Under the guidance of



Through this acknowledgement I want to express my sincere gratitude to the V.S.R PRASAD (SALES EXECUTIVE) OF COMPANY for giving me an opportunity to work on this project under his able guidance. He guided me a lot from time to time and without his motivation the project was impossible. I am also thankful to Mr. SIMADHRIRTM EXECUTIVE OF COMPANY for his valuable help. I am also thankful to PROF S. SAI BABA faculty member of Siva Sivani Institute of Management for his valuable help. I would also like to express my gratitude towards colleagues who had cooperated a lot while preparing this project.

Sharique eqbal (Marketing)


I SHARIQUE EQBAL declare that this project report titled “STUDY ON HORIZONTAL EXPANSION PLAN COCA COLA COMPANY INHYDERABAD CITY” is an original work done by me under the guidance of PROF SAI BABA the faculty of Siva Sivani Institute of Management. I further declare that it is my original work as a part of my academic course.

PLACE: Secunderabad DATE:



This is certifying that MR SHARIQUE EQBAL is a student of this institution. He has undergone internship and completed his project work in Hindustan Coca-Cola Beverages Private Limited. He worked on the topic “To HORIZONTAL EXPANSION Coca-Cola Company in HYDERABAD City” and completed the project successfully under my supervision and guidance. I wish him all success.

Place: Secunderabad Date: PROF SAI BABA


TABLE OF CONTENT PAGE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT DECLARATION CERTIFICATE LIST OF TABLES Chapter-1 Introduction Industry Profile Company Profile Chapter –2 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ (29) Objectives of the study Scope of the study Significance of the Study Literature Review Scheme of Dissertation Chapter -3 ------------------------------------------------------------------------- (35) Research Methodology Research Design Sample Profile Tools and Methods Data Collection Data Processing and Analysis Limitations Chapter-4 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- (37) Data Analysis Chapter-5 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- (46) Interprétation and Findings Bibliography 5 --- --------------------------------------------------------------------- (6) …..

Annexure Questionnaire



The manufacturing of the soft drinks began in the 1830’s. However, evolution of the soft drinks took place over a much longer period. The forerunners of soft drinks began more than 2,000 year ago when Hippocrates, the “Father of Medicine”, first suspected that mineral waters could be beneficial to our well being. The soft drink industry was seasonal business in the early days, operating the primarily during the summer months. Gradually, demand grew for soft drink to be consumed in the home. Automatic vending machines began to appear in the 1920’s, one again changing the business of soft drinks. Vending machines and fountain dispensers led the way to the expansion of soft drink to industrial outlets. New technology helped soft drink bottlers meet going consumer demand by significantly increasing the product availability. The mushrooming demand for the product resulted in the growth of the soft drink industry. Inventors of the soft drinks spread their products across by opening a few strategically placed bottling facilities so franchise agreements. Responding to consumer demand, industry rolled out soft drinks in cans and introduces diet beverages to the market. Carriers were develop for convenience and ease in taking soft drinks from the store to the home. Development of new flavors, sale of cans products in vending machines and invention of Poly Ethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottles followed. The soft drinks market in India till early 1990’s was in hands of domestic players like Campa , Thumps Up, Limca etc but with opening up of the economy and coming of MNC players, Pepsi and Coke, the market has come totally under their control. Coca-Cola being a global company has several brands throughout the globe. It has its operations in more than 150 countries and India is one of them. The company is leading over rivalry companies with major market share and most preferred brands in India. The company is having 8 major brands viz Coke, Thumbs-up, Sprite, Limca, Fanta, Maaza, Pulpy Orange, kinley and Bonaqua. Out of these brands the company is having 2 major juice drinks which are Maaza and Pulpy Orange of which the latter one is recently introduced in Indian market.



Carbonated Soft Drinks
At the core of the beverage industry is the carbonated soft-drink category. The dominant players in this area (Coca Cola, Pepsi, and Cadbury-Schweppes) own virtually all of the North American market’s most widely distributed and best-known brands. They are dominant in world markets as well. These companies’ products occupy large portions of any supermarket’s shelf space, often covering more territory than real food categories like dairy products, meat, or produce. As with many mature retail industries, the beverage giants have a problem – growth in the sales of their flagship carbonated products are at a near standstill in the key U.S. market, with 1% growth or less. After years of rapid growth, it seems that the average American can’t drink any more flavored, fizzy soda water. To remedy that, these three companies are rapidly expanding both globally as they enter and promote new markets for existing products and locally, as they add products from adjacent beverage categories in the supermarket, in categories that are still expanding. We'll talk about these areas in a later posting. The prototype of all marketing and branding struggles, the “Cola Wars” keep expanding. The Pepsi and Coca Cola keep rolling out the big guns: dueling pop stars, and new branded products in the form of “Vanilla Coke” and “Pepsi Blue.” . They are fighting on the TV, in the fast-food restaurants, and in the supermarkets; they are also dueling in the schools. One of the biggest pushes of the last few years has been convincing school districts, universities, and other institutions to go all-Coke or all-Pepsi, in return for a (small) cut of the gross sales.


Selling costly sugared water and building an increasing demand for it, even in Third World countries, involves marketing in its purest form, unsullied by any preexisting need or local tradition. Markets in Eastern Europe, China, India, and Mexico, among others, are expanding fast, and both Coke and Pepsi are finding local partners (bottlers) in these countries to keep extending their reach. And while the American market may be mature, there’s still an opportunity worldwide to replace hot beverages like coffee and tea that require some preparation with these cold, iconic. All this worldwide activity can’t disguise an unpleasant core reality for the vendors: U.S. carbonated soft drink sales increased only 0.5% in the year 2002. Although total sales for the industry was up slightly, per capita consumption was down for the third year in a row In other words, domestic soft drink growth is not keeping pace with population growth.

Overall soda market
In fact, Coke and Pepsi have a third major rival on the bottled soft drink shelves, namely Cadbury-Schweppes. The big three carbonated beverage makers now exist in a stable oligopoly those changes only by small increments and which controls over 90% of the market. Over the years, Cadbury-Schweppes (the result of a merger between a British candy company and a British beverage company) has improved its position by acquiring key brands in the US, namely Dr. Pepper and Seven-Up, along with A & W and Canada Dry. In past decades, the carbonated beverage section had been the beneficiary of an amazing record of growth, where consumption has more than doubled over the past 25 years. Americans consume twice as much soda as they did 25 years ago, up from 22 gallons per person per year to over 56. In 2000, these three companies had almost exactly the same share of the U.S. market they had in 1999, namely:



Percentage Coca Cola 44.1% PepsiCo 31.4% Cadbury/Schweppes 14.7%


Coke, Sprite, Barq, Fanta, Mello Yello, etc. Pepsi, Mountain Dew, Mug, Slice, etc. Seven-Up, Dr. Pepper, Schweppes, A & W, Canada Dry, Sunkist, Squirt, etc.

While individual flavors go up and down, the relative market share of the big three changes at a glacial rate. The next biggest North American soda company, the Canadianbased Cott Beverage Company, had only a little over 3% of the market and that company specialize in supplying private label soda to supermarkets and other chains. In 2001, however, Cadbury acquired moribund RC Cola, giving it a cola drink to battle against the big guys. This gave the company more shelf position and immediately gave the RC Cola brand, long a distant also-ran with weak marketing muscles, more sales and market presence. Pepsi gave itself a small boost because of the popularity of newly introduced Mountain Dew Code Red, a hyper-caffeinated soda. Coke’s numbers declined slightly. The market share figures in 2001. Company Percentage Coca Cola 43.7% PepsiCo 31.6% Cadbury/Schweppes 15.8% It’s pretty indicative of this mature market that the only major move in market share comes through a takeover. Moreover, the takeover targets that are left are so small that the biggest remaining brand doesn’t make more than 1% difference in total volume.


New age beverages
In the last part of our look at the beverage business, we noted that oligopolies Coca Cola, PepsiCo, and Cadbury Schweppes had "flooded" a mature market, so that there was minimal growth potential in the carbonated beverages category. So, how can these companies grow, something all oligopolies are compelled to do? First, by expanding internationally. Second, by acquiring or adding new products in other beverage areas, which show both faster growth and less well-defined competition. In fact, other beverage types have only in the last decade come into focus as separate, important categories. So the search for new beverage footholds has become the second front of the Cola Wars. There is a scramble for new territories in beverage shelf space, and Coke and Pepsi are investing heavily. These alternative beverages areas were established by startup or small cap companies, including Snapple and Arizona Iced Teas, Ocean Spray and Nantucket Nectars, SoBe and Calistoga. The emerging categories began to look like both a threat and an opportunity for the big three. In 2001, according to Beverage Age Magazine. The segments of alternative or "New Age" beverages ranked by order of sales, were:
• • •

Bottled water in clear plastic containers Mildly flavored water (Clearly Canadian, Very fine, Acqua Vie) Fruit juices and drinks (some shelf-stable, like Ocean Spray, Mott's, DelMonte; some refrigerated, like Nantucket Nectars, Tropicana) Sports and energy drinks (Gatorade. PowerAde, SoBE Power, Red Bull, G-Up) Iced tea (Snapple, Arizona, Lipton, Nestea) Premium soda (Thomas Kemper Soda, Jones Soda) Cold coffee drinks (Starbucks cappuccino drinks, PlanetJava, Arizona) Végétale/fruit juice blends, (V8, Odwalla) Enhanced dairy drinks (Smooth Moos, Chocolate Moose Energy Shakes, drinkable yogurt) Soy-based and other non-dairy beverages (Odwalla, Health Source)

• • • • • •


New age beverages
In the last part of our look at the beverage business, we noted that oligopolies Coca Cola, PepsiCo, and Cadbury Schweppes had "flooded" a mature market, so that there was minimal growth potential in the carbonated beverages category. So, how can these companies grow, something all oligopolies are compelled to do? First, by expanding internationally. Second, by acquiring or adding new products in other beverage areas, which show both faster growth and less well-defined competition. In fact, other beverage types have only in the last decade come into focus as separate, important categories. So the search for new beverage footholds has become the second front of the Cola Wars. There is a scramble for new territories in beverage shelf space, and Coke and Pepsi are investing heavily. These alternative beverages areas were established by startup or small cap companies, including Snapple and Arizona Iced Teas, Ocean Spray and Nantucket Nectars, SoBe and Calistoga. The emerging categories began to look like both a threat and an opportunity for the big three. In 2001, according to Beverage Age Magazine. The segments of alternative or "New Age" beverages ranked by order of sales, were:
• • •

Bottled water in clear plastic containers Mildly flavored water (Clearly Canadian, Very fine, Acqua Vie) Fruit juices and drinks (some shelf-stable, like Ocean Spray, Mott's, DelMonte; some refrigerated, like Nantucket Nectars, Tropicana) Sports and energy drinks (Gatorade. PowerAde, SoBE Power, Red Bull, G-Up) Iced tea (Snapple, Arizona, Lipton, Nestea) Premium soda (Thomas Kemper Soda, Jones Soda) Cold coffee drinks (Starbucks cappuccino drinks, PlanetJava, Arizona) Végétale/fruit juice blends, (V8, Odwalla) Enhanced dairy drinks (Smooth Moos, Chocolate Moose Energy Shakes, drinkable yogurt) Soy-based and other non-dairy beverages (Odwalla, Health Source)

• • • • • •


The problem with this market, like most emerging categories in the grocery business, is an excess of vendors and products, making it hard for retailers to decide who to assign their precious shelf space to. This is accompanied with an even larger number of SKUs of different sizes and flavors, causing generally chaos in the market. That makes for a great opportunity for the oligopolists, who have entered into these markets in a big way. We'll talk about the water category later, but here are some of the other alternative brands now owned in the alternative market by the carbonated Big Three. (The notation (lic.) denoted a beverage licensed from another company.) CadburySchweppes Snapple Mistic

Category Iced tea Sports drinks

Coca Cola Nestea (lic. Nestle) Powerade

PepsiCo Lipton (lic. Unilever) Gatorade SoBe Starbucks (lic.) Tropicana; Dole (lic.)

Notes Lipton #1, Nestea #2, Snapple #3 Gatorade #1, Powerade #2 Starbucks #1, Planet Java #3

Health drinks KMX Coffee Drinks Planet Java Refrigerated Juices Shelf-stable juices Milk-based drinks Soy-based drinks Tropicana smoothies Minute Maid, Odwalla, Fresh Samantha

Nantucket Nectars Orangina; Mott's;

Tropicana #1, Minute Maid #2

Dole (lic.)

Welch's (lic.); Clamato Yoo-hoo; Raging Cow

Note that most of these products were bought or started in the last three years. The big three already have the salesmen, the vending machines, the bottlers, the money to 13

advertise, and the international reach. With this power, they have managed to take over a second aisle in the supermarket, along with a solid section of the refrigerator case. And as we'll see, the biggest potential is in water.

Bottled Water
The bottled water industry in North America is growing aggressively. It is the fastest growing segment in the beverage industry (around 30% annually, compared to 1% or so in carbonated beverages), and the cost of goods sold is almost negligible. Once confined to Perrier and Evian sippers at fancy restaurants or people with bad--tasting local tap water, there's been a tripling of US consumption since 1985. As a recent FORTUNE magazine article put it, The most brutal battle in the beverage industry is the one for dominance of bottled water. With the niche growing at a 30% annual clip, bottled water will likely catapult ahead of coffee and beer to become the second-best-selling beverage--just behind soft drinks--by 2005. (Currently bottled water's barely ahead of No. 5 milk.) Another article in Beverage Marketing notes the concentration of the market as water gets to be a bigger deal. Super marketers have revolutionizing the industry. Since the costs of buying and holding shelf space is so expensive, the small, regional firms, which used to be major water suppliers, are being priced out. The only companies that can get their products on the shelves are the new water oligopolists, large national and multinational companies. Four companies now dominate the North American market for bottles water: Nestle, Danone, Coca Cola, and PepsiCo. Like other areas of the beverage market, water, once the province of small, local spring bottlers and a few European importers, has now become an oligopoly. While Nestle (originally a Swiss chocolate company) and Danone (originally a French dairy firm) have been in the market for a while, Pepsi and Coke are Johnnies-come-lately to the market, Pepsi in 1995 and Coca Cola in 1999. But they have so much marketing savvy, power in 14

the distribution and bottling area, and store presence, that they have made their two brands, Aquafina (Pepsi) and Dasani (Coke), the top two selling brands in the US market. That's in spite of the fact that, unlike most of the competitors, these are simply filtered and bottled local tap water. Yet bottles of the either of these essentially free liquids sell for almost the same a similar container of soda or iced tea. Not a bad business to be in! Both companies use their vast experience in associating drinks with lifestyle, sharpened during the cola wars. They are ramping up their ad budgets and getting significant growth in volume as they do so. And they have a big opportunity. According to estimates, one third of American households have never tried bottled water, and carrying around a bottle of water has become a status symbol for many younger Americans. Nestle is in fact the overall market leader, with $2.5 billion overall in water sales. It sells a number of brands that are popular in various regions of the country, such as Poland Spring in the Northeast. Arrowhead and Calistoga in California, and so on. These are actual spring waters that have to be trucked to the bottler. Nestle also sells Perrier, San Pelligrino, and some other European imports. Danone is number four in volume, with its imported Evian, Volvic, and others, along with Naya and Sparkletts from the U.S. Of the big four, Danone is the one that is sinking, losing sales to the others. In fact, they just signed an agreement with Coca Cola to market and distribute several of its brands in the US, including Dannon and Sparkletts, and some economy brands. Evian and other European brands will not be affected. In 2002, these four companies had achieved over 60% of the water sales in the US, and that was rapidly expanding. Only two competitors have shares over 2%: Suntory Group (part of a Japanese conglomerate) and independent Crystal Geyser. Our guess is that minor brands will more and more be crowded off the shelf. (By the way, CadburySchweppes has a limited water role at present.)


Supermarket sales of cases of water are starting to show competition, as Nestle, Coke, and Pepsi are starting to compete on price as a Wall Street Journal report noted. Coke and Pepsi are trying to avoid a water version of the cola wars, in which they battled it out with price, cuts in the supermarket aisle. That's why they're concentrating some 60% to 70% of their sales in the lucrative business of selling single, cold bottles in convenience stores or vending machines. But the next step is differentiating waters by making them vitamin-enriched nutriceutucals. Pepsi, through its Gatorade subsidiary, now offers Propel, enhanced with vitamins and minerals. It is also selling something called Aquafina Essentials, which is flavored water (some sugar added), doubtless a healthy drink. Coke is selling Dasani Nutriwater, a similar gimmick. Even the water category, only recently discovered by these companies, is now spawn new categories, opening new fronts in the cola wars. Company Nestle Select Brands Perrier, Poland Spring, Arrowhead, Deer Park, Zephyrhills, Ozarka, Ice

Mountain, Calistoga, Vittel, San Pellegrino, Acqua Panna, Vittel PepsiCo Aquafina Coca- Cola Dasani


• •

Established: 1886 Ranking: We own 4 of the world's top 5 nonalcoholic sparkling beverage brands


• • • •

Associates: 92,400 worldwide Operational Reach: 200+ countries Consumer Servings (per day): nearly 1.6 billion Beverage Variety: more than 3,000 products

Our Secret Formula is what sets us apart...

o o o

Understand how we work with our bottlers to produce and distribute our beverages Explore our community recovery and recycling efforts Water conservation partnership launches in India

Dr. John Smith Pemberton, an Atlanta druggist, invented "Coca-Cola" syrup on May 8, 1886. The fountain drink was first marketed as a brain and nerve tonic in drugstores. The soda was first bottled in 1894. In 1916, a new design was unveiled for Coca-Cola bottles called the Contour Bottle, which helped the soda stand out among imitators and became a smash hit and a symbol of the company. Cans were introduced by 1960 Coca Cola Company is one of the United States based company founded in the year 1886. It is one of the world's leading manufacturer, marketer and distributor of cola types products. The industrial type of the company comes under the Beverages. The company's


headquarter is situated at Atlanta. It has its worldwide operation in more than 200 countries of the world MAZZA. The company for the year 2002 was regarded as the company having highest Brand value. The brand value was measured at 69,637,000,000 in terms of $. Presently the company has more than 400 brands over the world. The company employs approximately 55,000 peoples over the world. The net income of the company as of the year ended on December 31, 2005 reached at $ 4,872 millions. Presently E. Neville Isdell is the Chairman, Board of Directors and the Chief Executive Officer of the Company.

Employees, spouses and dependents are eligible for health and wellness benefits coverage from date of hire. There are no pre-existing condition exclusions for participants in the health plan. Benefit plans include Health (including Vision Care), Dental, Accidental DeathDismemberment, Group Life Insurance, Dependent Life Insurance, Health Care Account, Dependent Care Account, Vacation Purchase Program, Business Travel Accident Insurance, Short-Term Disability, Long-Term Disability, Survivor's Benefits Programs and Employee Assistance Program. The Coca-Cola Company offers medical (including vision care) and dental coverage for eligible same-sex domestic partners and their dependent children. 401(k) - Thrift Investment Plan (TIP) o Participation in the plan is immediate upon date of hire/rehire for all eligible employees.


o Choice of 27 funds in eight fund categories including money market, stable value, intermediate term bond, balanced, large-cap stock, small-cap stock, international stock and Company stock. o The Coca-Cola Company will match employees' contributions, dollar for dollar, up to 3% of their compensation. The Company match is subject to a three year vesting schedule. o o Rollover contributions from other qualified plans are permitted immediately upon date of hire for all eligible employees. Participants may manage their accounts online daily.

Traditional Retirement Plan - Employee Retirement Plan Entirely Company-funded and designed to pay eligible employees monthly benefits upon retirement from the Company. In addition to our health and life benefits, employees have the opportunity to take advantage of other benefits such as: Flex time & summer hours (reviewed annually and implemented by business units as certain expenses associated with the process of adopting children. Employee Assistance Program provides confidential counseling services and the Company currently pays the full cost of this benefit for its eligible employees, retirees and their dependents. Active Living Program that provides reimbursement for employees to join a health club. Matching Gifts Program allows employees to donate monies to education, arts or cultural institutions, and The Coca-Cola Company matches up to $4,000 of that gift per calendar year. Service Recognition Awards for employees after each five year period of continuous service. Company paid time-off for volunteer work (one day per year). applicable) Adoption Assistance Program provides eligible employees financial assistance for



Business casual attire unless otherwise required due to customer-related circumstances.

Quality Is Our Highest Business objective

The Coca-Cola Company exists to benefit and refresh everyone it touches. For us, Quality is more than just something we taste or see or measure. It shows in our every action. We relentlessly strive to exceed the world's ever-changing expectations because keeping our Quality promise in the marketplace is our highest business objective and our enduring obligation. Consumers across the globe choose our brand of refreshment more than a billion times every day because Coca-Cola is the Symbol of Quality. Corporate Citizenship The Coca-Cola Company believes our business has always been based on the trust consumers everywhere place in us—trust that is earned by what we do as a corporate citizen and by our ability to live our values as a commercial enterprise. There is much in our world to celebrate, refresh, strengthen and protect. Through our actions as local citizens, we strive every day to refresh the marketplace, enrich the workplace, preserve the environment and strengthen our communities. At the heart of our business is the trust consumers place in us. They rightly expect that we are managing our business according to sound ethical principles, that we are enhancing the health of our communities, and that we are using natural resources responsibly.

Coca Cola in India


The Coca Cola got approval from the Government of India in July 1996 for setting up a company (holding type) for investing US $ 700 Millions. In July 1997 the holding company got permission for its bottling subsidiaries. The company has stepped forward for reaching 300 millions soft drink consumers through 700,000 retail outlets In India. The coca cola company in India has given a direct employment of over 7,000 peoples. Over the years the company has invested around US $827 Millions in India. The company has also taken different initiatives in India for the social sector development in the recent years sponsorship program.

MYTHS & FACTS Since August 5, 2003 the quality and safety of Coca-Cola and PepsiCo products in India have been called into question by a local NGO, the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE). The basis of the allegations is tests conducted on products of Coca-Cola and PepsiCo by CSE’s internal unaccredited laboratory, the Pollution Monitoring Laboratory. In India, as in the rest of the world, our plants use a multiple barrier system to remove potential contaminants and unwanted natural substances including iron, sulfur, heavy metals as well as pesticides. Our products in India are safe and are tested regularly to ensure that they meet the same rigorous standards we maintain across the world. This situation calls for the development of national sampling and testing protocols for soft drinks, an end to sensationalizing unsubstantiated allegations, and co-operation by all parties concerned in the interests of both Indian consumers and companies with significant investments in the Indian economy. The facts versus the fiction false statements made in recent weeks have led to false perceptions by Indian consumers:


Myth Fact

Coca-Cola products in India contain pesticide residues that are above EU norms. Throughout all of our operations in India, stringent quality monitoring takes place covering both the source water we use as well as our finished product. We test for traces of pesticide in groundwater to the level of parts per billion. This is equivalent to one drop in a billion drops. For comparison’s sake, this would also be equivalent to measuring one second in 32 years, or less than one person in the entire population in India. These tests require specialized equipment at accredited labs to have accurate results. Even at these stringent miniscule levels we are well within the internationally accepted safety norms.

Myth Fact

Coca-Cola products sold in India are "toxic" and unfit for human consumption. There is no contamination or toxicity in our beverage brands. Our high-quality beverages are – and have always been - safe and refreshing. In over 200 countries across the globe, more than a billion times every day, consumers choose our brands for refreshment because Coca-Cola is a symbol of quality. Coca-Cola has dual standards in the production of its products, one high standard for western countries, another for India. The soft drinks manufactured in India conform to the same high standards of quality as in the USA and Europe. Through our globally accepted and validated manufacturing processes and Quality Management systems, we ensure that our state-of-the-art manufacturing facilities are equipped to provide the consumer the highest quality beverage each time. We stringently test our soft drinks in India at independent, accredited and world-class laboratories both locally and internationally.

Myth Fact

Myth Fact

In India the soft drinks industry is virtually unregulated. There are no standards for soft drinks in the US, the EU, or India. In India, water used for beverage manufacture must conform to drinking water standards. The water used by Coca-Cola conforms to both BIS and EU standards for drinking water and our production protocols ensure this through a focus on process control and testing of the water used in our manufacturing


process and the final product quality. Myth Fact Coca-Cola has put out results for Kinley water only and not for their soft drinks. The results of product tests conducted by TNO Nutrition and Food Research Laboratory in the Netherlands is conclusive and is available on The Science Behind Our Quality web page. Myth Fact International companies like Coca-Cola are “colonizing” India. The Coca-Cola business in India is a local business. Our beverages in India are produced locally, we employ thousands of Indian citizens, our product range and marketing reflect Indian tastes and lifestyles, and we are deeply involved in the life of the local communities in which we operate. The Coca-Cola business system directly employs approximately 10,000 local people in India. In addition, independent studies have documented that, by providing opportunities for local enterprises, the Coca-Cola business also generates a significant employment “multiplier effect.” In India, we indirectly create employment for more than 125,000 people in related industries through our vast procurement, supply and distribution system. Myth Fact Farmers in India are using Coca-Cola and other soft drinks as pesticides by spraying them on their crops . Soft drinks do not act in a similar way to pesticides when applied to the ground or crops. There is no scientific basis for this and the use of soft drinks for this purpose would be totally ineffective. In India, as in the rest of the world, our products are world class and safe and the treated water used to make our beverages there meets the highest international standards.

Products and brands
The Coca-Cola Company offers nearly 400 brands in over 200 countries, besides its namesake Coca-Cola beverage. This includes other varieties of Coca-Cola such as:


Diet Coke (introduced in 1982), which uses aspartame, a synthetic phenylalaninebased sweetener in place of sugar Diet Coke Caffeine-Free Cherry Coke (1985) Diet Cherry Coke (1986) Coke with Lemon (2001) Diet Coke with Lemon (2001) Vanilla Coke (2002) Diet Vanilla Coke (2002) Coca-Cola C2 (2004) Coke with Lime (2004) Diet Coke with Lime (2004) Diet Coke Sweetened with Splenda (2005) Coca-Cola Zero (2005) Coca-Cola Black Cherry Vanilla (2006) Diet Coca-Cola Black Cherry Vanilla (2006) Coca-Cola BlāK (2006) Diet Coke Plus (2007) Coca-Cola Orange (2007) Summer Of US Coke Range (2007-2008)

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Mission, Vision & Values
The world is changing all around us. To continue to thrive as a business over the next ten years and beyond, we must look ahead, understand the trends and forces that will shape our business in the future and move swiftly to prepare for what's to come. We must get ready for tomorrow today. That's what our 2020 Vision is all about. It creates a long-term destination for our business and provides us with a "Roadmap" for winning together with our bottler partners.


Our Mission Our Roadmap starts with our mission, which is enduring. It declares our purpose as a company and serves as the standard against which we weigh our actions and decisions.
• • •

To refresh the world... To inspire moments of optimism and happiness To create value and make difference

Our Vision Our vision serves as the framework for our Roadmap and guides every aspect of our business by describing what we need to accomplish in order to continue achieving sustainable, quality growth.

People: Be a great place to work where people are inspired to be the best they can be. Portfolio: Bring to the world a portfolio of quality beverage brands that anticipate And satisfy people desire and demand

• • •

Partners: Nurture a winning network of customers and suppliers, together we create mutual, enduring value. Planet: Be a responsible citizen that makes a difference by helping build and support sustainable communities. Profit: Maximize long-term return to shareowners while being mindful of our overall responsibilities. Productivity: Be a highly effective, lean and fast-moving organization

Our Values Our values serve as a compass for our actions and describe how we behave in the world.
• • • • • •

Leadership: The courage to shape a better future Collaboration: Leverage collective genius Integrity: Be real Accountability: If it is to be, it's up to me Passion: Committed in heart and mind Diversity: As inclusive as our brands


Quality: What we do, we do well Focus on the Market
• • • •

Focus on needs of our consumers, customers and franchise partners Get out into the market and listen, observe and learn Possess a world view Focus on execution in the marketplace every day Be insatiably curious



Objective of horizontal expansion plan OF COCA COLA
A plan which is intimately connected to horizontal merger is horizontal expansion. This refers to the expansion or growth of a company in a sector that is presently functioning. The aim behind a horizontal expansion is to grow its market share for a specific commodity or service.

The objective behind this type of mergers is to achieve economies of scale in the production procedure through carrying off duplication of installations, services and functions, widening the line of products, decrease in working capital and fixed assets investment, getting rid of competition, minimizing the advertising expenses, enhancing the market capability and to get more dominance on the market. 1. to increase the market share 2. to develop new markets for the expansion of coca cola 3. to identify new opportunities for the new market 4. to get rid of competition and reduce cost

The objective should be thought from different perspective point Of view as mentioned below


coca cola vertical integration coca cola soft drink BCG matrix of coca cola Product life cycle of coca cola Coca cola competitor Coca cola coolers

About Horizontal Mergers
Horizontal mergers are those mergers where the companies manufacturing similar kinds of commodities or running similar type of businesses merge with each other. The principal objective behind this type of mergers is to achieve economies of scale in the production procedure through carrying off duplication of installations, services and functions, widening the line of products, decrease in working capital and fixed assets investment, getting rid of competition, minimizing the advertising expenses, enhancing the market capability and to get more dominance on the market. Horizontal mergers can sometimes result in monopoly and absorption of economic power in the hands of a small number of commercial entities. According to strategic management and microeconomics, the expression horizontal merger delineates a form of proprietorship and control. It is a plan, which is utilized by a corporation or commercial enterprise for marketing a form of commodity or service in a large number of markets. In the context of marketing, horizontal merger is more prevalent in comparison to horizontal merger in the context of production or manufacturing

Horizontal Integration
Sometimes, horizontal merger is also called as horizontal integration. It is totally opposite in nature to vertical merger or vertical integration.

Horizontal Monopoly
A monopoly formed by horizontal merger is known as a horizontal monopoly. Normally, a monopoly is formed by both vertical and horizontal mergers. Horizontal merger is that 28

condition where a company is involved in taking over or acquiring another company in similar form of trade. In this way, a competitor is done away with and a wider market and higher economies of scale are accomplished. In the process of horizontal merger, the downstream purchasers and upstream suppliers are also controlled and as a result of this, production expenses can be decreased.

Examples of Horizontal Mergers
Following are the important examples of horizontal mergers:  The formation of Brook Bond Lipton India Ltd. through the merger of Lipton India and Brook Bond  The merger of Bank of Mathura with ICICI (Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India) Bank  The merger of BSES (Bombay Suburban Electric Supply) Ltd. with Orissa Power Supply Company  The merger of ACC (erstwhile Associated Cement Companies Ltd.) with Damodar Cement

coca cola vertical integration
Vertical integration is the process where by firm acquires another firm at different level of distribution. For example manufacturer may acquire a wholeseller or wholeseller may acquire retailer . this is called forward integration. If retailers acquires wholesellers then it is known as backward vertical integration. It is an effective means of coordination, commitment. Coca cola shifted their several function like packaging, transportation and selling to retailers, to their bottlers. It is cost saving for coca cola and to enlarge market for their products. In 1990’s coca cola is engaged in the strategy of vertical integration, this means that in purchasing bottlers coca cola will perform itself storage, transportation, packaging and marketing to retailers coca cola soft drink Trade name of a sweetened, carbonated drink, originally made with coca leaves and flavored with cola nuts, and containing caramel and caffeine. The company owns four of the world's top five soft-drink brands (Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Fanta, and Sprite), and owns or licenses more than 400 brands.



• •

If a company is able to use the experience curve to its advantage, it should be able to manufacture and sell new products at a price that is low enough to get early market share leadership. Once it becomes a star, it is destined to be profitable. BCG model is helpful for managers to evaluate balance in the firm’s current portfolio of Stars, Cash Cows, Question Marks and Dogs. BCG method is applicable to large companies that seek volume and experience effects. The model is simple and easy to understand. It provides for management to decide and prepare a base for future action

Product life cycle

The PLC indicates that products have four things in common: (1) they have a limited lifespan; (2) their sales pass through a number of distinct stages, each of which has different characteristics, challenges, and opportunities; (3) their profits are not static but increase and decrease through these stages; and (4) the financial, human resource, manufacturing, marketing and purchasing strategies that products require at each stage in the life cycle varies (Kotler and Keller, 2006). Whilst there is a common pattern to a product's life cycle, which is bell-shaped in nature, this pattern does vary depending on the specific characteristics of a given product. These life cycle patterns are illustrated and discussed in the subsequent section. Understanding the Product Life Cycle (PLC) is of critical importance to a firm launching a new product. It helps a firm to manage the risk of launching a new product more effectively, whilst simultaneously maximizing the sales and profits that could be achieved throughout the product's life cycle

COCA COLA COMPETIORS First, there is Pepsi-Cola, Dr. Pepper/Seven Up (Includes RC Cola), and Inca Kola. Major Competitors This section first selects the competitors based on assets, sales, focus of business, or geographic reach. Then all the competitors are profiled. For each competitor, business description is given followed by products & services and geographic segmentation. Key Business Strategies of Each Competitor It talks about the current and future strategies of each company. All business, marketing, financial and organizational strategies are discussed here. Comparative SWOT Analysis


Our comparative SWOT analysis is a valuable step in assessing your company's and you competitors’ strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. It offers powerful insight into the critical issues affecting a business. Comparative Financial Analysis This section compares the recent financials of the company and its competitors. The

financial performance of each segment of all the companies is also discussed here. The objective is to evaluate the financial health of the company vis-à-vis its
competitors. The stock price comparison helps us in evaluating the performance of the company position versus its competitors from an investor’s viewpoint.

Horizontal merger provides the following advantages to the companies which are merged:

1) Economies of scope
The notion of economies of scope resembles that of economies of scale. Economies of scale principally denote effectiveness related to alterations in the supply side, for example, growing or reducing production scale of an individual form of commodity. On the other hand, economies of scope denote effectiveness principally related to alterations in the demand side, for example growing or reducing the range of marketing and supply of various forms of products. Economies of scope are one of the principal causes for marketing plans like product lining, product bundling, as well as family branding.

2) Economies of scale
Economies of scale refer to the cost benefits received by a company as the result of a horizontal merger. The merged company is able to have bigger production volume in comparison to the companies operating separately. Therefore, the merged company can derive the benefits of economies of scale. The maximum use of plant facilities can be done by the merged company, which will lead to a decrease in the average expenses


The important benefits of economies of scale are the following:  Synergy  Growth or expansion  Risk diversification  Diminution in tax liability  Greater market capability and lesser competition  Financial synergy (Improved creditworthiness, enhancement of borrowing power, decrease in the cost of capital, growth of value per share and price earning ratio, capital raising, smaller flotation expenses  Motivation for the managers For attaining economies of scale, there are two methods and they are the following:  Increased fixed cost and static marginal cost  No or small fixed cost and decreasing marginal cost One example of economies of scale is that if a company increases its production twofold, then the entire expense of inputs goes up less than twofold.

Significance of the study
 Through this study company can know about its growth compared to its major competitor PepsiCo.  This study will also help to the company to know about their new concepts position in the market  This study will also help to the company to know about its promotional activities involved in advertising.  Through this study company will know about the availability of its products in the market.  This study is helpful to find out the sales trends of the Coke products and its effect on consumers value and satisfaction.


 This study is helpful to find out the number of outlets coming under RED concept  This study is also helpful to find out the outlets efficiency which are coming under RED.  This study directly deals with interaction of different kinds of people in the organization which helps me to understand the corporate communication system.  This study also helps me to understand how the marketing strategy like Pull and Push works in the corporate. (For push – at the time of pulpy promotion, for pull at the time of more demand of sprite.)

Literature Review
Control of market share is the key issue in this study. The situation is both Coke and Pepsi are trying to gain market share in this beverage market, which is valued at over $30 billion a year. Just how this is done in such a competitive market is the underlying issue. The facts are that each company is coming up with new products and ideas in order to increase their market share. The creativity and effectiveness of each company's marketing strategy will ultimately determine the winner with respect to sales, profits, and customer loyalty. Not only are these two companies constructing new ways to sell Coke and Pepsi, but they are also thinking of ways in which to increase market share in other beverage categories. Although the goal of both companies are exactly the same, the two companies rely on somewhat different marketing strategies .Both companies have also relied on finding new markets, especially in foreign countries. In the foreign markets, Coke has been more successful than Pepsi. For example, in Eastern Europe, Pepsi has relied on a barter system that proved to fail. However, in certain countries that allow direct comparison, Pepsi has beat Coke. In foreign markets, both companies have followed the marketing concept by offering products that meet consumer needs in order to gain market share. Both companies cannot just sell one product; if they do they will not succeed. They have to always be creating and updating their marketing plans and products. The 33

companies must be willing to accommodate their “target markets”. Gaining market share occurs when a company stays one-step ahead of the competition by knowing what the consumer wants. Apart from this study previous studies were based on the distribution network and market share of some of these beverages companies. This study is based on to find out the market share of coca-cola in some of the areas of hyderabad city. Pepsi is often second to Coke in terms of sales, but outsells Coca-Cola in some localities. Around the world, some local brands do compete with Coke. In India, Coca-Cola ranked third behind the leader, Pepsi-Cola, and local drink Thums Up. However, The Coca-Cola Company purchased Thums Up in 1993. As of 2004, Coca-Cola held a 60.9% marketshare in India. Tropicola, a domestic drink, is served in Cuba instead of Coca-Cola, in which there exists a United States embargo. Mecca Cola and Qibla Cola, in the Middle East, is a competitor to Coca-Cola. In Turkey, Cola Turka is a major competitor to CocaCola. In Iran and also many countries of Middle East, Zam Zam Cola and Parsi Cola are major competitors to Coca-Cola. Coca-Cola Co. slightly increased its lead over rival Pepsi-Cola Co. in 2002, thanks to the successful launch of Vanilla Coke and the growth of Diet Coke, according to U.S. soft drink industry rankings released last week. Coke gained 0.6 percentage points in market share and increased its case volume by 2.1 percent, according to Beverage Digest/Maxwell, a New York-based industry newsletter and data service. The company captured a larger share of the market even though its Coke Classic brand fell 0.6 percentage points in market share. Coca-Cola dominates 44.3 percent of the U.S. soft drink market, but saw its market share drop between 1999 and 2001. With the latest gains, it's only 0.2 percentage points away from where it stood in 1998 at 44.5. Pepsi-Cola lost 0.2 percentage points in market share. The No. 2 company commands 31.4 percent of the U.S. soft drink market. In 1990, when Indian government opened the market to multinationals, Pepsi was the first to come in. Thums Up went up against the international giant for an intense onslaught with neither side giving any quarter. With Pepsi roping in major Indian movie stars like Juhi Chawla, to thwart the Indian brand, Thums Up increased its spending in the Cricket sponsorship. Then the capacity went from 250ml to 300ml, aptly named


MahaCola. This nickname gained popularity in smaller towns where people would ask for "Maha Cola" instead of Thums Up. The consumers were divided where some felt the Pepsi’s mild taste was rather bland. In 1993 Coca-Cola re-entered India after prolonged absences from 1977 to 1993. But Coca-Cola’s entry made things even more complicated and the fight became a three-way battle. That same year, in a move that baffled many, Parle sold out to Coke for a meagre US$ 60 million (considering the market share it had). Some assumed Parle had lost the appetite for a fight against the two largest cola brands; others surmised that the international brands seemingly endless cash reserves psyched-out Parle. Either way, it was now Coca-Cola’s, and Coke has a habit of killing brands in its portfolio that might overshadow it. Coca-Cola soon introduced its cola in cans which was all the rage in India, with Thums Up introduced alongside, albeit in minuscule numbers. Later CocaCola started pulling out the Thums Up brand which at that time still had more than 30% market share


Scheme of Dissertation
This study has been carried out “Study on expansion plan concept and market share of coca-cola company in Hyderabad city”. For this market research of some areas of Hyderabad now has been completed. The scheme comprises of finding out the market share/sales trend of these modules and brands. This study is carried out to find most suitable areas to make expansion among brands of these policies by taking sample size of 55. The layout of the dissertation is as follows; Introduction: Introduction gives a brief idea about beverage industry, scope of study, significance of study, objectives of study, expansion concept and literature review part. Organization Profile: This part comprises of industry profile and company profile. This part gives a brief idea about current trends in industry and company. Research methodology: This part give an idea about research design, sample size/design and method of data collection. Analysis and Interpretations: This part tells about data analysis, method carried out for data analysis and interpretations from the analysis part. Discussions and Recommendations: This part gives an idea about some inputs to explore some other parts of research for further studies and tells about which part is necessary for more focused research. Bibliography and Annexure: This part comprises of references taken for this study and questionnaire which was framed for this study.




This research involved a study, which was descriptive as well as explorative in nature. It basically aims at gathering data about how the Coca-cola scheme playing in the mind of shopkeepers , consumer, and industry in the specified area of Hyderabad city.

Sample Profile: - Sampling plan consists of:
a) Sampling Unit: - The retailer of grocery shop, general store, betel shop, medicine store was selected from different places of Hyderabad city. b) Sample Size: - My sample size was 55 outlets. c) Sampling Procedure: - Simple Random sampling procedure was followed. d) Sampling Method: - Data were collected by retailer survey. The retailers are directly contacted and interviewed at their retail counter.

Methods of Data Collection
There are mainly two types of data: 1- Primary Data 2- Secondary Data 1. Primary Data Collection: - Primary data can be collected by three methods: (a) Observation (b) Experiment (c) Surveys But here, only survey method of data collection is preferred which is very suitable to reach the researchers motto. ii) Research Instrument: - Printed questionnaire was used as the research instrument to collect the required information. 38


Area of Survey: - The survey was conducted in different location of hyderabad city.

2. Secondary Data Collection: - As secondary data were not available with shopkeepers as well as stockiest, so these were collected from company records.




Data are collected from different location of Hyderabad city 1. Gacchibowli 2. Hitech city 3. kukatpally

Survey Analysis
The survey was conducted in different location of Hyderabad A total survey of 55 outlets was conducted


1. Number of shared and exclusive outlets in Hyderabad city?

Exclusive 6

Shared 16



outlet name

not any one 40%

exclusive 11%

exclusive shaired 30% shaired both not any one

both 19%

Findings : I surveyed 55 outlets in Hyderabad( gacchibowli,hitech city, kukatpally)
out of which 11% are exclusive, 30% are shared and 40% are having neither co and pc


2. Volume consumption of coke in 2008 in c/s ?

200 ML 6

300 ML 16



vol consumption in 08 ko 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 200ml vol consumption in 08 ko 25 300ml 21 1000ml 7 little priority 1 vol consumption in 08 ko

Findings: Volume consumption of coke is higher 200 ml then others. There is a chance of more launching the 200 ml products


3. volume consumption of Pepsi in 2008

200 ML 20

300 ML 14

100ML 13


vol cons in 08pc

20 15 10 vol cons in 08pc 5 0 200ml vol cons in 08pc 20 300ml 14 1000ml 13

little priority 6

Findings: Volume consumption of pc for 200 ml is high


4. Vernacular size of freeze 2 VCC 4 VCC 7 VCC 11 VCC OTHERS

venicularsize freeze

2vcc 9% others 39% 4vcc 26% 7vcc 17%

2vcc 4vcc 7vcc 11vcc others

11vcc 9%

Findings : during the survey 39% are not using coke freeze there is a chance of providing the freeze in that area and give business to directly company , and according to question no 2 there is a chance to provide 200ml corselets with different product line

5. either freeze is co /pc



KO 12

PC 14


either freeze is ko/pc

ko/pc 11% pc 26%

not any 41%

not any ko pc ko/pc

ko 22%

Findings : there are 41% chance in the area to give business by providing coke freeze

6. sales growth assets









sales grow th assets

not any 44%

ko 21%

ko pc both not any

both 9%

pc 26%

Findings: there are 44% outlets in the Hyderabad city where there is no sales growth assets

7. board KO 19 PC 7 BOTH 4 NOT ANY 24 47


notany 45%

ko 35%

ko pc both notany

both 7%

pc 13%

Findings : there are 45% outlet where there is not any sign board in the store department

8. flange










ko 38% notany 52% both pc 2% 8%

ko pc both notany

9. income


LOW 15





notany 22%

low 22% low high med

med 15% high 41%


Findings : during 55 outlet survey there is 22% outlet where there is low income and 22% outlet in service industry where there is no income to coca cola company in Hyderabad, so there is a chance to develop business in these outlet to increase market share.




grocery 11%

complex 6% service inst grocery complex

inst 26%

service 57%

Findings: during the survey the major survey was focused on service industry to make expansion of coca cola

11. business developed

YES 32

NO 22


business dev

no 41% yes yes 59% no

Findings: out of 55 outlets surveyed I developed 59 % business and 41% didn’t respond


Leading brand


TU 14

SP 8

CO 9




leading brand (p)

maza 20%

tu 26%

tu sp co lim

fanta 13% lim 9% co 17%

sp 15%

fanta maza

Findings : With the above diagram it is found that thumps up is the

dominating brand with the sales of 26% among their brands.

13. Leading pack


200 ML 19

250 ML 14

300ML 5

600 ML 7

1.2L 2

2L 4

leading pack (Q) 20



leading pack (Q)


0 leading pack (Q)

200ml 19

250ml 14

300ml 5

600ml 7

1.2lit 2

2lit 4

Findings : from the above graph it is clear that 200 ml pack is selling most next is 250 ml after that 300 ml, 600 ml, 1.2 lit and 2.0 lit .

14. Market share of Coca- Cola Company comparing with PepsiCo for 2008 basing volume.


Pepsi 29%

Findings: With the help of above diagram it can be conclude that the share of the CocaCola is the market leader with 71% of market share with considering volume of 2008 while it’s competitor PepsiCo had the markets share of 29% considering volume of 2008.
Coke 71%



• It is found that Coca-Cola is market leader compared with Pepsi the market challenger. The market share of Coca-Cola is 65% and that of Pepsi is 35% only according to the areas where the researcher had surveyed It is found that 11% are exclusive, 30 % are shared and 40% are neither co and pc. It is found that 40% of outlet are needed to horizontal expansion. 56

Volume of consumption 200ml co is higher then others it is necessary to launch 200ml products more. Even though during the survey consumers demand more 200ml products of co for business expansion in service industry It is found that there is 44% outlet where there is no sales growth assets It is found that 39% are not using any vernacular freeze so there is a chance to provide freeze in these area to give business or develop business and increase market share It is found that thumps up is leading brand with sales 26% brands among the brand In the survey it is found that in gacchibowli , hitch city there is a lot of chance to develop business It is found that major survey was focused on service industry to make horizontal expansion of coca cola It is found that there is a lot of chance in gaccchi bowli, hi-tech city to make expansion Through the research it is found that boards are best display for outlets Researchers found that coca cola is no one in brand customer demand more equity, brand equity is better measure of firms performance Researcher found that gap between demand and supply is not good

• •

• • •

• • • •


The following are the some suggestions that can be implemented to increase the customer satisfaction and the profitability of the company for the horizontal expansion of coacola • Supply distribution should improve in area like kukatpally, gachhibowli,


• • • •

Training should be given to encourage marketers to promote coke at new areas where there is not yet competitors involved Overall services should be improved for getting more sales and being remained the market leader. They should deepen the partnership arrangement with suppliers and distributors and make them feel as a part of the company. At every retail outlet there is limited products of coke product line, so the distributor should supply every coke product line

Every thing in this world is made to utilize properly but it should be reach at the proper person or to the proper utilized areas. Otherwise the value added to those things became in vein. As there is a proverb that,


“Far From Eye, Far From Heart”
Thus marketing role play a very important role in achieving the objectives of a company. Undoubtly, value utility is created by the manufacture of product or service but time and place utilities are created by marketing role. According to Drucker, “both the market and the distribution channels are often more crucial than the product”. They are primary: the product is secondary. In an economy like that of India, where marginal shortages can lead to disproportation distortion in prices, a dependable and efficient distribution system is very much essential. The distribution system creates a value added to all most all products. All from the above study not withstanding its restructuring efforts Pepsi is still far away with its great competitor like COKE.





10 Feb 2009 ... project report on horizontal expansion of coca cola.... study on dealer distribution network of cold rink with reference to banal beverages ... www.scribd.com/.../A-PROJECT-ON-COCACOLA-COMPANY-IN-KANPURPRIYANKA- -

Length: 15 pages double-spaced, plus executive summary, references [footnotes, How has the role of the board of directors evolved at the Coca-Cola Company? Case: Cellulose Arauco: Forward integration or horizontal expansion? ... www.beyondgreypinstripes.org Title and reference. Guidelines on the assessment of horizontal mergers under..... face binding capacity constraints and the expansion of capacity is costly(45) ...... (93) Commission Decision 98/327/EC in Case IV/M.833 - The Coca-Cola ... eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX...

Horizontal integration takes advantage of the closeness to foreign markets and ... be a mixture of involuntary (defensive) horizontal expansion and delocalization FDI, ... It owns 40% of all seven bottling and distribution Coca Cola plants in Turkey. .... References. AK Party (2003a). "AK Parti Programi" ("AK Party ... www.allbusiness.com/legal/international.. Two cases relate to Coca-Cola taking over its bottlers and ... Horizontal M&As have been classified further by major motive underlying the deals. ..... References. Beena, P.L., 1998, 'Mergers and Amalgamations: An Analysis of the ... Export-expansion and Innovation in Host Countries, London and New York: Routledge ...

Low-rise development and horizontal expansion to accommodate future growth. ..... India, IBM, GE Capital, HCL, Bharati Telecom, Coca Cola, PepsiCo, etc. ... REFERENCES. Association of Urban Development Authority (2003) Land Policy for ... www.isocarp.net/Data/case_studies/722.pdf


determined by the Commission with reference to the relevant product market or the ... relevant product will include both Pepsi and Coca cola. ... differences, and other factors that impede entry or expansion of output. A variety of ..... Horizontal Merger Guidelines. †. For. Competition Commission of India (CCI) ... www.competition-commission-india.nic.in

By Hon'ble Prime Minister of India, Dr. Man Mohan Singh on 25 th. April, 2008. ... This allows the horizontal structure to have critical expansion..... Reference Service. • Reprographic Facility.... Hindustan Coca Cola Beverages ... ccb.nic.in/ccb2008/PIsProfile/DJT.pdf

Consumer Behavior Marketing Management RESEARCH PAPER: News & Magazine Indian Journal of Marketing, May 2003, Number-5 K.K.Srivastava and S. Khandai Kotler and Keller