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Chapter 8Infancy and Childhood

Newborn babies are capable of the following inherited, automatic reflexes:

The grasping reflex The rooting reflex (she will move her head

and mouth toward the source of the touch)

What do psychologists call internally programmed growth?


Maturation includes:

Lifting his head Smiling Grasping objects Crawling (Eventually) walking

In addition to going through the process of maturation, infants can also learn new behaviours. They can learn

To avoid punishments and produce rewards By imitating other people

In Psychology, plans for knowing are called:


Schemes include the following processes:


We try to fit the world into our scheme


We change our scheme to fit the characteristics of the world

Steps in a babys intellectual development include: Understanding object permanence

Representational thought

A child can picture something in her mind

Understanding the principle of conservation

A given quantity does not change when its appearance changes

When children learn to speak, they dont learn complete sentences right away. Instead, they use what psychologists call:

Telegraphic speech (they leave out words but still get the message across)

For example, when trick-or-treating, my daughter said repeatedly, I go next house.

Observations of animals have shown that some newborns become attached to their mothers in a sudden, virtually permanent learning process called:
There is sometimes a particularly sensitive period just after birth where whatever the animal learns makes a deep impression that resists change. This is called the:


Critical Period

Do human babies experience imprinting?

Some psychologists think so, although it might not be exactly the same as with other animals, especially in terms of timing.

This would explain the concept of separation anxiety (fear and anxiety at the prolonged absence of the primary caregiver, usually after a baby is one year old).

Socialization is: Learning the rules of behaviour of the culture in which you live.
Theories of socialization include:

Freuds theory of psychosexual development Eriksons theory of psychosocial development Kohlbergs theory of moral development

The oral stage: In the first few years of life, erotic pleasures are obtained through the mouth The anal stage: The anus is the source of erotic pleasure The phallic stage: Between the ages of 3 and 5, children discover the pleasure they can obtain from their genitals, and they become aware of the differences between themselves and the opposite sex

The phallic stage leads to desiring the parent of the opposite sex, and being in conflict with the parent of the same sex.

For boys, this is referred to as the Oedipus complex.

For girls, this is called the Elektra complex Also, the child adopts the values of the same sex parent; this is called identification

Latency stage: Sexual desires are pushed into the background, and children explore the world and learn new skills This process of redirecting sexual impulses into learning tasks is called sublimation Genital stage: One derives as much satisfaction from giving pleasure as from receiving it.

Age 0-1Trust vs. Mistrust Age 2-3Autonomy vs. Doubt Age 4-5Initiative vs. Guilt 5-PubertyIndustry vs. Inferiority AdolescenceIdentity vs. Role Confusion Early AdulthoodIntimacy vs. Isolation Middle AgeGenerativity vs. Stagnation Later AdulthoodIntegrity vs. Despair

Stage 1Children are completely egocentric, with no sense of right and wrong; their only concern is to avoid punishment. Stage 2Children learn to work the system to receive rewards as well as avoid punishment. Stage 3Children become sensitive to what others want and think.

Stage 4Children are less concerned with the approval of others, but have a strong belief in established authority. Stage 5A person is concerned with justice, and believes that laws are not absolute. Stage 6A person accepts that certain ethical principles apply to everyone; for example, the Golden Rule.