAIN-WASTE-VENT (DWV) AND RELATED FITTINGS • Sweep elbow • Closet flange • Clean-outs • Trap primers • Combo-tee • Sanitary tee • Double sanitary tee (sanitary cross) • Wye fitting • Double-tapped bushing CONNECTION METHODS • Fastener • Threaded pipe • Solvent welding • Soldering • Brazing . To avoid confusion. respectively abbreviated as "M" or "F". • Mild Steel / G.

Installation.Code of practice for building drainage • IS 7558 .• Welding • Compression fittings • Flare fittings • Flange fittings • Mechanical fittings INDIAN STANDARD CODES & OTHER CODAL PROVISIONS • IS 1172 .Code of practice for domestic hot water installation. Measurement etc. Testing. Indian Plumbing Association and IAPMO) .Code of basic requirements for water supply. • Various Other Codes for Materials. • UPCI (Uniform Plumbing Code of India. drainage & sanitation • IS 2065 .Code of practices for water supply in building • IS 1742 .

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