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Models of Multiphase Flow in Porous Media_Hassanizadeh

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Models of multiphase flow in porous media, including fluid-fluid interfaces S. Majid Hassanizadeh

Department of Earth Sciences, Utrecht University, Netherlands Soil and Groundwater Systems, Deltares, Netherlands Collaborators: Vahid Joekar-Niasar; Shell, Rijswijk, The Netherlands Nikos Karadimitriou; Utrecht University, The Netherlands Simona Bottero; Delft University of Technology, The Neth. Jenny Niessner; Stuttgart University, Germany Rainer Helmig; Stuttgart University, Germany Helge K. Dahle; University of Bergen, Norway Michael Celia; Princeton University, USA Laura Pyrak-Nolte; Purdue University, USA

Original Darcys law was proposed for 1D steady-state flow of almost pure incompressible water in saturated homogeneous isotropic rigid sandy soil under isothermal conditions

h x h =p / g + z q = -K

Extended Darcys law is assumed to apply to 3D unsteady flow of two or more compressible fluids, with any amount of dissolved matter, in heterogeneous anisotropic deformable porous media under nonisothermal conditions

h qi = - K ij x j h =p / g + z

h q = K x

h qi = - K ij x j

We have added bells and whistles to a simple formula to make it (look more complicated and thus) applicable to a much more complicated system! One must follow a reverse process: - develop a general theory for a complex system - reduce it to a simpler form for a less complex system

S n + q = 0 t

q =

kr

K( P g)

c Pn Pw = f ( S w ) = P

k r = k r ( S w )

n w c Pext Pext = Pint = f (Sw )

Pext -Pext

Oil chamber

n Pext

Porous Medium

w Pext

Wetting curve

Scanning wetting curve

* * *

Often it takes more than one week to get a set of wetting and drying curves

Selective pressure transducers used to measure average pressure of each phase within the porous medium

Air chamber PPT NW back PPT W front Soil sample Water Hassanizadeh, Oung, and Manthey, 2004 PCE

Pc-S Curves

10 Static Pc inside

-2 0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

Saturation, S

Hassanizadeh, Oung, and Manthey, 2004

0.7

0.8

0.9

10

0 P.drain Pair~16kPa P.drain Pair~20kPa P.drain Pair~25kPa -2 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 water saturation 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Saturation, S

Hassanizadeh, Oung, and Manthey, 2004

10

M.drain PN~16kPa M.drain PN~20kPa M.drain PN~25kPa M.drain PN~30kPa 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 water saturation 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

-2 0.1

Saturation, S

Hassanizadeh, Oung, and Manthey, 2004

10 M.imb Pair~25kPa PW~0kPa M.imb Pair~16kPa PW~5kPa M.imb Pair~20kPa PW~8kPa M.imb Pair~25kPa PW~10kPa M.imb Pair~30kPa PW~0kPa last

-2 0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

10.0

prim drain PN~16kPa prim drain PN~20kPa prim drain PN~25kPa main imb PW~0kPa main imb PW~5kPa main imb PW~8kPa main imb PW~10kPa main imb PW~0kPa last main drain PN~16kPa main drain PN~20kPa main drain PN~25kPa main drain PN~30kPa Static Pc inside

Dyn.M.D.

6.0

Dyn.P.D.

4.0

S.M.I. Dyn.M.I.

S.M.D. S.P.D.

2.0

-2.0 0

0.20

0.80

1.00

Saturation, S

Dynamic Drainage Curves Main Scanning Drainage Curves Main Drainage Curves Secundary Scanning Drainage Curves Primary Drainage Curve

Primary Imbibition Curve Main Imbibition Curve Main Scanning Imbibition Curves Secundary Scanning Imbibition Curves Dynamic Imbibition Curves

Saturation, S

0 0 viscosities ratio, A , R , Co, Bo, pressure gradient, flow history)

Water and oil relative permeabilities in 43 sandstone reservoirs plotted as a function of water saturation; Berg et al. TiPM, 2008

Standard theory does not model the development of vertical infiltration fingers in dry soil

Non-monotonic distribution of saturation during infiltration into dry soil; experiments in our gamma system

Sand Column dia 1 cm 50 cm

Non-monotonic distribution of saturation during infiltration into dry soil; experiments in our gamma system At different flow rates q (in cm/min)

Saturation at a depth of 20 cm

Time (sec)

Non-monotonic distribution of pressure during infiltration into dry soil; experiments in our gamma system Pressure at different positions along the column

pressure

Time (sec)

Outline

Thermodynamic basis for macroscacle theories of twophase flow in porous media Experimental and computational determinations of capillary pressure under equilibrium conditions Experimental and computational determinations of capillary pressure under non-equilibrium conditions Non-equilibrium capillarity theory for fluid pressures Truly extended Darcys law

Averaging-Thermodynamic Approach

First, a microscale picture of the porous medium is given: Porous solid and the two phases form a juxtaposed superposition of three phases filling the space and separated by three interfaces: solid-water, water-oil, solid-oil, and a water-oil-solid common line. There is mass, momentum, energy associated with each domain.

Averaging-Thermodynamic Approach

First, a microscale picture of the porous medium is given: Porous solid and the two phases form a juxtaposed superposition of three phases filling the space and separated by three interfaces: solid-water, water-oil, solid-oil, and a water-oil-solid common line. Microscale conservation equations for mass, momentum, and energy are written for points within phases or points on interfaces and the common line. These equations are averaged to obtain macroscale conservation equations. No microscopic constitutive equations are assumed.

Averaging-Thermodynamic Approach

First, a microscale picture of the porous medium is given: Porous solid and the two phases form a juxtaposed superposition of three phases filling the space and separated by three interfaces: solid-water, water-oil, solid-oil, and a water-oil-solid common line. Microscale conservation equations for mass, momentum, and energy are written for points within phases or points on interfaces and the common line. These equations are averaged to obtain macroscale conservation equations. No microscopic constitutive equations are assumed. Macroscopic constitutive equations are proposed at the macroscale and restricted by 2nd Law of Thermodynamic.

For each phase: nS

) +

q ) =

r

,

S n + q = 0 t

+ ( a w ) = r , + r ,

( a ) t

Divide by a constant :

a + ( a w ) = E t

w H n H nw H ns H ws w H P = S S S w S w S w S w S w c n

H is macroscopic Helmholz free energy, which depends on state variables such as Sw, a, , T, etc.

P c = F ( S w , a wn ) or a wn = F ( P c , S w )

? n P = P Pw

c

P = (

n

n 2

H n n

P = (

w

w 2

H w w

Imbibition

Capillary pressure head, Pc/g Capillary pressure head, Pc/g

Drainage

Saturation

Saturation

Capillary pressure and saturation are two independent quantities Imbibition Drainage

Capillary pressure

Saturation

Capillary pressure

Saturation

P c = F ( S w , a wn ) or a wn = F ( P c , S w )

Dynamic Pore-network modeling (Joekar-Niasar et al., 2010, 2011)

Pore body

Pore throat

R2=0.98

Joekar-Niasar et al. 2008

imbibition drainage

Pc-Sw-awn Surface

This has been shown by:

- Reeves and Celia (1996); Static pore-network modeling - Held and Celia (2001); Static pore-network modeling - Joekar-Niasar et al. (2007) Static pore-network modeling - Joekar-Niasar and Hassanizadeh (2010, 2011) Dynamic/static pore-network modeling - Porter et al. (2009); Column experiments and LB modeling - Chen and Kibbey (2006); Column experiments - Cheng et al. (2004); Micromodel experiments - Chen et al. (2007); Micromodel experiments - Bottero (2009); Micromodel experiments - Karadimitriou et al. (2012); Micromodel experiments

A micro-model (made of PDMS) with a length of 35 mm and width of 5 mm; It has 3000 pore bodies and 9000 pore throats with a mean pore size of 70 m and constant depth of 70 m

Karadimitriou et al., 2012

Drainage Drainage

Drainage Imbibition

Drainage Imbibition

The average difference between the surface for drainage and the surface with all the data points is 9.7%. The average difference between the surface for imbibition and the surface with all the data points is 5.77%.

Karadimitriou et al., 2012

Capillary Pressure-SaturationInterfacial Area data points fall on a (unique) surface, which is a property of the fluids-solid system. Fluids Pressure Difference, Pn-Pw is a dynamic property which depends on boundary conditions and fluid dynamic properties (e.g. viscosities).

w S Pn Pw = Pc t

The coefficient is a material property which may depend on saturation. It has been determined through column experiments, as well as computational models, by many authors.

S n + q = 0 t 1 q = K ( P g)

S w P P = P t

n w c

u u 2u = D + t x x x xt

Development of vertical wetting fingers in dry soil; Simulations based on dynamic capillarity theory

Experimental Set-up for measurement of dynamic capillarity effect; Bottero et al., , 2011

Pressure Regulator

Brass filter

PCE

TDR3 TDR2 TDR1

Water Air

No membranes Steady-state flow of invading fluid with incremental pressure increase Primary drainage Main drainage Main imbibition Transient drainage with large injection pressure

Pressure transducer

Water Pump

Differential pressure

Fluids Pressure Difference vs Saturation at position z1

S w P P = P t

n w c

Local pressure difference vs time; Injection pressure, 35kPa

Bottero, 2009

Capillary Pressure is not just a function of saturation. Capillary Pressure -Saturation-Interfacial Area form a (unique) surface, which is a property of the fluids-solid system. Fluids Pressure Difference, Pn-Pw is a dynamic property which depends on boundary conditions and fluid dynamic properties (e.g. viscosities) Fluids Pressure Difference, Pn-Pw, is equal to capillary pressure but only under equilibrium conditions. Otherwise, it depends on the rate of change of saturation.

Extended Darcys law (linearized equation of motion ):

q = K i( G g )

where G is the Gibbs free energy of a phase:

G = G ( , a wn , S , T )

q =

kr

Ki( P g aawn SS )

Linearized equation of motion for interfaces:

where Gwn is the Gibbs free energy of wn-interface:

G wn = G wn ( , a wn , S , T )

wn wn wn w w wn = K wn + a S

wn

q =

a wn S K P g a S ( )

S n + q = 0 t

a wn + ( a wn w wn ) = E wn t

wn wn wn w w wn = K wn a + S

S w P P = P t

n w c

P c = f ( S w , a wn )

Equilibrium moisture distribution from standard two-phase flow equations with no hysteresis

Sw

Initial distribution

Final distribution

x interface

S n + q = 0 t 1 q = K P

Pn P w = fd ( S w )

P n P w = fi ( S w ) if

if

S <0 t

S >0 t

Sw

q =

a wn S K p g a S ( )

S n + q = 0 t

a wn + ( a wn w wn ) = E wn ( a wn , S w ) t

wn wn wn w w wn = K wn a + S

S w p p = P t

n w c

P c = f ( S w , a wn )

There is a self-similar solution for this problem:

CONCLUSIONS

Under nonequilibrium conditions, the difference in fluid pressures is a function of time rate of change of saturation as well as saturation. Resulting Eq. will lead to nonmonotonic solutions. Fluid-fluid interfacial areas should be included in multiphase flow theories. Hysteresis can be modelled by introducing interfacial area into the two-phase flow theory

q =

kr

K ( p g aawn SS )

kr p q K q g) ( r = k K=

p / x

q =

kr

K ( p g aawn SS )

q =

kr

K ( p g aawn SS )

wn wn wn w w wn = K wn a + S

a wn + ( a wn w wn ) = E wn ( a wn , S w ) t

Rate of generation/destruction of interfacial area as a function of saturation and rate of change of saturation

CONCLUSIONS

The driving forces in Darcys law should be gradient of Gibbs free energy and gravity. Difference in fluid pressures is equal to capillary pressure but only under equilibrium conditions. Under nonequilibrium conditions, the difference in fluid pressures is a function of time rate of change of saturation as well as saturation. Fluid-fluid interfacial areas should be included in multiphase flow theories. Hysteresis can be modelled by introducing interfacial area into the two-phase flow theory

Development of vertical wetting fingers in dry soil; Simulations based on new capillarity theory

Development of vertical wetting fingers in dry soil; Simulations based on new capillarity theory

Dynamic Capillary Pressure Mechanism for Instability in Gravity-Driven Flows; Review and Extension to Very Dry Conditions; JOHN L. NIEBER, RAFAIL Z. DAUTOV, ANDREY G. EGOROV, and ALEKSEY Y. SHESHUKOV; TiPM Stability analysis of gravity-driven infiltrating flow; Andrey G. Egorov, Rafail Z. Dautov, John L. Nieber, and Aleksey Y. Sheshukov

sample diameter: 25 mm flow rates for every step: - pumping: 3 l / min - withdrawing: 3 l / min volume infused / withdrawn - each step: 3 l

indicating calliper

pamb

pwater

green: hydrophilic membrane grey: sealing dotted: sample (GDL) red: hydrophobic membrane blue: syringe pump

capillary pressure, infused volume vs. time 3 infused volume capillary pressure period III 600

400

period II 1 200

period I: initial state period II: pumping water into the sample period III: relaxation period

Micromodel experiments

(a) (b)

J.-T. Cheng, L. J. Pyrak-Nolte, D. D. Nolte and N. J. Giordano, Geophysical Research Letters, 2004

Drainage Imbibition

(a)

(b)

J.-T. Cheng, L. J. Pyrak-Nolte, D. D. Nolte and N. J. Giordano, Geophysical Research Letters, 2004

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