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kikihatz@igme.gr,
fchalkiopoulou@igme.gr

zach@mred.tuc.gr

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SNAPSEE(http://www.snapsee.eu/)

(Sustainable
Aggregates Resource Management SARM)

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[ 1 SNAPSEE] [2014]

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.5

.5 EXECUTIVESUMMARY

.5.1

.5.1 Introduction

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The Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration (IGME) organized a public consultation
event titled: Sustainable Planning of Aggregates in Greece within the framework of the
SNAPSEE project in collaboration with the Technical University of Crete which is also a
partner in this project. The main purpose of the consultation event was the open
collaborationbetweenthestakeholderswhichareinvolvedintheplanningofaggregatesin
ourcountry.

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It should be noted that although the initial estimates of the planning committee involved
about30participants,therewastremendousinteresttoparticipateinthiseventandfinally
51peoplefromnationalandregionalauthorities,industryandacademiccommunity,aswell
astheprojectpartnerinstitutionsparticipatedinthisevent.Thisactuallyfulfilledtheinitial
planoftheorganizerswhichwastoallowasmanystakeholdergroupstoparticipateinthis
firstconsultationprocess.Itshouldalsobenotedthanmorethan70peoplewereinterested
in participating in this event but for purely practical reasons this was not possible. In any
case this consultation event was successful and gave the opportunity to participating
stakeholders to state their views, consult in matters of planning at a national region level
andactuallyidentifythemainchallengesthatstakeholdersfaceduringaggregatesplanning.


( 41%
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.
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10%

41%

29%

20%

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Experts
10%
Industry
41%

Project
team
29%

Authorities
20%

It should also be noted that 41% of


the participants were industry
representatives. The main subjects
that were discussed by the Industry
involved illegal quarrying and more
efficient implementation of the
existing legislation. Also,the Industry
asked the activation of the pertinent
authorities for controlling the illegal
transportofaggregatesortheuseof
unsuitable products in terms of
quality,factorswhichhaveanegative
impact on the Industry especially in
thecontinuedeconomiccrisis.

Fig.1:Participationintheconsultationevent,perstakeholdersgroup

10

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.5.2

.5.2 Descriptionofthecurrentsituation

.5.2.1

.5.2.1Existingframeworkregardingextractioninordertoproduceaggregates

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Theindustryofnaturalorinotherwordsprimaryaggregates(crushedrocks+sand&gravel)
isveryimportantforEurope,wheretheoverallproductionfortheyear2013was2,5billion
tones. This production was accomplished by 25.000 quarries, 15.000 companies which
employabout250.000employees3.InGreece,theannualproductiontodayisestimatedat
25milliontones,atleast50%lowerthantheexpectedaverageannualproductionbasedon
the available historical data of the industry. Production for 2008 was about 98 million
tones4. Thus, in Greece today there is an average annual consumption per capita of 2,2
toneswhenthecorrespondingaverageconsumptioninEuropeis5,2tonespercapita,while
especiallyforcountriesinSoutheastEuropeconsumptionis4,2tonespercapita.Thisdrastic
decrease in annual production, and correspondingly in annual consumption, is a direct
impactofthefinancialcrisiswhichisevidentinGreecethelast5or6yearsandwhichhas
negativeeffectsinallbranchesofeconomyincludingcivilconstruction,generalconstruction
andotheractivitieswhicharedirectlyrelatedtoaggregateconsumption.

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BasedontheworkperformedwithintheSNAPSEEprojectbytheauthors,butalsoverified
by the participants in this consultation, aggregates planning in Greece today is mainly
focussing on planning for primary (natural) aggregates. That means it is related to the
planning of extraction, which partially is due to the fact that Greece has an abundance of
primary raw materials, especially limestones, suitable for the production of concrete
aggregates and cement. Thus, based on the national legislation5 the development of
quarries for the production of primary aggregates can only be performed in specifically
established areas, the Quarrying Areas, making this activity perhaps the only of the
extractive industry which is directly related to land use planning. Quarrying Areas are
definedbyimplementingrelateddecisionsissuedbytheHeadofaRegionalGovernment6.
Thelastisappointingan8membercommittee7inwhichparticipate,amongothers,amining
engineeroftheMinistryofEnvironmentandClimateChange(YPEKA)(thecoordinator)and
officersservingintheForestOffice,theMinistryofCivilizationandAthletics,IGME,andthe
DirectorateofEnvironmentofYPEKA.Itisimportanttonotethattheextractionofmineral
rawmaterialsforaggregatesproductionispossibleunderspecialconditionsoutsidethese
Quarrying Areas and more specifically: a) In the case of quarrying for the production of
aggregatesforspecialuses;b)Fortheconstructionofcrucialpublicworks;andc)Whenitis
notpossibletoestablishaQuarryingAreainaspecificprovinceoranisland.

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5
.1428/1984,.2115/1993.
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10.4203/2013(235)
,3432/2013
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5
6

SeeVol.2oftheProceedings,page10(JimOBrien)
IGME,3rd CSF, EvaluationofaggregatesrawmaterialsContributioninthemanagementoftheGreek
QuarryingAreas[COMPETITIVENESS,Measure7.3,Action7.3.1]
Law1428/1984asamended bytheLaw2115/1993(K.Georgoulakis,Vol.2oftheProceedings,p.18)
Thecountryiscomprising 13RegionalGovernmentsresponsiblefortheplanningofprimaryaggregates
The participating entities in this committee are identified in Article 10of the Law 4203/2017 and its
operationisregulatedwiththeJMDissuedintheofficialgazetteFEK3432B/2013

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,5055%8
.
,.

Nevertheless, only 5055%8 of the total aggregate production in Greece comes from
establishedQuarryingAreas.Therestiseitherduetoillegalquarryingorduetoquarrying
basedondifferentexceptionsofthelegalframework.

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Themajorityoftheparticipantsinthiseventandespeciallyparticipantsfromtheindustry9
recognized the value and importance of the Quarrying Areas establishment; as it was
emphasizedmostoftheseAreashaveoperatedproperlyuptoday.Regardingtheoperation
oftheQuarryingAreas,anumberofadvantageswerealsounderlined,suchas10:
The minimization of the infrastructure works needed for the operation of the quarries
includedinaQuarryingArea,sincetheseworksservicemorethanonequarries.
Given that the establishment of a Quarrying Area is also based on a favorable
morphologyofthegroundsurface,rationalexploitationcanbeproperlyaccomplishedin
there.
ThereispotentialforestablishingotherrelevantindustrialactivitiesinaQuarryingArea
(e.g.readymixedconcreteplantunitsandasphaltmixunits).
The generation of important revenues for the local authorities, coming from the fees,
royaltiesandrentspaidbypublicorcommunityquarries.

However, some of the major problems that were reported regarding the operation of the
Quarrying Areas institution are the very long delays to complete the necessary processes
fortheirestablishment,aswellasreforestationdecisionsthatmaybeissuedforQuarrying
Areasalreadyestablished.

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InGreece,sand&gravelextractionisbasicallynotallowedforaggregatesproduction,due
to a very old law11 based on which, gravel, sand & gravel, clay and the environment are
protected. Sand extraction can only be accomplished for environmental reasons and for
cleaningupriverandstreambeds.

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A.5.2.2Illegalquarryingandunfaircompetition
Manyoftheparticipantsdiscussedextensivelyillegalquarryingissuesaswellastheadverse
effectstotheoperationoftheproperlylicensedquarryoperations.Itwasemphasizedthat
the operational cost of the legal quarries is much higher than that of the illegal ones,
especiallyduetothefeesinvolved.Inaddition,theaggregatestransportationcostisusually
higher for the quarries of Quarrying Areas, since often they are at a distance from
consumptioncenters.Onthecontrary,illegalquarryingismorecompetitiveduetothelack
of fees and royalties, the close proximity to the market and due to the absence of
compliance with other legal obligations. Furthermore the quality characteristics of the
illegallytransportedproductsarenotregularlycheckedandthereforemaynotconformto
allspecifications.

,..7.1(.)
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11
..1219/38:42279/24/1938(267)
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..12285/348/1422014
9

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8
9
10
11

SeeVol.AoftheProceedings,OpenDiscussion,part1(P.Tzeferis)
SeeVol.AoftheProceedings,representativeoftheMiningEnterprisesAssociation,MrFedros
SeeVol.BoftheProceedings,SectionB22pp.2931(R.Leivadaros)
(Mandatoy) Law 1219/38 and JMD 42279/24/1938. The last was amended recently by the JMD
12285/FEK/348/14022014

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,
12,
.

As it was already mentioned, despite the existing framework for the establishment of
QuarryingAreas,thereisstillpermittingofquarriesinlocationsotherthanthepredefined
areas12andthisisknowntoboththeregionalandthecentraladministrativeauthorities.

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During the discussion, the industry representatives made several references to unfair
competition issues which are affecting the performance of the Sector. For example it was
reported that thepublicworks contractors may supply the market with aggregates which
areadirectproductfromexcavationsfortheprocuredworks.Suchanactivityconstitutes
unfaircompetitionandisdirectlyprohibitedbythelaw.Temporaryquarrieswhichopenup
for public works, as well as the overproduction from various construction projects or
cement production units are also considered an issue by the industry because again of13
unfair competition. For this reason it was proposed to consider a combination of the
demand for a specific project by procuring raw materials from nearby quarries and to
regulate consumption of temporary quarries by applying some fees towards local
authorities.

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Inaddition,illegalquarryingactivitiesareeasytooccurduringsandextraction,partiallydue
tothefactthatitisnotalwaysclearifandhowtheboundariesofriverbedsareestablished,
whichmaymakedifficultthedistinctionbetweentheactualcleaningupofriversorstreams
(thatislegal)andthe(illegal)operationofaregularquarry.FromtheMinistryofEnviron
mentandClimateChangeitisrecognizedthatthisneedstobefurtherregulatedandclearly
stated. This weakness of the existing framework (in combination with potential weakness
forcontrol)whichisappliedforsand&gravelexcavation,fascilitatestheaccomplishment
ofillegalactivities.Asdiscussedbyindustryrepresentatives,exploitationofsand&gravelin
suchawayconstitutesunfaircompetitionagainstorganizedquarriesandQuarryingAreas,
since (for the illegal operations) there is lack of Environmental Impact Assessment Studies
and quality controls. Furthermore, there is not taken into account the potential supply of
themarketwithmaterialsofhighergradecomingfromexistingnearbylegalquarries14.


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Finally, the Industry indicated that although there is a strict legal framework in place and
manycontrollingauthorities,theresultsaresuchthateventuallythemarketisfloodedwith
aggregateswithoutanyqualitycontrol.

.5.2.3

.5.2.3 Thenewquarrydraftbill


(, ),
23.

A new law is under preparation currently which will regulate the exploration and
exploitation issues of aggregates, industrial minerals & rocks and marbles (Quarrying
Minerals).Thedraftbillisunderconsiderationduringthelast2or3years.

12

,1(.)
13
,..2.3(.)
14
,.2.3,.40

16

TheGreekStatereactsagainstalltypesofillegalquarryinginordertolimitateitmainlyafter
somekindofcomplainthasbeensubmitted,whichissomethingthattheIndustrydoesnot
like and disaggrees. The Ministry clearly states that the State cannot police all operations
andtheIndustryshouldalsohelpwhenillegalquarryingisnoticed.

12
13
14

SeeVol.AofProceedings,OpenDiscussion,part1(P.Tzeferis)
SeeVol.BofProceedings,SectionB.2.3(X.Kavalopoulos)
SeeVol.BofProceedings,SectionB.2.3,page40

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Theindustryrepresentativescomplainedaboutthedelayinthevotingbytheparliamentof
thisbillwhichaimstosimplifyasmuchaspossibletheprocessandtoreducethedelaysfor
approvalsandpermits,whichinmanycasesdiscourageinvestmentinitiativesandweaken
the competitiveness of the Industry15. It seems that there are not any significant
amendmentstotheprevailinglawsinthisdraftbillbutonlyminorinterventions.Themajor
goal is to collect and incorporate16 all the existing separate laws, decisions and other
relevantprovisionsintooneuniquelegislativedocument.Intheframeworkofthespecific
proposal the following are considered, among other issues: quarrying inside Natura areas,
extensionoftheexploitationpermitsdurationto6070yearsandauniformpermitforall
quarryingmineralsandrocks,aswelltheprotectionofalreadyestablishedQuarryingAreas
fromtheirpartialreforestation.Inaddition,itallowstheinstallationofotherindustrialunits
(includingrecyclingunits)insideaquarry.Also,thislawwillaskthegovernor17ofaregionto
investigatetheneedsofhisregioninaggregatesevery5yearsandforhorizonof40years,
takingintoaccountthesecondaryrawmaterialsproducedintheareaaswellforthemarket
supply.Afterthat,theHeadoftheRegionalGovernementwillundertaketheresponsibility
via an official declaration to establish, if necessary, Quarrying Area/s. The Ministry of
Environment and Climate Change plans to gradually reduce drastically the number of
quarries that operate outside Quarrying Areas, by upgrading the performance of this
institutionwiththecontinuousoperationofthecommiteesinvolvedintheprocessoftheir
establishment.

.5.2.4

.5.2.4The framework for managing waste which constitute potential secondary


resourcesfortheproductionofaggregates


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Aggregates production in Greece from secondary resources was discussed extensively on


the grounds of the alternative management of materials, such as: a) Extractive waste; b)
Construction and demolition waste (C&DW); and c) Waste from metallurgical operations,
e.g.slagfromtheLARCOferronickelfactory.

18,
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30% ( 2010). ,
,
2008/98/E19,
4042/2012.
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2006/21/E(MineWasteDirective),
39624/2209/103/2009 ( 2076).
,2009.

15

16

17

18

19

18

http://www.oryktosploutos.net
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,..3.2,.49(.)

Extractivewaste
Accordingtoavailabledata18,theminingandquarryingactivitiesareproducingthebiggest
wastestreaminEurope,which,basedonthe2010data,constitutesabout30%ofthetotally
producedwaste.InGreece,theextractivewastesarenotregulatedbythesamelegislation
which is applied on waste in general, namely they are not included in the scope of the
Directive 2008/98/EK19 neither in the scope of the recent Law 4042/2012. However, the
managementofthiswasteisnotanymoreuptotheproducersgoodwill.Morespecifically,
thespecificwastesaregovernedbytheDirective2006/21/EK(MineWasteDirective),which
was transposed into the Greek law with the JMD 39624/2209/E103/2009 (FEK B2076).
Furthermore,theEuropeanCommissionhasissuedfiverelateddecisionsin2009.

15
16
17
18
19

www.oryktosploutos.net
SeeVol.BoftheProceedings,Section.2.1,page18(C.Georgoulakis)
SeeVol.AoftheProceedings,OpenDiscussion,part2(P.Tzeferis)
SeeVol.BoftheProceedings,SectionB.3.3,page55(K.Adam)
SeeVol.BoftheProceedings,SectionB.3.2,page49(R.Batmanoglou)

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2009/360/
,,
2009/337/
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OneoftheseistheDecision2009/360/ECwhichprescribesthetechnicalconditionswhich
are necessary in order to characterize an extractive waste either inert or dangerous or
nondangerous. Another one is the Decision 2009/337/EC which sets the criteria for the
classification of the installations which are managing extractive waste. According to the
prevailinglegislation,thelegalentitiesthatmanageextractivewasteareobligedtodevelop
aWasteManagementPlan(WMP)whichhastobesubmittedtothecompetentauthorities
for consideration and approval. As far as the waste facilities are concerned, an operation
permitisrequiredinordertogetthenecessaryApprovalofEnvironmentalConditions.


,
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20
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InformationonthequantitiesofthedifferenttypesofextractivewastesproducedinGreece
wasnotpresentedintheconsultation,partlyduetothefactthatthisisacomplicatedissue
concerningmanydifferenttypesofoperations.Forexample20,thewastestemmingfromthe
quarrying operations for the production of crushed rock aggregates is less than 2% of the
total aggregates production volume. In contrast, it is known that big volumes of solid
wastes are produced during marble extraction and usually remain around the quarry area
withapartialexploitation.Inthespecificcase,theratiobetweenthequantitiesofextractive
wastetothecorrespondingquantitiesofusefulmaterialisgreaterthan5:1.TheIndustry21
recognizesthefactthatthewasteproducedduetomarbleoperationsisanimportantissue
whichhasnotbeenaddressedadequatelyyetbythem.

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22,
22 . .
.

In general, large quantities of extractive wastes may be produced during exploration,


exploitation,processingandstorageofmineralsandthesearemostlystockedinthebroader
quarry / mine area. Within this framework, the example of the LARCO22 barren rocks was
presented during the consultation. Approximately 22 million tones of limestone are
produced as byproduct from all the mines of the Company annually. The commercial
utilizationofthismaterialdependsmainlyonthetransportationcost.

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2009/359/,23.

Last but not least, based on the existing legislative provisions, one aim of the extractive
wastes management is to promote their exploitation through recycling, reuse or further
recovery.However,extractivewasteshouldbeasmuchaspossiblegeochemicallyinert23 in
order to be possible to utilize them as aggregates, while according to the Decision
2009/359/EK,thesewastesshouldcomplywithallthefivecriterialistedthere.

,()

ConstructionandDemolitionWaste(C&DW)

, ()
.2939/01,
36259/1757/103/201024. , ,
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,

ThemanagementofConstructionandDemolitionWaste(C&DW)ismainlyregulatedbythe
Law2939/01asspecifiedbytheJMD36259/1757/E103/2010.Thelastisalsoappliedtothe
solidwastestemmingfrommarblecuttingworksandtheexcessconcrete.Exclusionsfrom
thescopeofthespecificJMDare:a)ThedangerousC&DW;b)Theextractivewaste;andc)
Soilsandothernaturalmaterialswhichhavebeenextractedduringconstructionactivities,

20

21

22

23

24

20

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20
21
22
23
24

SeeVol.BoftheProceedings,SectionB.3.3,page57(K.Adam)
SeeVol.BoftheProceedings,SectionB.2.3(X.Kavalopoulos)
SeeVol.BoftheProceedings,SectionB.4.1,page68(X.Riskakis)
SeeVol.BoftheProceedings,SectionB.3.3,page55(K.Adam)
SeeVol.BoftheProceedings,SectionB.3.4,page62(D.Skordilis)

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,,
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provided that these materials will be used again in the same area where they were
extracted. Especially for the excess waste materials which occur during the excavation
activities involved in public and private works, a Waste Management Plan should be
preparedandsubmittedandthemanagementofthesematerialsshouldbeincludedinthe
ApprovalDecisionoftheEnvironmentalConditionsconcerningthespecificworks.

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Basedonthecurrentlegislation,anentityinvolvedintheaccomplishmentofrelatedworks
is responsible to organize25 or participate in an Alternative Management System for the
managementoftheC&DWthatwillbeproduced.Thenecessarycollection,transportation,
storage and reuse or reutilization activities concerning this waste must be envisaged and
includedinsuchasystem.Furthermore,thesesystemsshouldcooperatefortheprocessing
ofC&DW,withpermittedfacilitieswhicharegrantedwiththenecessaryApprovalDecision
of Environmental Conditions. The Greek Recycling Organization (EOAN) is an organization
supervisedbyYPEKAandisresponsibleforapprovingthesesystemsaswellastomonitor
their operation. Until today there are 7 approved systems and about 54 units for the
processing of C&DW (the procedure started in 2011). Due to the need to eliminate the
transportationcostofthesematerials,thesystemscannotbeorganizedonanationalbasis
butshouldbetargetedtospecificgeographicalregionsofthecountry.


: 2015, /
50%
70%2020.
.26,80%
(, , , ,
)
,.
: )
,),)
.
.

By transposing the European directives into national legislation, Greece has set national
recyclingtargetsasfollows:therecycling/recoveryofC&DWshouldbeupto50%ofthe
totalproducedvolumeuntil2015andupto70%ofthetotalproducedvolumeuntil2020.
This is a very high objective and is considered very difficult to be achieved. According to
published data26 8% of the total C&DW consists of inert materials (concrete, bricks,
ceramics,gypsum,etc.)andthereforetherecyclingandrecoveringprocessesenvisagedin
theoperationoftheAlternativeManagementSystemswillbearthemainloadforachieving
the national targets. Recycling of such materials includes: a) Substitution of primary
aggregatesforconcreteproduction;b)Utilizationofsuchmaterialasbasematerialinroad
worksandotherconstructionworks;andc)Applicationoftheseasalternaterawmaterials
inthecementindustry.Recoveryincludesbackfillingofinactivequarriesormaterialusedto
coverlandfills.

27
, ,
,
. , . 4030/2011, 40,
.,

.
/ ,
.

Itshouldbeemphasized27that,althoughquarriesareincludedinlanduseplanning,C&DW
processingfacilitiesarenotforeseeninspatialplans.Ontheotherside,accordingtotheLaw
4030/2011,Article40,theC&DWprocessingfacilitiescanbeestablishedininactivequarries.
However in this case the operation of these facilities should not exceed the quarry
restorationtimeframeassetintherelatedcontract.Thepermittingofprocessingfacilitiesin
general which are located inside quarries or mining areas is governed by the related
quarryinglegislation.

25

,
.
,..3.4,.62(.)
26
4(
2014),http://www.ypeka.gr/
27
,..7,,2

22

25

26
27

The liabilities, administrative sanctions and economic penalties which are envisaged are very
strict and this was the basic motivation for the C&DW producers to participate in Systems for
AlternativeManagement.SeeVol.BoftheProceedings,SectionB.3.4,page62(D.Skordilis)
4th Deliverable,RevisionofNationalWasteManagementPlanning,January2014,www.ypeka.gr
SeeVol.AoftheProceedings,SectionA.7,OpenDiscussionPart2(E.Karka)

23

[2014] [ 1 SNAPSEE]

[ 1 SNAPSEE] [2014]

, . 3982/201128.
...

TheoperationofprocessingfacilitiesoutsidequarriesisregulatedbytheLaw3982/201128.
ItisselfevidentthatunitslocatedinIndustrialParkscaneasilyobtainanoperationpermit.

29.,,
.., (
)20102,08.
25%. ..,
2015,480.000,2020
690.000(~67%2010).

During the consultation, an intensive debate took place among the participants on the
significance of C&DW for aggregates production29. This is partially explained by the fact
that,accordingtotheHellenicStatisticalAuthority(EL.STAT.),theGreekC&DWproduction
for the year 2010 (not including excavation waste materials) was 2,08 million tones and
since then it is decreasing constantly with an annual rate of 25%. According to the
estimationsofthesameauthority,theannualC&DWproductionisexpectedtoreachalow
levelin2015with480.000tones,whileitisenvisagedtobearound690.000tonesin2020
(approximately67%comparedtothecorrespondingfigureof2010).

,
30,:),,,
,)
,
~2 .
(~300.000 ) , ) ,
,
.
EN1971, ,
,.
, , .
EN1971. , 2,5%
, 26 .
.

Within the framework of the specific event, the representative of LARCO30 presented the
potential of utilizing their byproducts which are: a) Limestone which consists the barren
rocksduringminingoftheferronickelore;b)Electricfurnaceslagwhichisproducedduring
the ferronickel metallurgical process, with an annual production of about 2 million tones,
which is partially utilized as sand blasting material (about 300.000 tones annually) and as
cementadditive;c)Spilitewhichisavolcanicrockwhichiscominedwiththeferronickelore
at the Euboea mines and is utilized for the production of aggregates for nonslip
applications. The use of slag was discontinued due to the enforcement of the EN 1971
Norm,becauseindustrialpozzolaneslikethisslagwerenotincludedasappropriatecement
materials. A request has been submitted to the EU through ELOT asking to include slag in
thescopeoftheEN1971Norm.Tosumup,only~2,5%ofthe26milliontonesofnatural
resourceswhichareminedannuallyfortheproductionofferronickelarefinallyutilized.

Industrialwaste

.5.3

.5.3 Preliminaryproposalsforthesustainableplanningofaggregatesin
Greece

(.5.2),
,,
.
, ( SARMA
SNAPSEE),

31.
, , ,
,,
.

Further to the discussion in Section A.5.2 and the facts discussed below, it is evident that
there are open issues in our country regarding sustainable planning for aggregates. As
discussedintheSARMAprojectandshownininitialreportsfortheSNAPSEEproject,there
is a lack of data for the support of this planning and moreover there is no planning that
includesprimaryandsecondaryaggregatesinGreeceandalmostalltheothercountriesin
SoutheastEurope.Forthisreason,achievingsustainableplanningisagreatchallenge31.Itis
clear that planning for aggregates (sustainable or not) is a State objective which should
ensuretheiravailabilitytocovertheneedsofthesocietyinashort,mediumandlongterm.

28

29

30

31

24

,..2.2(.)
,..7,,.40
,..4.1(.)
,..1.3,.4(.)

28
29
30
31

SeeVol.BoftheProceedings,SectionB.2.2(R.Livadaros)
SeeVol.AoftheProceedings,SectionA.7,OpenDiscussion,page40
SeeVol.BoftheProceedings,SectionB.4.1(X.Riskakis)
SeeVol.BoftheProceedings,SectionB.1.3,page4(K.Hatzilazaridou)

25

[2014] [ 1 SNAPSEE]

[ 1 SNAPSEE] [2014]


(SARM32) (SSM33).
(SARM)
,
,.,
(SSM),
,,
,.

PlanningofaggregatescanbesustainableonlyifthereisimplementationoftheSustainable
Resources Management (SARM32) and the Sustainable Supply (SSM33) principles. By
enforcingtheSARMprincipleonecanachieveresourceefficiencyandextractionactivities,
includingwastemanagement,withlimitedenvironmentalandsocialimpactsoverthewhole
lifecycleofaquarry.Furthermore,byimplementingtheSSM principle,theobjectiveisto
cover the needs ofa region in aggregates through a balancedmix of resources that come
fromextractionaswellasfromrecyclingactivities.


.
(2012),
. ,

.
,.,

,.

The appropriate policiesand the corresponding legal frameworkshouldbe developedand


applied in order to succeed efficient implementation of the sustainable development
principles. In this context the National Policy for the Exploitation of Mineral Resources
(2012) covers a big gap. The long term supply of the market with low cost aggregate
materials, as well as the establishment of a new quarry law were envisaged in this
document.Someoftheseactionshavealreadybeenincludedinthequarrydraftbill,which
hasnotcomeyetintoforce.Inthesamespirit,theIndustryacknowledgesthatfurthersteps
areneededinordertoimplementthenationalminingpolicy,whilethereshouldbealong
term strategic vision for the exploitation of mineral resources within the framework of
sustainabledevelopment.


,

./
,
,,.
, CE

.

A sustainable development in the sector of aggregates means that there will be no illegal
quarrying and illegal transport of quarry products, while permitting processes will be
simplified and the dialogue among stakeholders will be enhanced. Consequently, the
institution of Quarrying Areas must be supported and further strengthened, so that the
majority of the aggregates produced in the Country will come from quarries operating
within such an area. All the structural materials used in construction should have a CE
certificate and all ready mixed concrete producers should demand certification for the
aggregatestheyuse,otherwiseitispossiblethatillegalquarryingispromoted.


,,
.
, .

34,
.....35 ,
.
.
. (..)
.
...

Thelegalframeworkshouldbesimplifiedbecauseitischaracterizedbymultitudeoflaws,
decisions, regulations which introduce many delays in the permitting process. The
competent services, both central and regional, should be sufficiently staffed in order to
achievequickpermittingprocessesandmonitoringactions.Forthisreasonitisproposedto
strengthenthestaffingoftheauthoritiesmonitoringtheactivitiesoftheextractionindustry
andespeciallytheMiningInspectorates34andtheInstituteofGeology(IGME35)sothatthe
last can perform more efficiently. The role of each Regional Government should not end
with the establishment of a Quarrying Area, or with issuing a mining permit. For the
successful implementation of the new legislation, which is currently under development,
there should be targeted actions in the Regions. The Union of Regional Governments
(EN.PE.) is an important stakeholder. For this reason it is proposed to strengthen the co
operationbetweenYPEKAandtheRegionalGovernmentsthroughEN.PE..

32

34

35

33

26

SARM=SustainableAggregatesResourceManagement
SSM=SustainableSupplyMix
...:/
,..2.2(.)

32
33
34
35

SARM=SustainableAggregatesResourceManagement
SSM=SustainableSupplyMix
Mineinspectoratewillbemergedwiththeenvironmentalinspectorateagency
SeeVol.BoftheProceedings,SectionB.2.2(R.Livadaros)

27

[2014] [ 1 SNAPSEE]

[ 1 SNAPSEE] [2014]


, .
.36

.

, ,
.

.,
(..
), ,
.

,.
.....,
,
,,.

Forthesustainableplanningofaggregates,allresourcesthatcouldpotentiallybeusedfor
aggregatesproduction,suchasC&DW,extractiveand/orinertindustrialwastesshouldbe
taken into account. An appropriate provision is required potentially which will impose the
participationofsecondaryproductsinthetotalmixofaggregates.ForGreeceregardingmid
termplanningitseemsthatextractivewastes(e.g.overburden)aresignificantduebothto
the large quantities produced and also due to suitability of the materials quality. For the
efficientmanagementofthiswasteitisnecessarytocompletetheprocedureforthechara
cterization of the materials, so that each waste producer can utilize the inert fractions as
aggregates for construction. In this direction, IGME has done a lot of work within past
research projects of the 3rd Community Support Framework and is still working through
projectsinthe4thCommunitySupportFramework,whiletheInstitutehasalsothenecessary
materialstestinginfrastructure,throughitscorrespondingaccreditedlaboratories.


(demandforecastmethodologies),
.37(
)
/ /
.
(),/
, , .

:(1)/
/,,2)/
, 3)
,
/).
,

Thedeterminationofthemarketneedsforaggregatesinourcountryisnotjustifiedusing
demand forecast methodologies which should always be used prior to any sustainable
development planning. Central planning37 (i.e. legislation and policies) is completed at the
level of ministries and regional administrations where one can find the Department of
Natural Resources under the Directorate of Technical Control, which is further included in
the General Directorate of Environment. The Regional Governments have also important
competences through the Directorate of Industry, Energy and Natural Resources that is
responsibleforquarrying.AfterexaminationoftheorganizationchartofYPEKA,onecansee
that there are three independed branches that are related to the Sustainable Planning of
Aggregates: (1) The Directorate of Natural Resources under the Vice Minister (which
includestheDepartmentofQuarries,MarblesandAggregateMaterials);(2)TheDirectorate
of Environment under the General Secretary of YPEKA (which includes the Department of
Solid Wastes); (3) The Directorate of Land Planning and Urban Environment under the
DeputyMinister(whichincludestheDepartmentofLandPlanning).Inthisframeworkand
becauseitisnotclearhowthesebranchescollaborateitisnecessarytodeveloptheproper
communication channels which will allow sustainable planning and with a proper quality
characteristics.


,
.2.,

.

Within theframework of this consultation the topics of how to obtain the data which are
necessary for planning and how the different authorities should collaborate towards that
end was not discussed. It is planned that this will be part of the second stakeholder
consultation event. Many participants proposed that the results of this first workshop
should be communicated to the Competent Planning Authorities and the other
stakeholders.

,..2.2(.)
37
,..3.1(.)

37

36

28

The aim is to promote the processes for the establishment of new Quarrying Areas or
modify the boundaries of the existing ones, wherever such an action is needed. The
initiative is proposed to be undertaken by YPEKA. Also, it is proposed to promote36 the
appropriateprovisionsinordertostoprefosterationactionsinQuarryingAreaswhichare
alreadysitedandestablished,assoonaspossible.Thiscompetenceshouldbegiventothe
RegionalAdministrationsinsteadoftheCouncilforRemovalofRefosterations.

36

SeeVol.BoftheProceedings,SectionB.2.2(R.Livadaros)
SeeVol.BoftheProceedings,SectionB.3.1(F.Chalkiopoulou)

29

[2014] [ 1 SNAPSEE]

.6
38

.():

[ 1 SNAPSEE] [2014]

, , ,
,.

,.
Jim O Brien, UEPG: ,

(+):2,5
25.00015.000~250.000.


.
,:
1.

2.

3.

4.


,.

5.

50%
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3050km,.
.
.
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.
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( 2012)

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, ...,
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[ 1 SNAPSEE] [2014]

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.
.

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3982/2011.

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(2002)
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,
,,.


()

.


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.2006MineWaste
Directive 2009.
,,
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.

. ():

, ,
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,
. 2008/98/E,
.4042/2012.


,(),,
2009/359/,.

,.,
,
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, , 2006/21/E (Mine Waste


Directive),
39624/2209/103/2009(2076).


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(..ISTONE).

, 2009/360/ ,
, ,
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,
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,,
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,2008,LATOMET,
,.,
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5:1.
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, ()
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36259/1757/103/2010.

().
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(2011).
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.

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34

(...:,),2015,
,50%

35

[2014] [ 1 SNAPSEE]

70%2020..
()
, 39 ,
.

[ 1 SNAPSEE] [2014]

. ( ):


: ) (~22 . ),
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) ()
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.

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(~300.000)
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4030/2011 - 40 ,
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1. ,
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176) ().

.
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4. 11 11 36259/1757/103/2010
, , ( 1312).
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, .


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2000,5..
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: 100.000
, 100.000 , 100.000 300.000
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...:,
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...:1636259/1757/103/101.

7,89,
20.2939/2001,6
.3854/2010.
41

36


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, ,
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,CE.

[ 1 SNAPSEE] [2014]

,
,
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,

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( 8 . 2115), ,
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.

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70%, 6 ,
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2550%.
,
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.

.
. (HALYPS):
HALYPS
, CE,
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38

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42

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...:=,,

[ 1 SNAPSEE] [2014]

, . 2004
(...: 2013), 25% 2004 (...
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peak,25..,
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36259/1757/103, 1312//24 2010, ,



, ()
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.

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[ 1 SNAPSEE] [2014]

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[ 1 SNAPSEE] [2014]

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[ 1 SNAPSEE] [2014]

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[ 1 SNAPSEE] [2014]

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55

Copyright

&&/.....
....(25200/2011)
13677
.2131337012