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Models of multiphase flow in porous media, including fluid-fluid interfaces S. Majid Hassanizadeh
Department of Earth Sciences, Utrecht University, Netherlands Soil and Groundwater Systems, Deltares, Netherlands Collaborators: Vahid Joekar-Niasar; Shell, Rijswijk, The Netherlands Nikos Karadimitriou; Utrecht University, The Netherlands Simona Bottero; Delft University of Technology, The Neth. Jenny Niessner; Stuttgart University, Germany Rainer Helmig; Stuttgart University, Germany Helge K. Dahle; University of Bergen, Norway Michael Celia; Princeton University, USA Laura Pyrak-Nolte; Purdue University, USA

Original Darcys law was proposed for 1D steady-state flow of almost pure incompressible water in saturated homogeneous isotropic rigid sandy soil under isothermal conditions
h x h =p / g + z q = -K

Extended Darcys law is assumed to apply to 3D unsteady flow of two or more compressible fluids, with any amount of dissolved matter, in heterogeneous anisotropic deformable porous media under nonisothermal conditions
h qi = - K ij x j h =p / g + z

Extended Darcys Law


h q = K x
h qi = - K ij x j

We have added bells and whistles to a simple formula to make it (look more complicated and thus) applicable to a much more complicated system! One must follow a reverse process: - develop a general theory for a complex system - reduce it to a simpler form for a less complex system

Standard two-phase flow equations


S n + q = 0 t
q =

kr

K( P g)

c Pn Pw = f ( S w ) = P

k r = k r ( S w )

Measurement of Capillary Pressure-Saturation Curve in a pressure plate


n w c Pext Pext = Pint = f (Sw )

Pext -Pext

* * Scanning drying curve ** Drying curve * * * * *

Oil chamber

n Pext

Porous Medium

w Pext

Wetting curve
Scanning wetting curve

* * *

Water reservoir Porous Plate (impermeable to air)

Often it takes more than one week to get a set of wetting and drying curves

Two-phase flow dynamic experiments (PCE and Water)


Selective pressure transducers used to measure average pressure of each phase within the porous medium

Air chamber PPT NW back PPT W front Soil sample Water Hassanizadeh, Oung, and Manthey, 2004 PCE

Two-phase flow dynamic experiments (PCE and Water)

Pc-S Curves
10 Static Pc inside

Capillarycapillary pressure Pc in kPa pressure [kPa]

Primary drainage Main drainage Main imbibition

-2 0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

Saturation, S
Hassanizadeh, Oung, and Manthey, 2004

0.5 0.6 water saturation

0.7

0.8

0.9

Two-phase flow dynamic experiments (PCE and Water)

Dynamic Primary Drainage Curves


10

Fluids pressure diff. capillary pressure [kPa] in kPa

0 P.drain Pair~16kPa P.drain Pair~20kPa P.drain Pair~25kPa -2 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 water saturation 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Saturation, S
Hassanizadeh, Oung, and Manthey, 2004

Two-phase flow dynamic experiments (PCE and Water)

Dynamic Main Drainage Curves


10

Fluids pressure diff. capillary pressure [kPa] in kPa

M.drain PN~16kPa M.drain PN~20kPa M.drain PN~25kPa M.drain PN~30kPa 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 water saturation 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

-2 0.1

Saturation, S
Hassanizadeh, Oung, and Manthey, 2004

Two-phase flow dynamic experiments (PCE and Water)

Dynamic Main Imbibition Curves


10 M.imb Pair~25kPa PW~0kPa M.imb Pair~16kPa PW~5kPa M.imb Pair~20kPa PW~8kPa M.imb Pair~25kPa PW~10kPa M.imb Pair~30kPa PW~0kPa last

Fluids pressure diff. capillary pressure [kPa] in kPa

-2 0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

water saturation Saturation, S

Two-phase flow dynamic experiments (PCE and Water)


10.0
prim drain PN~16kPa prim drain PN~20kPa prim drain PN~25kPa main imb PW~0kPa main imb PW~5kPa main imb PW~8kPa main imb PW~10kPa main imb PW~0kPa last main drain PN~16kPa main drain PN~20kPa main drain PN~25kPa main drain PN~30kPa Static Pc inside

8.0 capillary pressure [kPa] Fluids pressure diff. in kPa

Dyn.M.D.
6.0

Dyn.P.D.

4.0

S.M.I. Dyn.M.I.

S.M.D. S.P.D.

2.0

-2.0 0

0.20

0.40 0.60 water saturation

0.80

1.00

Saturation, S

Hassanizadeh, Oung, and Manthey, 2004

There is no unique pc-S curve.


Dynamic Drainage Curves Main Scanning Drainage Curves Main Drainage Curves Secundary Scanning Drainage Curves Primary Drainage Curve

Fluids pressure diff. in kPa

Primary Imbibition Curve Main Imbibition Curve Main Scanning Imbibition Curves Secundary Scanning Imbibition Curves Dynamic Imbibition Curves

Saturation, S

Relative permeability-saturation curve

kri = kri ( S w , medium properties, Ca, oil/water flow rate ratio,


0 0 viscosities ratio, A , R , Co, Bo, pressure gradient, flow history)

Relative permeability is supposed to be less than 1.

Water and oil relative permeabilities in 43 sandstone reservoirs plotted as a function of water saturation; Berg et al. TiPM, 2008

Standard theory does not model the development of vertical infiltration fingers in dry soil

Experiments by Rezanejad et al., 2002

Non-monotonic distribution of saturation during infiltration into dry soil; experiments in our gamma system
Sand Column dia 1 cm 50 cm

Non-monotonic distribution of saturation during infiltration into dry soil; experiments in our gamma system At different flow rates q (in cm/min)
Saturation at a depth of 20 cm

Time (sec)

Non-monotonic distribution of pressure during infiltration into dry soil; experiments in our gamma system Pressure at different positions along the column

pressure

Time (sec)

Outline
Thermodynamic basis for macroscacle theories of twophase flow in porous media Experimental and computational determinations of capillary pressure under equilibrium conditions Experimental and computational determinations of capillary pressure under non-equilibrium conditions Non-equilibrium capillarity theory for fluid pressures Truly extended Darcys law

Averaging-Thermodynamic Approach
First, a microscale picture of the porous medium is given: Porous solid and the two phases form a juxtaposed superposition of three phases filling the space and separated by three interfaces: solid-water, water-oil, solid-oil, and a water-oil-solid common line. There is mass, momentum, energy associated with each domain.

Averaging-Thermodynamic Approach
First, a microscale picture of the porous medium is given: Porous solid and the two phases form a juxtaposed superposition of three phases filling the space and separated by three interfaces: solid-water, water-oil, solid-oil, and a water-oil-solid common line. Microscale conservation equations for mass, momentum, and energy are written for points within phases or points on interfaces and the common line. These equations are averaged to obtain macroscale conservation equations. No microscopic constitutive equations are assumed.

Averaging-Thermodynamic Approach
First, a microscale picture of the porous medium is given: Porous solid and the two phases form a juxtaposed superposition of three phases filling the space and separated by three interfaces: solid-water, water-oil, solid-oil, and a water-oil-solid common line. Microscale conservation equations for mass, momentum, and energy are written for points within phases or points on interfaces and the common line. These equations are averaged to obtain macroscale conservation equations. No microscopic constitutive equations are assumed. Macroscopic constitutive equations are proposed at the macroscale and restricted by 2nd Law of Thermodynamic.

Equations of conservation of mass


For each phase: nS

) +

q ) =

r
,

Divide by a constant and neglect mass exchange term:

For each interface:

S n + q = 0 t
+ ( a w ) = r , + r ,

( a ) t

Divide by a constant :

a + ( a w ) = E t

Macroscale capillary pressure; theoretical definition


w H n H nw H ns H ws w H P = S S S w S w S w S w S w c n

H is macroscopic Helmholz free energy, which depends on state variables such as Sw, a, , T, etc.

P c = F ( S w , a wn ) or a wn = F ( P c , S w )

? n P = P Pw
c

P = (
n

n 2

H n n

P = (
w

w 2

H w w

Hassanizadeh and Gray, WRR, 1990

Capillary pressure-saturation data points measured in laboratory

Imbibition
Capillary pressure head, Pc/g Capillary pressure head, Pc/g

Drainage

Saturation

Saturation

Capillary pressure-saturation curve is hysteretic

Capillary pressure and saturation are two independent quantities Imbibition Drainage

Capillary pressure

Saturation

Capillary pressure

Saturation

Macroscale capillary pressure; theoretical definition


P c = F ( S w , a wn ) or a wn = F ( P c , S w )

So, microscale pc is proportional to awn.

Macroscale capillary pressure


Dynamic Pore-network modeling (Joekar-Niasar et al., 2010, 2011)

Pore body

Pore throat

Joekar-Niasar et al. 2008

Pc-Sw-awn relationship; imbibition

R2=0.98
Joekar-Niasar et al. 2008

Equilibrium Pc-Sw-awn surfaces


imbibition drainage

Joekar-Niasar et al. 2008

Results from Lattice-Bolzmann simulations

Pc-Sw-awn Surface

Porter et al., 2009

Capillary Pressure-Interfacial AreaSaturation data form a (unique) surface


This has been shown by:
- Reeves and Celia (1996); Static pore-network modeling - Held and Celia (2001); Static pore-network modeling - Joekar-Niasar et al. (2007) Static pore-network modeling - Joekar-Niasar and Hassanizadeh (2010, 2011) Dynamic/static pore-network modeling - Porter et al. (2009); Column experiments and LB modeling - Chen and Kibbey (2006); Column experiments - Cheng et al. (2004); Micromodel experiments - Chen et al. (2007); Micromodel experiments - Bottero (2009); Micromodel experiments - Karadimitriou et al. (2012); Micromodel experiments

A new generation of micro-model experiments

A micro-model (made of PDMS) with a length of 35 mm and width of 5 mm; It has 3000 pore bodies and 9000 pore throats with a mean pore size of 70 m and constant depth of 70 m
Karadimitriou et al., 2012

A new generation of micro-model experiments

Micromodel experimental setup

Visualization of interfaces in a micromodel


Drainage Drainage

Sn = 24% Pc = 4340 Pa Awn = 18.32 mm2

Karadimitriou et al., 2012

Visualization of interfaces in a micromodel


Drainage Imbibition

Karadimitriou et al., 2012

Visualization of interfaces in a micromodel


Drainage Imbibition

Sn = 24% Pc = 4340 Pa Awn = 18.32 mm2

Karadimitriou et al., 2012

Sn = 24% Pc = 2200 Pa Awn = 30.56 mm2

Capillary pressure-saturation points

Karadimitriou et al., 2012

Capillary pressure-saturation-interfacial area Surface Fitted to drainage points

Karadimitriou et al., 2012

Specific interfacial area

Capillary pressure-saturation-interfacial area Surface Fitted to imbibition points

Karadimitriou et al., 2012

The average difference between the surface for drainage and the surface with all the data points is 9.7%. The average difference between the surface for imbibition and the surface with all the data points is 5.77%.

Specific interfacial area

Capillary pressure-saturation-interfacial area Surface

a wn = 18070 + 151500 * S 1.075* Pc 137300 * S 2 + 2.577 * S * Pc 0.0001104 * Pc2


Karadimitriou et al., 2012

Macroscale capillarity theory


Capillary Pressure-SaturationInterfacial Area data points fall on a (unique) surface, which is a property of the fluids-solid system. Fluids Pressure Difference, Pn-Pw is a dynamic property which depends on boundary conditions and fluid dynamic properties (e.g. viscosities).

Non-equilibrium Capillary Equation:


w S Pn Pw = Pc t

The coefficient is a material property which may depend on saturation. It has been determined through column experiments, as well as computational models, by many authors.

Two-phase flow equations with dynamic capillarity effect

S n + q = 0 t 1 q = K ( P g)

S w P P = P t
n w c

Combine the three equations for unsaturated flow:

u u 2u = D + t x x x xt

Development of vertical wetting fingers in dry soil; Simulations based on dynamic capillarity theory

Dautov et al. (2002)

Experimental Set-up for measurement of dynamic capillarity effect; Bottero et al., , 2011
Pressure Regulator
Brass filter

PCE
TDR3 TDR2 TDR1

PPT3 NW-W PPT2 NW-W PPT1 NW-W

Water Air

No membranes Steady-state flow of invading fluid with incremental pressure increase Primary drainage Main drainage Main imbibition Transient drainage with large injection pressure

Pressure transducer

Switch on/off Water Pump

Differential pressure gauge

Water Pump

Differential pressure

PCE Pump Valves

Switch on/off PCE Pump

Non-equilibrium primary drainage; Local


Fluids Pressure Difference vs Saturation at position z1

Pressure difference (kPa)

S w P P = P t
n w c

Bottero et al., 2011

Value of the damping coefficient as a function of saturation; local scale

Bottero et al., 2011

Simulation of non-equilibrium primary drainage;


Local pressure difference vs time; Injection pressure, 35kPa

Bottero, 2009

Conclusions on Capillarity Theory:


Capillary Pressure is not just a function of saturation. Capillary Pressure -Saturation-Interfacial Area form a (unique) surface, which is a property of the fluids-solid system. Fluids Pressure Difference, Pn-Pw is a dynamic property which depends on boundary conditions and fluid dynamic properties (e.g. viscosities) Fluids Pressure Difference, Pn-Pw, is equal to capillary pressure but only under equilibrium conditions. Otherwise, it depends on the rate of change of saturation.

Extended theories of two-phase flow


Extended Darcys law (linearized equation of motion ):

q = K i( G g )
where G is the Gibbs free energy of a phase:

G = G ( , a wn , S , T )

Extended Darcys law :

q =

kr

Ki( P g aawn SS )

where a and S are material coefficients.

Extended theories of two-phase flow


Linearized equation of motion for interfaces:

wwn = Kwn awnwn (Gwn g)


where Gwn is the Gibbs free energy of wn-interface:

G wn = G wn ( , a wn , S , T )

Simplified equation of motion for interfaces (neglecting gravity term):


wn wn wn w w wn = K wn + a S

where wn is a material coefficient and is macroscale surface tension.


wn

Summary of extended two-phase flow equations

q =

a wn S K P g a S ( )

S n + q = 0 t

a wn + ( a wn w wn ) = E wn t
wn wn wn w w wn = K wn a + S

S w P P = P t
n w c

P c = f ( S w , a wn )

Simulation of redistribution moisture; a numerical example

Equilibrium moisture distribution from standard two-phase flow equations with no hysteresis
Sw

Initial distribution

Final distribution
x interface

Simulating horizontal moisture redistribution with standard two-phase flow equations+hysteresis

S n + q = 0 t 1 q = K P

Pn P w = fd ( S w )
P n P w = fi ( S w ) if

if

S <0 t
S >0 t

Solving moisture redistribution problem with standard two-phase flow equations

Equilibrium result from standard twophase flow equations with hystresis


Sw

2p 2p with hysteresis x interface

Solving a problem with extended two-phase flow equations

q =

a wn S K p g a S ( )

S n + q = 0 t

a wn + ( a wn w wn ) = E wn ( a wn , S w ) t
wn wn wn w w wn = K wn a + S

S w p p = P t
n w c

P c = f ( S w , a wn )

Governing eqs for moisture redistribution


There is a self-similar solution for this problem:

With a semi-analytical solution.

Long-term result from extended twophase flow equations with no hystresis

CONCLUSIONS
Under nonequilibrium conditions, the difference in fluid pressures is a function of time rate of change of saturation as well as saturation. Resulting Eq. will lead to nonmonotonic solutions. Fluid-fluid interfacial areas should be included in multiphase flow theories. Hysteresis can be modelled by introducing interfacial area into the two-phase flow theory

simulating two-phase flow in a long domain

q =

kr

K ( p g aawn SS )

Total permeability k r K as a function of saturation for a range of capillary numbers

Transient relative permeability curves

kr p q K q g) ( r = k K=

p / x

Total permeability k r K as a function of saturation for a range of capillary numbers

simulating two-phase flow in a long domain

q =

kr

K ( p g aawn SS )

Material coefficients wa and wS as functions of Sw for a wide range of capillary numbers

simulating two-phase flow in a long domain

q =

kr

K ( p g aawn SS )

Material coefficients na and nS as functions of Sw for a wide range of capillary numbers

simulating two-phase flow in a long domain


wn wn wn w w wn = K wn a + S

Interfacial permeability as a function of saturation for a range of capillary numbers

simulating two-phase flow in a long domain


a wn + ( a wn w wn ) = E wn ( a wn , S w ) t

Rate of generation/destruction of interfacial area as a function of saturation and rate of change of saturation

CONCLUSIONS
The driving forces in Darcys law should be gradient of Gibbs free energy and gravity. Difference in fluid pressures is equal to capillary pressure but only under equilibrium conditions. Under nonequilibrium conditions, the difference in fluid pressures is a function of time rate of change of saturation as well as saturation. Fluid-fluid interfacial areas should be included in multiphase flow theories. Hysteresis can be modelled by introducing interfacial area into the two-phase flow theory

Development of vertical wetting fingers in dry soil; Simulations based on new capillarity theory

Dautov et al. (2002)

Development of vertical wetting fingers in dry soil; Simulations based on new capillarity theory
Dynamic Capillary Pressure Mechanism for Instability in Gravity-Driven Flows; Review and Extension to Very Dry Conditions; JOHN L. NIEBER, RAFAIL Z. DAUTOV, ANDREY G. EGOROV, and ALEKSEY Y. SHESHUKOV; TiPM Stability analysis of gravity-driven infiltrating flow; Andrey G. Egorov, Rafail Z. Dautov, John L. Nieber, and Aleksey Y. Sheshukov

pc - Sw measurement: the measurement cell


sample diameter: 25 mm flow rates for every step: - pumping: 3 l / min - withdrawing: 3 l / min volume infused / withdrawn - each step: 3 l

indicating calliper
pamb

pwater

green: hydrophilic membrane grey: sealing dotted: sample (GDL) red: hydrophobic membrane blue: syringe pump

pc - Sw measurement: operation strategy


capillary pressure, infused volume vs. time 3 infused volume capillary pressure period III 600

Infused volume [l]

400

period II 1 200

period I 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Time [s] 120 140 160 0 180

period I: initial state period II: pumping water into the sample period III: relaxation period

capillary pressure [Pa]

Micromodel experiments
(a) (b)

Dark area is solid and light area is pore space


J.-T. Cheng, L. J. Pyrak-Nolte, D. D. Nolte and N. J. Giordano, Geophysical Research Letters, 2004

Measuring awn interfaces in a micromodel


Drainage Imbibition

(a)

(b)

J.-T. Cheng, L. J. Pyrak-Nolte, D. D. Nolte and N. J. Giordano, Geophysical Research Letters, 2004

Equilibrium drainage and imbibition experiments*

*Experiments performed by S. Bottero at Purdue Univ.