Volume 53, Number 8, 1967

Lubrication
A Technical Publication Devoted to the Selection and Use of Lubricants

PUBLISHED

BY

TEXACO
TEXACO PETROLEUM

INC.
PRODUCTS

LUBRICATION
A TECHNICAL PUBLICATION DEVOTED TO THE SELECTION AND USE OF LUBRICANTS
Published by

Texaco lilt.,

135 East 42nd Street,

NewYork, N.Y. 10017

J. H. Rambin, Chairman the Board Directors;M.J. Epley,Jr., President;A. W.Baucum, Jr., of of Harvey Cash,J. W. Green,J. H. Pipkin, ExecutiveVicePresidents; W.E. Avery,A. M.Card, W.G. Copeland, T. Crossland,C. H. S. Dodson, F. Granville,BenHalsell, O. B. Hocker, C. Hose,L. C. Kemp, Kerryn M. H. Jr., King,J. W.Kinnear,J. K. McKinley, I. Mingay, H. Ryer,H. O. Woodruff, Presidents;A. B. Steed,VicePresident General J. W. Vice and Counsel; ~. R. Love, W.J. Clayton, Secretary; C. Mitchell, E. Treasurer; k~ Comptroller. Volume53, Number8, 1967
(.OPYRIGtlT3: "l h~ ~ ontents o! LUBRICATION cop~right~,d and cannot be reprinted legally by other publications uithout urisscn prtor are .~pprol.d [rom"l’c.xa* o ,and th*’n onl~ tt the article ts auotcd exactl~ and accompanied the cr~,dtt line "Courses) by LI’BRICATION", Cop*rtght .~ 1967 b~ "lc.x.*~o Inc. Cop)rtght undur International Cop)right Contentton. All rights Re,erred under PanCHANGE ADDRE3S:In reporting change o[ address please give both old and new address: Write to--C. R. Frohlin. Tex,ao Inc. OF 135 E. ~2nd $t., N*u York. N. Y. 10017: or H. E. IVhittng, Texaco Canada Ltd., 1425 Mountatn St., ,~fontreal 25, Quebec, (.mad,,.

MINING MACHINERY-II
windingon drumsequipped with clutches should be lubricated sparinglyto preventthe possibility of lubricant reaching clutch faces. Othercables should be cleaned every 10 to 100 hours as necessaryand fresh cable lubricant applied. Aboutevery 500 hours cables should be immersed for a few minutes in cable lubricant using a trough Service Suggestions built especially for this purpose. Usuallythis is a Someuseful hints on servicing various com- horizontal trough equipped with pulleys arranged ponents of surface mining equipment offered as to keepthe cable submerged are ~vhile it is run through. follows: A burlap collar removes excess lubricant before the cable leaves the trough. Air Compressors Keepvalves clean to avoid excessive discharge temperaturesand keepreceivers drained of oil. Service air cleanersevery5 to 10 hoursin dusty areas. Ball andRoller Bearings Ball and roller bearings often haveseals to prevent grease leakage, and one charge should usually last about 200 operating hours. Use a low pressure gun and apply only a few shots unless the bearing is vented. Forcing grease aroundthe shaft maydamage the seals. Fill bearingsone quarter to onehalf full. Brakes Donot over-lubricate wheelbearings, as excessive lubricant mayreach the brakes. Since hydraulic brake mechanisms often contain rubber parts, use only approvedbrake fluids in order not to affect themadversely. Cables and Wire Ropes Donot lubricate cables that drag in the dirt. Cable [87] Chains To lubricate the pins of silent chains, remove chains every fifty hours, washin diesel fuel or kerosene and soakin hot gear oil. Clutches Use low pressure gun and do not over-lubricate clutch parts. Lubricanton clutch facings will cause slippage and over heating. Electric Motors Inspect grease lubricated bearings every 2000operating hours. If grease has deterioratedor if dirt is present, clean and repack by adding grease to housing until about one-third full. Adda small amount of grease every 1000 hours, but do not overlubricate. Check oil level of the oil lubricated bearings regularly. Washout bearings every 2000 hours. Do not flood bearings and wipe off excess oil.

T

HEprevious issue of this publication described surface mining and its lubrication requirements.This issue will continuethe article with someservice suggestions for surface mining equipment and an introduction to underground mining machinery.

LUBRICATION Engine Crankcases The drain period recommendedby the engine manufacturer covers normal operation, and generally, oil should be drained from engines as instructed. Morefrequent oil changes are necessary for any of the following reasons: abnormally high oil temperatures, engines started and stopped frequently, enginesidled for long periods, dusty atmosphere, oil diluted to facilitate starting, or excessive contamination oil or on filter. Onthe other hand, in if the operating conditions are consideredmild, extended drain periods maybe entirely practical. However, extendingthe oil drain period often results in poor economy,since additional wear and deposits due to greater oil contamination cause increased can maintenanceand shorter equipmentlife. Copperor white metal specks on the filter often serve as a warningof incipient bearing difficulties. Usedoil analysis is helpful in spotting unsuspectedproblems with gasoline and diesel engines, as well as establishing proper oil drain intervals for a group of engines in miningoperations. If possible,drainoil while is hot. If the oil filter it is also changed whendraining oil, add an extra quantity of oil whenrefilling the crankcase. Check the oil level every 10 hoursafter the enginehas been stopped for a few minutes to allow oil in the upper parts of the engine to return to the crankcase.When changingbrands of oil, even if manufactured the by samesupplier, it is advisableto drain crankcase after the first 24 hours to remove old deposits which any were possibly loosened by the newoil. Crankcase ventilator air cleaners should be serviced when oil is drained. the Engine Air Cleaners Air cleaners may be the wire gauze type in whichthe gauze is either replaced with a new element, or washedin kerosene or diesel fuel, dipped in oil and reused. Usually, any SAE grade heavy 50 oil is satisfactory for coatingthe oil wettedtype. The oil bath type requires inspection at regular intervals to keepthe oil at the proper level and the oil cup clean. Put a screwdriver into the oil, and if the sediment accumulation is one-quarter to onehalf inch, the unit should be cleaned and refilled. The entire assembly should be disassembled and thoroughly cleaned every 500 hours. Carryover of oil into the intake manifold indicates that the engine has beenover-speeded, oil too light, the oil level the too high or the air cleaner too small. Donot remove the oil cup whenthe engine is running. Centrifugal precleaners should be emptied when the glass container becomes full. half maintained between 160 and 180°F. This requires the use of shutters or other coveringon the radiator when starting up or operating at light load in cold weather. In hot weather, special attention should be paid to the fan belt, radiator and water jacket to maintain the cooling systemat maximum efficiency. Thermostatsshould be checkedfrequently by noting whetherthe radiator remains cold until the engine has reached proper operating temperature as shown by the temperatureindicator. Permanent type antifreeze solutions are preferred for miningmachineryengines, since alcohol boils at 170°F. and most cooling thermostats are set near or abovethis figure for efficient combustion the of fuel. Kerosene salt solutions shouldnever be used. or EngineDistributors Thelower part of the distributor is often lubricated automatically from the engine. When driven from the generator, however,separate grease lubrication is usually required. The upper distributor bearingmayuse either grease or oil lubrication. The wick under the distributor rotor requires two or three drops of light oil. Anoccasional touch of grease to the camis desirable, making sure, however, that nonereaches the breakerpoints. Engine Fans Fans mounted on a shaft extension or other engine accessory and having no separate bearings require no lubrication. Neither do those having permanentlypacked bearings. Some fans require occasional grease application, while others must be lubricated regularly with oil. Onetype of oil lubricated fan is equipped with an overflow, while another is equipped with a standpipe to insure constant oil level. In the latter type, the reservoir is filled withoil and the excessdrained by turning the fan until the filler hole is down.If over-lubricated, the fans maythrow grease or oil ontothe belts. Engine Generators Over-lubrication of generators maycause deterioration of windings and deposit formation on the commutator.

EngineOil Filters Oil filter elementsshould be cleaned or replaced at every oil change, and more frequently under severe dirt conditions. Low temperature operation requires morefrequent filter changingdue to condensation formingan emulsionwith oil. Oil filters do not removefuel diluent or soluble oxidation products. Therefore, crankcase oil must be changed regularly regardless of the filter type. ByEngine Cooling Systems pass filters, and evenfull flowfilters do not remove To insure complete combustion and to minimize all of the finely dispersedsoot. Consequently, highly contaminating the lubricating oil with unburned dispersant oils tend to turn dark quickly in service. fuel and soot, engine cooling systems should be Thisis a sign that the oils are functioningproperly. [88]

LUBRICATION Engine Water Pumps Somewater pumpsrequire no lubrication, since they are lubricated either automatically from the engine or are permanently packed at the factory. Others have a wick leading from an oil sump and still others have porous bushings from which oil seeps to the shaft. Greaselubricated pumps whichthe grease does in not comein contact with the engine coolant (when the grease is applied to an external support bearing) should be lubricated with a general purpose grease. Those pumps which the grease does comein conin tact with the engine coolant (when the grease is used to lubricate the packing seal) are preferably lubricated with a heavy, water insoluble grease. If cooling systemsshowsigns of oil, it maybe an indication that either too muchor the improper grease is being applied. It should be remembered, however,that somepermanenttype antifreezes are two phaseproducts, and that oil in the cooling system mayoriginate fromthe coolant. Transmissions and Rear Axles In most cases, transmission and rear axle lubricants need not be changed more often than every 1000 hours, although the level shot*ld be checked every 50 hours. Checkthe drain plugs after heavy rains or severe dust conditions, then drain and refill if wateris present or if dust is getting in. Keep the oil seals in goodconditionto preventleakage. Going to a heavier grade of lubricant will not necessarily reduceleakage,since the heavieroil ust, ally operates at a higher temperature, xvhich in turn reduces its viscosity. Foamingor overheating in gear boxes often indicates too high an oil level. This ~vill also cause leakage. Keepvents open to prevent pressure bt, ildup inside the gearcase. tional lubricant applied as necessary. Opengears operating in very dusty locations shouldbe washed frequentlywithcrankcase andvery, verylittle lubrioil cant applied. If gears mustrun dry, the speeds and loads shouldbe reduced,if feasible. GreaseFittings Greasefittings should be wipedbefore and after applying grease. When plug must be removedand a a fitting applied, it is an indication that this part should be lubricated only occasionally. Mostparts, such as plain bearings, should be lubricated frequently and freely by applying product until fresh grease showsat the point where the old grease is forced out. Rubber Parts Oils and greases maycause natural and somesynthetic rubbers to deteriorate. Thereforetires, fan belts, rubber hose, engine mountings,rubber bushings on radius rods and spring shackles, and cooling system connections should be kept free from fuel, oil and grease. In addition, use only approved fluids in shock absorbers, brake cylinders and hydraulic control systems containing rubber diaphragms, plungersor seals. Steering Gear Keepthe steering gear housingfilled with recommended to lubricate gear surfaces, bearings and oil steering shaft. Use a low pressure pumpto prevent the lubricant from being forced up the steering column. Turntable Roller Path Donot lubricate (except doubleflange types with hookrollers.) Lubricantwill cause rollers to slide and wearflat. Lubricatebearingson turntable rollers sparingly to avoid drippageon paths.

Open Gears Lubricants for open gears may be heated and UniversalJoints Some universal joints are provided with lubricapoured, applied by brush or swab, or sprayed. Gears shot, ld be inspectedabout every10 hot, rs and addi- tion fittings. The ball and trunnion type should not be over lubricated as the boot will become filled with lubricant. Someroller bearing types require disassembly and hand packing by an experienced mechanic.

Courtesy o/ Euclid Division o! G~n~ralAfotor~ Corporation Figure 15 -- A cutaway view of a planetary drive axle.

Wheel Bearings Front wheel bearings generally are lubricated by removing the wheels and repacking by hand. Some rear wheel bearings have to be removed, while others are lubricated automatically from the differential, or are permanently packedat the factory. Some equippedwith a grease cup or fitting and are still others have a plug whichmust be removed and a fitting substituted, the plug being replaced after the lubricant is applied. Gear-driven wheels on large equipment,like the one illt*strated in Figure15, are usually oil lubri-

[89]

LUBRICATION cated. Theoil serves both the gears and the bearings. Prematurewheelbearing failure often is caused by contamination with dirt and dust during cleaning and repacking. Wheneverwheel bearings are removed,they should be examined,washedcarefully in a suitable solvent and dried with air. After cleaning, grease should be packed around the bearings and the bearingsreplaced. Greaseseals should be examinedcarefully and replaced, if necessary. Bearings must be adjusted so that the wheel~vill turn freely with no end play. Only a small amountof grease should be placed in the bearing housing, as over-lubrication mayresult in grease leakage onto the brakes. Protecting Idle Equipment In someareas, surface mining is seasonal, and often equipmentis idle for extended periods, and may be exposed to severe weather conditions bet~veen active periods. Effective engine preservative oils are available for protecting the internal parts of gasoline and diesel engines. Enclosedgear boxes, transmissions and other systems containing lubricants not designed to protect fully against rust during idle periods should be drained, cleaned and filled with rustproof oil. Air tools should also be protected during idle periods. Many tool lubricants are designed to air provide adequate rust protection. Internal parts can be safeguardedby lubricating the tool liberally before storage. External parts of equipment and machinery are also subject to the ravages of rust. Light mobile equipmentsuch as cars, pickups and trucks should be protected from rust, even during periods of operation. Effective rustproofing materials are available which will virtually eliminaterusting and arrest rust that has already started. The rustproof compoundscan be brushed, swabbedor sprayed to form films whichcreep into remotecracks and crevices to effectively control corrosion. Special application proceduresare available for protecting inaccessible parts of automobile bodies. UNDERGROUND MINING The underground mining environment is quite different from that of surface mining. Temperatures in mines vary from freezing to well above 100°F. However, the most part, temperatures are reafor sonably moderate, generally ranging from 50° F. to 60°F. except near the mine openings. Fresh air, light and power must be supplied to underground operations. Poweris usually ACor DCelectric or pneumatic, although internal combustion engines are also used. Workingspaces are relatively confined and, as in mining of low seam coal, can be quite cramped. Machinesused must be especially [90] adapted, not only for workingunderground,but in accordancewith the size and nature of the vein or deposit to be worked.Accessto and from the mines is generally time consumingand tedious. This is particularly true in the transportation of machines, parts and lubricants to and from the workingface and shop or storage areas. This places a high value on dependableoperation of machines, since production is geared to the machinesand maximum production depends upon continued normal operation of equipment. The proper operation and continued performance the equipment directly related to of is adequate and proper lubrication. Therefore, high lubricant quality, goodlubricant application practices and proper maintenanceare all essential to profitable miningin this age of mechanization. High humidity, contaminating dusts and dirt, high operating temperatures, heavy work loads, water and corrosive conditions are all common to undergroundmining, and constitute the main factors with which lubricants must contend. The problem of adequate and proper lubricant supply is lessened by use of especially designedcontainers and dispensers to ease transportation and use underground. Minimizingthe numberof lubricants required is of primeimportanceand is receiving much attention. This eases the responsibility of lubricant distribution and reduces the chances of misapplication. The ultimate goal of a single oil and a single grease for undergroundequipmenthas not yet been realized, althoughoften operations can be properly serviced with three or four carefully selected high quality lubricants. Access to undergrounddeposits is provided by openings driven into and under the ground. These openingsare given different names indicate posito tion and direction. Some these terms are identiof fied as follows: Shafts: Vertical tunnels driven from the surface. Provides primary access for men, machines and supplies and exit for ore. Drifts: Horizontal tunnels driven to the deposit area from the side of a mountain.Also, passages driven along the vein. Slopes: Inclined tunnels driven from the surface to the depositarea. Levels: Horizontal tunnels driven in the earth at any given elevation. These include drifts and crosscuts connecting drifts. Winzes: Vertical or steeply inclined shafts sunk from levels. Usedfor access and as passages for ore. Raises: Vertical tunnels driven up,yard used for access to and as passagesfor minedore. Inclines : Tunnels that are neither vertical nor horizontal.

LUBRICATION

Stopes: Openings from which ore is mined. They may be just large enough to allow men and machines to work in them or large enough to accommodatea multi-storied building.

The Mining Cycle
The underground mining cycle is composed basically of three phases ( 1 ) rock breaking by drilling and blasting. Cutting of the deposit face prior to blasting is done with some of the softer materials in order to facilitate and improve fragmentation and minimize blasting (2) mucking or loading and (3) transportation, i.e. hauling and hoisting.

Fragmentation Fragmentation is necessary to facilitate handling the ore, waste rock or spoil involved. In this process, a systematic pattern of blast holes is drilled in the Loading face. The number and depth of the holes drilled The method of mucking, or loading is usually depend on the nature and size of the ore or fossil determined by the choice and design of the mine fuel mass to be broken, as well as the mining method hauling system. For maximum efficiency, the capa[91]

to be followed. In hard rock, drilling is done primarily with pneumatically powered percussion type drills. With softer materials, electric and hydraulically poweredrotary drills are predominantly used. Mining explosives are of special design and composition to accomplish the particular job at hand. In soft deposits such as coal, potash, etc., the release of highly compressedair in the drill holes is extensively employedfor fragmentation. Drilling is also used for installing roof bolts, which are used to provide supports for rock which might not stand otherwise without added internal trussing. Drilling blast holes and direct fragmentation both require large quantities of compressed air in many underground mines. Figure 16 is an example of a six stage compressor used for such purposes.

LUBRICATION

Double drum holst-both drumsclutched.

Single drum hoist.

Divided single drum hoist.

Single and multi-rope Koepehoists.

Double drum hoist-one drum clulched.

Courtesy o! Nordberg,llannlacturing Co.

Figure 17- Schematicdrawings showingseveral mine hoist assemblies.

city of the systemmust be correlated with loading rates. Different methods loading may classified of be as follows: ( 1 ) Hand loading, whichis virtually obsolete. (2) Loading from chutes or bins. ( 3 ) Scraperor slusher loading. Slushersare operated on wire rope arrangementsusually powered by compressed or electricity. air (4) Overshot loading. This entails use of mechanical loaders or excavators in whichthe digging element crowds, lifts and discharges with a rocker arm motionback into a car or truck. The machine usually moves rails or on crawler treads. Theyare used extensively in hard rock mining. (5) Conveyor type shovel loading. These machines dig on forward motion and discharge on backwardmotion to a conveyorbelt that in turn discharges to a hauling device. (6) Continuous loading. This is done with machines having gathering arms that load continuously as they advance. Theyload onto a

self-contained conveyor which moves the materialinto rail or shuttle cars, belts, etc. for hauling out of the mine. Hauling Hauling and hoisting are the meansof transporting the minedmaterial to the surface and essentially ends the miningoperation per se. Concentration, beneficiation, cleaning and drying of ores may follow in subsequentoperations, but are beyondthe scopeof this article. Underground hauling is done in many ways. Many mineshave extensive railway systems, and the mined material is hauled in mine cars pulled by electric locomotives. The filled cars maybe moved to unloaders that emptyinto bins or chutes from whichskip hoists are loaded to take the ore or coal to the surface or, the loaded minecars themselves maybe skip hoisted to the surface for unloading. Otherminesuse endless belts to collect the ore near the working areas and move to stockpiles or cleanit ing plants outside the mine. Extensible belts which

[92]

LUBRICATION can be conveniently lengthened or shortened are frequently used to follow the moving face. Belts and mine cars are often fed from mobile hauling vehicles, operating betweenthe loaders and primary hauling equipment. In order to take proper care of the wealth of mechanical equipment used in underground mining, it is extremelyimportant that intelligent and careful consideration be given to maintenanceand lubrication requirements. ice, adhesive, heavy residual oils with high film strengths are desirable. Oftenthese productsare cut back with a volatile solvent to aid application. On evaporationof the solvent, the tough, adhesivelubricant film remains. Due to exposure and hard service of the head sheave wheel, a high quality rust and oxidation inhibited oil or grease should be used for bearing lubrication. Lubricationof the wire ropes and cables used in hoisting was covered previously.

Lubrication of Equipment Mechanical Mining Machinery Manymines have large shops underground or The greatest above ground in which someof the equipment can the past several progress in undergroundmining in years has been in the expanded debe properly maintainedand lubricated on schedule. However,muchequipment cannot be readily moved to shops, and hence maintenance and lubrication must be done at isolated underground locations. Since production is often involved, these services maybe hurried, incomplete or improper. This, of course, is highly undesirable and maysubsequently lead to early and unscheduled overhauls. Discussion of lubrication of various types of equipmentused extensively in undergroundmining operations follows: Hoists Large drumhoists are employed shaft sinking in and in hoisting mined material from deep undergroundmineswith either vertical or inclined shafts. Several arrangementsfor minehoist assemblies are shownschematically in Figure 17. The hoisting layout usually comprises a headframeerected over the collar of the shaft, or at the top of an incline, and a sheave wheelat the top of the headframe for each hoisting compartmentor hoistway. Skips and cages are attached to wire ropes that pass over the head sheave to the hoist drums. The wire rope is woundand unwound the hoist on drums to raise or lower the skips and cages. An important safety feature of skips and cages is a device to stop themif the cable breaks. The headframe contains bins into whichthe hoisted material is discharged. Thehoists also serve as a meansfor men, equipment supplies to enter and leave the and mines. Mosthoists are electrically driven through gear and clutch arrangements, and often have two drums that can be operated separately or in balance. Examples of each are shownin Figures 18 and 19. The drums are driven through single or double reduction gear sets that maybe open or enclosed. Lubricationof the large electric hoist motorbearings is usually accomplished with a highly refined, medium viscosity, rust and oxidation inhibited mineral oil. Mild EP gear oils are used for lubricating enclosed reduction gears. Lubrication of open reduction gears maybe a problemif they are subject to contamination with abrasive dusts. For this serv[93]

CourteJy ol NordbergManulacturingCo. Figure 18--A closeup of a mine hoist clutch assembly.

Courtesy ol Vulcan-Denver Corporation Figure 19-- A large double drummine hoist.

LUBRICATION velopment and use of mechanical mining machinery. Because of the importance of proper lubrication of this high investment equipment and the previously mentioned problems of providing maintenance services in the operating areas, muchthought should be and has been given to the selection of lubricants and simplification of the lubrication program. Lubricants Primary considerations for lubricating this equipment include the hydraulic system pumpsand other mechanisms, gearing, sliding surfaces and the various machine and motor bearings. Therefore, the hydraulic oil, gear oil, chassis lubricant anti ball and roller bearing grease must be carefully selected and properly applied for optimum machine performante anti availability. Automatic lubrication has been applied successfully to individual pieces of mechanical mining equipment, using both oil and grease for general lubrication according to the design and location of the parts to be serviced, kVhen operating mechanisms can be served from a central reservnir, high viscosity, mild EP oils have proved quite satisfactory. Some machines are equipped with zone lubricating systems with easily accessible application points, from which lines carry the lubricant to the less accessible bearings and gears. Careful checks should be made periodically to assure that none of these lines are broken. If any of the lubrication lines are broken or damaged, they should be replaced promptly. Lubrication buttons should be carefully cleaned before applying lubricants to prevent ingress of abrasive dust and dirt into the movingparts. Often it is convenient and advantageous to install a lubricant dispensing pump on an individual piece of eqnipment for servicing other equipment in the area. For instance, installatinn on shuttle cars provides a high degree of mobility. However, the unit could be placed on the continuous miner, since its lubrication is more demanding, and the mobile equipment brought to it for servicing. Wheel bearings require a shear resistant grease with gnod rust protective properties. Grease lubricated motnr bearings require a product which circulates properly in the bearing, resists leakage and possesses good rust and oxidation resistance. On equipment using motors designed to operate at usually high temperatures, such as silicone wound ACmotors, a special grease with exceptional oxidation resistance and high temperatnre perfnrmance characteristics is required for reasnnable service life. In general, wheel and motor bearings, (except those operating under extremely adverse conditions), require relatively infrequent lubrication. This can be done at scheduled periodic service intervals. Gear lubricants should resist thickening and have

Figure 20--Hot Plate Ignition Test. Note how mineral oll ignites whensprayedon heated surface.

sufficient load carrying properties to prevent scoring and galling of gears, including the shock loading conditions typical of underground mining. Gear lubricatk~n and general grease requirements of some mining machinery can be met with one specially formulated semi-fluid grease type prnduct. This, of course, permits simplified stocking of lubricants in the immediate working area. The semifluid grease must flow readily under gear box service conditions, since snme splash lubrication may be inw)lved. It also must possess sufficient viscosity to resist leakage, and to function properly as a chassis and general purpose grease on other parts of the equipment. It shoukt have a high resistance to adverse effects of water and solids conta~nination so as not to thin out or harden excessively in service. The hydraulic oil lubricates the internal parts of the control valves, hydraulic cylinders, fluid motors, pumps, and relief valves in the hydraulic system. It must protect these parts from excessive wear, provide adequate rust protection and be compatible with the seal, gasket and hose materials used in the machine] Cleanliness is of extreme importance in hydraulic systems to insure proper operation and to aw)id excessive wear from abrasive dust and dirt. The system should be inspected, flushed at intervals and the hydraulic oil renewed as necessary. The nil should resist deterioration due to heat and nxidation and resist formation of stick}’ gumsand sludges that may impair performance of precisely designed hydraulic mechanisms. The Bureau of Mines encourages the use of fire resistant tluids in underground mines, and has developed a schedule of fire resistance tests fnr qualification as permissible fire resistant hydraulic ttuids under their Schedule 30. There are three general types of fire resistant tluids, namely: Synthetics, water-glycol compositions and water-in-oil emulsions, s None of these fluids are completely nonttammable, but they all possess a high degree of fire resistance. The reader will note the dramatic ditfer-

LUBRICATION ttuids give good performance which is comparable in most instances to that obtained with mineral hydraulic oils, reduced consumption and lower operating temperatures. Oneof their main limitations is that they cannot be used extensively at temperatures exceeding 150 F. due to evaporation of the water phase. The emulsion type ttuids differ from mineral oils in several respects. Becauseof this, certain care and precautions must be observed in their use. When properly handled and use~t, they perform satisfactorily and contribute to mine safety. Fluid suppliers are familiar with the characteristics and capabilities of their products, alld should be consulted if their adoption and use is being considered. The clutch n3echanisms on mining equipment, and particularly miners, are very impnrtant items. They must functinn properly so that they dn not slip excessively or stick, causing overheating, overloading and possible damageto the machines. Clutch types and materials of construction vary appreciably, and in someinstances may be sensitive to the frictional properties of the oil. Whenthe machines are working continuously and under heavy lnad, relatively high temperatures can develop in the clutch zone, especially with disk type friction clutch packs. High grade rust and oxidation inhibited mineral nils, such as those used for hydraulic tluid service shoukt be used to lubricate these devices. In some applications, such as in chatter type clutches, mild EP gear oils nr sen3i-ltuid greases have been used with success. CIItt~I~,g Machines Mechanical cutting machines like the one shown in Figure 22 are used for cutting coal, potash, gypsum, and other soft materials at the face to improve fragmentation. Since cutting is a heavy duty opera-

Figure 21 --Atomized Spray Ignition Test. The fire resistant hydraulic fluid does not ignite even whensprayed through a propaneflame at 2000°F.

ences in ttammability between mineral oil and a fire resistant ttuid in the laboratory ignition tests illustrated in Figures 20 and 21. In coal mining, the principal interest has been on the water in oil emulsion types because of their adequate performance at reasonable costs. The emulsiontype fluids owetheir fire resistance to their water content, which generally is in the range of 35 to ,i5 per cent. \Vhen these fluids are exposed to sul~ficiently high temperatures, steam is formed, thereby reducing local temperatures and displacing oxygen in the immediate area. This acts to blanket the fire and suppress ignition. The lubricity of water-in-oil emulsions is derived frnm the mineral oil and additives: the oil phase completely surrounds the water droplets in the emulsion. Service tests indicate that properly formulated emulsion type

~ ,,:,,a ,’, ol 7 he J,/]r,.5 .llanut..;uring Co, Figure 22 -- A coal cutting machine.

!951

LUBRICATION tion, severe loads are imposed on the chains, gears and bearings of these machines. Some cutting machines can be lubricated with a soft grease or a mediumheavy oil, ranging in viscosity from 300 to 600 SSU at 100°F. On equipment where both the gears and bearings are lubricated by the same system, a somewhatheavier product is generally used, such as a mediumviscosity mild EP gear oil, a compoundedresidual oil or a semi-fluid grease. The cutter normally operates on tracks driven through a wormand gear, with chain connections to the wheels. Chain lubrication usually presents a problem, as the chains are exposed to the abrasive effects of dirt and rock dust. Therefore, cleaning and regular periodic lubrication are important. Both objectives can be accomplished by soaking the chains in oil at regular intervals. bearings of the solar gear pinions. The grease for this service should be heat resistant, possess suitable shear stability and have antiwear characteristics so as to properly protect tile gear teeth. Positive lubrication at proper intervals will help overcome the adverse effects of heat and contamination.

Courtes) Figure 23 --

o/Vulcan-Denver

Corporation hoist. Figure 24 -Courtesy ol The Eimco Corpor.mon An overcast shovel loading ore.

A cutaway of a double drum slusher

Slusher Hoists In certain types of hard rock mining, loading involves use of slusher hoists to muckthe loosened material into bins which load the hauling equipment. Slusher hoists are open end scrapers draxvn by wire cable threaded through a series of properly located sheaves and operated by one, two or three drum hoists, depending t,pon the requirements. Figure 23 is a cutaway view of a double drum hoist shoxving the liberal use of gears and ball bearings in these devices. The cable is kept tight at all times and the drums are operated together or separately as required to pull the scraper through the ore and accumulate it in bins or chutes. The slushers are powered by electric or air motors as large as 150 horsepower. Under adverse conditions, considerable heat may be generated in the hoists throt,gh use of drum brakes and from clutch slippage. The hoists are also subject to severe contamination with abrasive dust and dirt. The lubrication requirements of slusher hoists can be adequately met by using a mediumviscosity mild EP gear oil for the gears and a grease for the bearings. For simplification, someoperators standardize on a single grease to lubricate the antifriction bearings, solar gear teeth and the bushings and [96]

Overcast Loaders Overcast shovels are used extensively in hard rock mining operations. The loaders fill the shovels in forward movementsand then for overcasting, the loader moves back and the shovel is elevated and pulled backward. Thus, the ore is cast backward in an overhead motion into conveyors or mine cars. These loaders usually operate on rails or crawler tracks and are pneumatically or electrically powered. Figure 24 shows an overcast shovel at work loading ore. A general view of another type of shovel loader appears as Figure 25. Air motors can be lubricated satisfactorily xvith SAE 20 grade motor oil. SAE 80 grade mild EP gear oil is suitable for the chain reel drive assembly and traction motor gears. A suitably selected multipurpose grease can serve as the wheel bearing and chassis lubricants. The primary problems in lubrication of overcast shovels and loaders arise through contamination with abrasive dirt and dust. Hence, it is goodpractice to drain and flush lubricants regularly to avoid excessive bearing and gear wear. Scroll Type Loaders The modern machine used primarily in loading softer materials is a combination gathering, con-

LUBRICATION

Figure

Courtvty o] Goodman Di~,ition, I[/estingbouJe Air Brake Compan:, 25- A shovel loader.

veying and handling device, as Figure 26 shows. The gathering and scraping mechanism digs into the loosened coal or mineral deposit and directs it onto a conveying unit. This, in turn delivers the material to shuttle cars, belts or other hauling units. These mechanismsmust ft, nction in direct contact with abrasive materials and frequently under adverse temperature and water conditions. Accordingly, gears, chains and bearings must be properly maintained and lubricated at all times. Continuous Miners During recent ),ears, great advances have been made in the design and performance of large continuous miners to handle coal and other soft materials like potash, salt, and gypsum These

Courtesy o/Joy Figure 26-- A modern loading machine.

machines move on crawler treads under their own power. They are equipped with movable cutting heads that can rip relatively soft materials from the mine face without drilling, cutting or blasting. The mined ore, coal, etc. is loaded onto a conveyor built into the machine by scrolls or gathering arms. The material is then discharged into hauling equipment, thus completing the fragmentation and loading ~vith one machine and in one operation. The continuot, s miners are built to different dimensions to accommodate the various size seams and production rates which must conform with the mine operators’ reqt, irements. These machines are generally electrically and hydraulically powered. They are provided xvith water sprays to lay dust and can be equipped with drilling devices for installing roof bolts. These machines are highly productive, and a single machine can mine as much as several thousand tons per shift. Three of these remarkable machines are illustrated in Figures 27, 28 and 29. Continuous miners are complex, expensive equipment and represent a major investment to the mine operators. Maintenance and lubrication care must be at high levels, because when these machines are inoperative, the production of the entire mine is affected. Their compactness and design are xvell suited for simplification of lubrication requireManu[acturing Compan) ments, and some of these machines have been operated on

[97]

I.UBRICATION

Figure 27-- A continuous miner.

Figure 28-- Anothertype of continuousminer in operation.

virtually nnc oil and one grease’. Due to the environments in which they work, contamination of the hydraulic and lubricating systems is a majnr factor. Intelligent lubricarton practices and good maintenance can do much to minimize contamination and extend the useful service life of this equipment.

Figure 29-- Anothertype of contlnuousminerin service.

The next issue of this publication will conclude this article with descriptions of underground mining transportation equipment, drills, compressors and pumps, and mining machinery components commonto both surface and underground mining.

REFERENCES
7. 8. Magazine LUBRICATION, Volume 52, Number 5, 1966. "Hydraulics." Magazine LUBRICATION, December, 1962. "Fire Resistant Hydraulic Fhlids."

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