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INQUIRY-BASED LABORATORY ACTIVITIES (ILAB)

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents..................................................................................... 1 Experiment 1: Gay-Lussacs Temperature and Volume Changes in a Gas (Charles Law) Student Version (GASS) ...................................... . 2 Experiment 1: Gay-Lussacs Temperature and Volume Changes in a Gas (Charles Law) Teacher Version (GASS) ............................................. 7 Experiment 2: Synthesis and Qualitative Analysis of Gases Student Version (GASS) ...................................................................................... 15 Experiment 2: Synthesis and Qualitative Analysis of Gases Teacher Version (GASS) ...................................................................................... 24 Experiment 3: Reactions 1: Types of Reactions Student Version (RXNS) ................................................................................................... 30 Experiment 3: Reactions 1: Types of Reactions Teacher Version (RXNS) ................................................................................................... 34 Experiment 4: Separation, Purification, and Identification of the Components of a Mixture Student Version (SEPN) ............................... 41 Experiment 4: Separation, Purification, and Identification of the Components of a Mixture Teacher Version (SEPN) ............................... 45 Experiment 5: Stoichiometry: Reacting Masses Student Version (STOI) .................................................................................................... 54 Experiment 5: Stoichiometry: Reacting Masses Teacher Version (STOI) .................................................................................................... 57 Experiment 6: Stoichiometry II: Reacting Mole Ratios Student Version (STOI) .................................................................................................... 63 Experiment 6: Stoichiometry II: Reacting Mole Ratios Teacher Version (STOI) .................................................................................................... 66 Experiment 7: The Mole: Lab Activity Student Version (MOLE) ............ 71 Experiment 7: The Mole: Lab Activity Teacher Version (MOLE) ............ 73 Experiment 8: Molecular Mass of a Gas Student Version (GASS) ......... 74 Experiment 8: Molecular Mass of a Gas Teacher Version (GASS) ......... 78 Experiment 9: Reactions 2: Identifying Products of a Reaction Student Version (RXNS, ACID) ............................................................................ 82 Experiment 9: Reactions 2: Identifying Products of a Reaction Teacher Version (RXNS, ACID) ............................................................................ 85 Experiment 10: Comparing the Reactivity of Aluminum, Calcium, Magnesium and Sulfur with Water and Dilute Acid (RXNS, ACID) Student Version ..................................................................................... 90 Experiment 10: Comparing the Reactivity of Aluminum, Calcium, Magnesium and Sulfur with Water and Dilute Acid (RXNS, ACID) Teacher Version ..................................................................................... 93 Mole Pencil and Paper Activity. Part 1: Moles of Elements Student Version (MOLE) ...................................................................... 100 Mole Pencil and Paper Activity. Part 1: Moles of Elements Teacher Version (MOLE) ...................................................................... 107 Mole Pencil and Paper Activity. Part 2: Moles of Compounds Student Version (MOLE) ...................................................................... 114 Mole Pencil and Paper Activity. Part 2: Moles of Compounds Teacher Version (MOLE) ...................................................................... 118 Special Thanks To Field Testers Jay Rogoff and Rich Goodman...............................

Gay-Lussacs Temperature and Volume Changes in a Gas (Charles Law)

STUDENT Leading Question


What changes do you expect to find when you heat a gas that is trapped inside an expandable container, such as a balloon? Introduction You may be aware of the behavior of a gas that is trapped inside an expandable container, such as a balloon. (View Teacher Demo of two sealed balloons with air, placed in ice cold and hot water) Based on the demo, what is the relationship between the volume of a gas and its temperature, if the gas is in an expandable container? How can we measure this volume-temperature relationship?

Purpose To determine the quantitative relationship between the volume of a confined gas (but an expandable container) and its temperature.

Safety 1. Wear safety goggles at all times. 2. Be aware of and handle carefully the hot water baths. 3. Be aware of and handle carefully the glass capillary tubes so that they do not splinter in your hand.

Materials

Non-consumables 12 analog or digital thermometers (-10 0 C to 100 0 C) 12 capillary tubes (4-mm tube, 12-14 cm in length) 12 centimeter metal or hard plastic rulers 12 beakers (400 ml) 12 rubber bands (small, to fit around ruler, thermometer, and capillary tube together) or wire ties (used for plastic produce bags) Heat source (electric preferred) Consumables Ice 250 mL. of chain saw lubricant oil preferred (or #30 or heavier NON-detergent motor oil; or mineral oil with dye added; also dibutyl phthalate)

Pre-Lab Question 1. What do you predict would happen to a confined gas volume if it is heated? Cooled? 2. What if the gas volume is confined to an expandable container. What would happen to the gas volume if it is heated? Cooled? 3. How would the kinetic-molecular theory of gases explain the predicted changes in either question #1 or #2? 4. Would you expect the relationship between temperature and volume changes to be constant?

Procedure 1. Attach a prepared capillary tube (with liquid plug) to a metal or heavy plastic ruler, using two rubber bands or wire ties (for plastic produce bags). The sealed end of the tube should be aligned with 0 on the ruler. The top of the capillary tube, when placed in the water bath, should not go below the water level since the tube is open at the top. During the experiment, the capillary tube/ruler assembly can be held by hand in a water bath. 2. Prepare a 400-mL beaker with water that is about half full. Place the beaker on a hot plate (for eventual heating of the water). 3. Using the ruler with capillary tube attached, measure the length of the AIR column trapped by the liquid plug. Note the temperature of the thermometer before it is immersed in the water bath. 4. Place the capillary tube-ruler assembly in the 400 mL beaker of water. Make sure the water level of the beaker covers the volume of trapped air and the liquid plug but does not go too high and enter the open end of the capillary tube. 5. Measure the temperature of the water and also the length of the trapped air column in the capillary tube. RECORD YOUR DATA. 6. For a different temperature, remove the ruler assembly and add ice to the beaker of water. As before, hold the ruler assembly in the ice water with the top of the capillary tube above the water level. Stir the ice water mix with the ruler and thermometer until you reach a temperature approaching 0- 5 0 C. Record the water temperature and corresponding length of the air column trapped by the oil plug several times as the temperature drops. RECORD YOUR DATA. 7. If your teacher so instructs, add some salt and more ice to reduce the water bath temperature below 0 oC. Stir with the ruler-thermometer assembly. Again record temperature and length of air column. RECORD YOUR DATA. 8. Remove the ice from the beaker and place the beaker back on the hot plate. Be prepared to record a series of temperatures and corresponding measured lengths of the trapped air column as the water warms to and above room temperature. 9. With the thermometer and capillary tube in the water, begin heating the water. Stir the water periodically with the capillary tube-ruler assembly. RECORD YOUR DATA for two or three temperatures prior to reaching your original starting temperature (room temperature). 10. Continue heating your water bath until you reach about 85 o C. Record temperature and length of air column for at least four temperatures between 25 and 85 degrees C. 11. Disassemble your apparatus according to your teachers instructions.

Observations Laboratory Data

Gas Column Temp.

Length of Air Column

Data Analysis

Post-Laboratory Implications and Applications 1. Since we are talking about the volume of the trapped air (gas), how does measuring the length of the three-dimensional tube give us a volume? Do we need to calculate a volume of gas inside the tube? EXPLAIN 2. Analyze your temperature and volume data. What trend is noticeable? 3. Compare your data with another team. Are the trends the same? Different? 4. Graph your data. Place temperature on the horizontal axis and volume (linear measurements of your trapped air column) on the vertical. Temperature range should be from 0 o C to 100 o C. Volume range should be from zero to maximum. 5. Draw a best-fit line with your data points. A best-fit line means you will not be drawing point-to point connections but rather a line drawn (with ruler) that comes closest to all the points. If you have a computer-based program for graphing, you should utilize it. 6. What kind of relationship is suggested by the points on the graph? Is there a way to express the relationship between temperature and corresponding volume 7. Can you extrapolate (extend you graphical points) or talk about changes in volume of the gas when the temperature goes below zero degrees C.? According to your graph, what is the volume of your gas at 0o C.? Would your volume of gas become smaller below 0o C? Would it still be a gas?

8. To deal with question # 7, prepare a second graph with the temperature axis extending from 100o C to 300o C. Using the same data points of your first graph, again draw a best-fit line and extend the line until it intersects the temperature axis at volume equals zero. 9. Does the trend in the graph suggest that there is a temperature at which the gas volume becomes zero? Does this make sense? EXPLAIN 10. At what Celsius temperature is the volume of the gas zero? 11. What would be the most likely physical state for this substance to be in when its volume becomes zero? 12. How can you change the graph to get away from negative temperature values and zero degrees C but still keep the same graphical line? 13. Based on your response to question #12, add to your graphs temperature axis a second series of numbers or data points, beginning with zero on the left side where your best fit line crosses the temperature axis at zero volume (origin). This will be a new temperature scale with only positive temperature values in a one-to-one correspondence with your Celsius temperature axis. Continue numbering to the highest Celsius temperature equivalent. The new temperature axis is an absolute temperature scale or Kelvin scale. 14. If you renumber the units on the Celsius temperature axis, starting with absolute zero, what is the range of kelvin units from absolute zero to the equivalent of zero degrees Celsius? 15. How could you mathematically convert any Celsius temperature value to an absolute or Kelvin temperature value (consult your graph with both the Celsius and absolute temperature units? 16. Using your graph, select several points on the graphed line (do not use any data points) and determine the numerical value of Volume/Temperature (absolute or Kelvin) for each of the points. 17. How do the numerical values calculated in #16 compare? What is the relationship between any temperature Kelvin and the corresponding volume of a gas?

18. Based on your answers in question #17, write an expression that shows the relationship between the volume of a confined gas, its corresponding temperature Kelvin and a constant, C.
Extension Question

1. Explain why, in terms of graph extrapolation, the temperature at which a gas has zero volume is known as absolute zero. (hint: what does the word absolute mean in mathematical terms? Can you go any lower than zero Kelvin? What is so special about absolute zero in terms of the behavior of matter? 2. Would different numbers of moles of a gas sample follow the same graphical line (temperature vs. volume)? EXPLAIN. 3. Would the same number of moles of several different gas samples follow the same graphical line (temperature vs. volume)? EXPLAIN. 4. According to your graph in which you are using the absolute or kelvin temperature scale, a temperature change of 1 degree absolute (or kelvin) is equivalent to a change of how many degrees Celsius? (refer to your graph with the dual absolute and Celsius temperature axis)

POSTLAB- Historical Context


Lord Kelvin (1824-1907), born William Thomson, was involved in studies of the nature of heat and its measurement. In trying to find a better instrument for measuring temperature that did not use expanding and contracting liquids, he found that using confined gas volumes produced more accurate results. He collected data on temperature and corresponding pressure of a confined gas. Graphical analysis showed pressure decreased to zero at a temperature of -273.15 C, no matter what gas was used. Kelvin suggested using this temperature as an absolute zero, making all higher temperatures positive and allowing one to relate any pressure (or volume) to this absolute temperature as a ratio. This maneuver allowed for calculations without having any negative values or zero in the temperature data. Eventually the temperature units were named kelvins and the scale the Kelvin scale. Jacques Charles (Jacques Alexandr Csar Charles), 1746-1823, also worked with volume changes of a gas due to temperature variations. He originally suggested a direct relationship between these two variables affecting a gas. But his work was not careful enough, (water vapor not removed), producing inconsistent results though still proposing a relationship between temperature and volume of a gas. Fifteen years later, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778-1850) provides better data to confirm Charles ideas. When Gay-Lussac published his work, he referred to Charles (his ballooning friend) and his earlier experimentation. (see reference listings for his original paper, translated from French) An English author, Peter Tait, came across Gay-Lussacs reference to Charles and gave priority to Charles, hence the relationship titled Charles law. Strangely enough, Charles himself thought the volume-temeperature relationship to be false! (see reference listings: Creations of Fire Cobb/Goldwhite; p.207). Later, working with Alexander von Humboldt, Gay-Lussac studied reacting volumes of gases, starting with hydrogen-oxygen reaction from which Gay-Lussac proposed his Law of Combining volumes.

GAY-LUSSACS TEMPERATURE AND VOLUME CHANGES IN A GAS (Charles Law) Teacher Version

Major Chemical Concept Students will collect data to relate changes in volume of a confined gas to the changes in temperature (pressure is kept constant, at atmospheric pressure) National Standards 1. Unifying Concepts and Processes Evidence, models, and explanations Change, constancy, and measurement 2. Science as Inquiry Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry Understandings about scientific inquiry 3. Physical Science Chemical reactions Structure and properties of matter Interactions of energy and matter 4. History and Nature of Science Science as a human endeavor

Level Regular, Honors

Expected Student Background: 1. Students should have basic math skills, including graphing. 2. They should be able to accurately read an analog thermometer (if not using a digital model) 3. Students should understand the concepts of direct, indirect relationships between sets of data, ratios, and the idea of a slope from graphed data.

Time This activity requires 90 minutes or two 45-minute periods to set up the apparatus and make at least one dry run to become aware of the need for coordinating the reading of the thermometer and determining the position of the moving plug of the capillary tube. Safety Read the Safety Considerations in the Student Version.

Materials (for 24 students working in pairs Non-consumables 12 analog or digital thermometers (-10o C to 100o C) 12 capillary tubes (4-mm tube, 12-14 cm in length) 12 centimeter rulers (metal preferred or very hard plastic) 12 beakers (400 ml) 12 rubber bands (small, to fit around ruler, thermometer and capillary tube together) or wire ties (used for plastic produce bags) Heat source (electric preferred) Consumables (see advanced preparation) Ice 250 mL. of chain saw lubricant ( alternatives include #30 or heavier NON-detergent motor oil or mineral oil with dye added; also dibutyl phthalate)

Advance Preparation 1. Prepare the capillary tubes for the students in advance to ensure that the oil plug is at a good position at room temperature. To get the oil into the tube, first heat the capillary tubes in an oven that is set at about 120 oC. Bind the tubes together with string or wire and place in the oven for 30 minutes. Quickly plunge the bundle of tubes, open end down, into a Petri dish of the oil for about 15 seconds or until the oil moves into the tube to a height of 1 cm. (Do not use any lighter weight oil or the column may break up at higher temperatures.) Lay the tubes on paper towels to cool. You may have to try this technique several times to get plugs into every tube at the correct height. The column of trapped air within the tube should be between 5 and 10 cm long once the tube has cooled. (Note: Gay-Lussac used larger glass tubing with mercury plugs- visit the Gay Lussac museum site to see a schematic of his set-up; students might enjoy seeing that what they did was originally done by this historical figure some 200 years agopriceless!) 2. A data sheet for collecting could be provided for students as a guide unless you feel it useful for students to learn to organize their own data.

Pre-Laboratory Discussion, Questions You could make use of the following questions for students prior to doing the laboratory exercise: 1. What do you predict would happen to a confined gas volume if it is heated? Cooled? 2. What if the gas volume is confined to an expandable container. What would happen to the gas volume if it is heated? Cooled? Teacher note: You could demonstrate the issues related to the questions by placing a balloon of

about 2.25 inch body diameter over the mouth of a 125 mL erlenmeyer flask; prior to attaching the balloon, add a very small amount of air, twist shut in order to keep the air in the balloon while attaching the balloon. Then let the balloon untwist. The balloon should be limp. Now place the apparatus on a hot plate and begin heating the flask. Eventually the balloon will expand enough to be seen. The flask can then be place in some very cold water to see the balloon deflate. While heating the flask, wear goggles. 3. How would the kinetic-molecular theory of gases explain the predicted changes in either question #1 or #2? 4. Would you expect the relationship between temperature and volume changes to be constant? Answers to Pre-Lab Discussion Questions

1. What do you predict would happen to a confined gas volume if it is heated? Cooled? ANS. The gas volume would not change when heated or cooled if the container is rigid or non-expandable. If one were to measure the pressure of the gas, it would increase when the gas volume is heated and decrease when the volume is cooled. 2. What if the gas volume is confined to an expandable container. what would happen to the gas volume if it is heated? Cooled? ANS. If the container is expandable, heating or cooling the gas would cause the volume of the container to increase or decrease respectively. 3. How would the kinetic-molecular theory of gases explain the predicted changes in either question #1 or #2? ANS. If gas particles are heated, it means that the particles have gained additional kinetic energy which translates into the gas particles striking the surface more frequently causing an expansion in the gas volume or an increase in pressure when the container is nonexpandable (rigid). The opposite is true when a gas is cooled- kinetic energy is reduced and collisions per unit of time with the container wall also decrease. 4. Would you expect the relationship between temperature and volume changes to be constant? ANS. If the volume changes are directly related to the kinetic energy changes in the gas molecules, then one would expect the volume changes to be proportional to temperature change. Would they be constant- check the data after doing the laboratory exercise!

Student Misconceptions

1. If a confined volume of gas expands when heated, it means that there are more gas molecules present (Measurements of the mass of gas before and after heating would show no change in mass. Demonstrate by heating a pre-massed flask with a balloon attached; repeat mass determination immediately after heating the flask with expanded balloon)

2. If a gas volume expands with a temperature increase, the increase in volume is due to the expansion of the individual gas molecules. (Considering the fact that a volume of gas is mostly empty space, expansion of the individual molecules would not produce the proportional increase in volume as measures when the Kelvin temperature is doubled with a doubling of the gas volume. Also, it is possible to talk about the volume of a mole of any gas and calculate the volume of that same gas if it is changed to a liquid, verifying the difference in volume of the space that contains the gas versus the volume occupied by the liquid state of the same substance, recognizing that there is still some space between the particles when a liquid but significantly reduced. 3. Gases do not have any weight (Students could determine the mass of gas in a plastic bag or a large balloon by first massing an empty bag or balloon, then filling it with room air (plastic bag) or exhaled air (balloon) and massing again. Discuss with the students the fact that the filled bag or balloon, when placed on a balance, is buoyed up by the volume of air displaced by the bag. This volume of displaced air has a mass. Therefore, the mass of the air in the bag measures less if there is a buoyant effect (think of objects submerged in water- they are easier to lift while in the water). For a liter of air displaced, the buoyant effect is relatively small. But there is data that can be used to get a value for the buoyant effect, in grams, that is added to the mass of the bag of air. At standard air pressure and 25 o C, a liter of air displaced has a mass of 1.19 grams. This mass of displaced air has to added to the measured mass of air in the bag. (you would subtract the mass of the empty bag or balloon from the mass of bag plus air to get mass of air alone) 4. Gases with different particle masses (but same volume) will produce different volume changes for a given temperature change. Refer to the explanation for misconception #2.

Anticipated Student Results


Gas Column Temp. (oC)

Length of Air Column (mm) 5.30 5.50 5.60 5.65 5.70 5.80 5.90 6.10 6.40 6.60 6.80

5.5 10.0 18.2 20.6 22.5 30.0 35.0 50.0 65.0 75.0 85.0

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Post-Laboratory Data Analysis

1. Since we are talking about the volume of the trapped air (gas), how does measuring the length of the three dimensional tube give us a volume? Do we have to calculate a volume of gas inside the tube? EXPLAIN. ANS. Since the volume of the gas trapped in the tube could be calculated knowing the diameter of the tube and its length (V= pi x r2 x l), the only variable in the tubes volume would be length as the trapped air expands or contracts, diameter remaining constant. Therefore, the gas volume is proportional to the length of the tube and the change in volume would be directly related to change in volume. So a unit of length can represent the volume of gas at whatever temperature. There is no need to calculate the volume of gas inside the tube in order to have volume data for each temperature at which it (length of tube) is measured. 2. Analyze your temperature and volume data. What trend is noticeable? ANS. The data points suggest that as temperature increases, so does volume. As temperature decreases, so does the volume. There is a direct relationship. 3. Compare your data with another team. Are the trends the same? Different? ANS. They should be. 4. Graph your data. Place temperature on the horizontal axis and volume (linear measurements of your trapped air column) on the vertical. Temperature range should be from 0 o C to 100 o C. Volume range should be from zero to maximum. ANS. The data when graphed should suggest a straight-line relationship. 5. Draw a best-fit line with your data points. A best-fit line means you will not be drawing point-to point connections but rather a line drawn (with ruler) that comes closest to all the points. If you have a computer-based program for graphing, you should utilize it. 6. What kind of relationship is suggested by the points on the graph? Is the trend a straight line or some kind of curve? ANS. Relationship should be a straight-line. Is there a way to express the relationship between changes in temperature and corresponding volume change? What is the relationship? ANS. If there is a straight line as best fit for the graphed points, then a slope can be calculated to show a constant, which is the relationship between temperature and corresponding volume. 7. Can you extrapolate (extend you graphical points) or talk about changes in volume of the gas when the temperature goes below zero degrees C.? ANS. Using the data points and a best-fit line, the line can be extended below zero degrees C. According to your graph, what is the volume of your gas at

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0o C.? ANS. Student results will vary BUT it will not be Zero! Would your volume of gas become smaller below 0o C? YES. Would it still be a gas? YES. 8. To deal with question # 7, prepare a second graph with the temperature axis extending from 100o C to 300o C. Using the same data points of your first graph, again draw a best-fit line and extend the line until it intersects the temperature axis at volume equals zero. 9. Does the trend in the graph suggest that there is a temperature at which the gas volume becomes zero? YES. Does this make sense? YES, EXPLAIN ANS. It is assumed that as temperature decreases, the kinetic energy decreases until the particles are no longer in motion as a gas, hence in a liquid or solid state. It is possible to show, with measurements at what temperature a gas becomes a liquid or solid, with the volume representing the gas decreasing dramatically to a zero point. 10. At what Celsius temperature is the volume of the gas zero? ANS. Students will get a variety of values, most likely in the range of -265 to 325 oC 11. What would be the most likely physical state for this substance to be in when its volume becomes zero? ANS. Liquid or solid. 12. How can you change the graph to get away from negative temperature values and zero degrees C but still keep the same graphical line? ANS. Starting with the temperature (negative) at which the volume is zero, renumber the temperature axis, beginning with zero (origin). 13. Based on your response to question #12, add to your graphs temperature axis a second series of numbers or data points, beginning with zero on the left side where your best fit line crosses the temperature axis at zero volume (origin). This will be a new temperature scale with only positive temperature values in a one-to-one correspondence with your Celsius temperature axis. Continue numbering to the highest Celsius temperature equivalent. The new temperature axis is an absolute temperature scale or Kelvin scale. 14. If you renumber the units on the Celsius temperature axis, starting with absolute zero, what is the range of kelvin units from absolute zero to the equivalent of zero degrees Celsius? ANS. Again, depending on the Celsius temperature at which the gas volume equals zero, the range of units can be from -325 to 265 (see question #10) 15. How could you mathematically convert any Celsius temperature value to an absolute or Kelvin temperature value (consult your graph with both the Celsius and absolute temperature units? ANS. ANS. Using a few temperature points on the graph, going from zero absolute ( -273 o C) to an absolute temperature corresponding to 0 oC, there is a change of 273 degrees. Going from 0 oC to 100 oC means going from 273 Absolute to 373 Absolute. So, adding 273 to any Celsius temperature gives an Absolute temperature. In reverse, subtracting 273 from an Absolute temperature gives a Celsius temperature. Add to the Celsius temperature the absolute value (positive) of the temperature Celsius when the Kelvin temperature is zero. K = C + 273 (ideally). 16. Using your graph, select several points on the graphed line (do not use any data points) and determine the numerical value of Volume/Temperature (absolute or Kelvin) for each of the points.

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17. How do the numerical values calculated in #16 compare? What is the relationship between any temperature Kelvin and the corresponding volume of a gas? ANS. Volume/Temperature for points on a straight line would be the slope of the line, which would be a constant. So, all sets of points as a ratio have the same value. 18. Based on your answers in question #17, write an expression that shows the relationship between the volume of a confined gas, its corresponding temperature Kelvin and a constant, C. ANS. V/T (Kelvin) = C= V/T; this relationship is known as Charles Law. Extension Questions 1. Explain why, in terms of graph extrapolation, the temperature at which a gas has zero volume is known as absolute zero. (hint: what does the word absolute mean in mathematical terms? Can you go any lower than zero Kelvin? What is so special about absolute zero in terms of the behavior of matter?) ANS. The word absolute implies that this is absolutely as low as temperature can go for matter. In chemistry parlance, the word Kelvin is substituted for absolute since a physicist of the mid 19th C., William Thomson (later known as Lord Kelvin) worked with the same temperature and volume data for gases as you have done. And he first suggested extrapolating the data back to a zero pressure (as opposed to volume) and making all temperature values positive or absolute. He also suggested that the data and extrapolated line on this graph with an absolute temperature axis would apply to the expansion of an Ideal Gas, an imaginary model gas in which there is no attraction or repulsion between gas particles. The gas particles do not occupy any volume themselves! 2. Would different numbers of moles of a gas sample follow the same graphical line (temperature vs. volume)? EXPLAIN. ANS. For different moles of a gas, the volumes would be different (expandable container) at a given temperature, pressure constant. Therefore, the graphical lines would be different. 3. Would the same number of moles of several different gas samples follow the same graphical line (temperature vs. volume)? EXPLAIN. ANS. For the same moles of different gases (at a given temperature, pressure constant), the volumes would be the same and there would be but one graphical line for several different gases. 4. According to your graph in which you are using the absolute or kelvin temperature scale, a temperature change of 1 degree absolute (or kelvin) is equivalent to a change of how many degrees Celsius? (refer to your graph with the dual absolute and Celsius temperature axis) ANS. The two temperature axes show that one degree change Celsius is equal to one degree in kelvins

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Extensions 1. Using the methods in this lab for collecting data, provide new data from which students would determine variable volumes at various temperatures; determine the slope of the line from the data points. 2. Absolute zero implies the absence of any thermal activity (molecular motion). Students could investigate the implications of this on particle motion within the atom. In addition, research into the world of superconductivity is related to finding ways to reduce random motion of electrons within the atoms of superconductive materials. The chemical composition of these materials and the rationale for such is worth investigating as is the application of superconductivity (example- maglev trains) Additional Teacher Resources 1. A website for the Gay-Lussac museum at his country home includes, among other things photos of some of Gay-Lussacs equipment (choice of English language for tour) and a diagram of his equipment for measuring temperaturevolume data. (http://apella.ac-limoges.fr/musee-gay-lussac/Gay-Lussac-en.htm) 2. Charles Law (Gay-Lussac set-up) can be done on a macro-scale, using a 125 ml Erlenmeyer flask, a water manometer attachment (rubber tubing attaching a vertical glass tube [clamped] to the flask); flask is immersed in a water bath which can be heated and cooled. Add a water bubble marker within the tube to show expansion and contraction of the flask air volume. Volume of air in flask determined by filling flask, then emptying into a graduated cylinder. The flask used in the experiment must be dry. Changes in the volume of the air in the flask indicated by the change in the position of the water marker within the glass tube as done in the micro-scale experiment.

References 1. A good history of chemistry book is Creations of Fire (Chemistry Lively History from Alchemy to Atomic Age; C.Cobb, H. Goldwhite; Plenum Press, NY 1995; ISBN 0-306-45087-9. The book includes references to Jacques Charles and Lord Kelvin concerning their work related to Gay-Lussac. 2. The original paper of Gay-Lussac describing his procedures for collecting data on expanding gases (translated from French) can be found at the following website (which has many articles on the history of science and its participants): http://web.lemoyne.edu/~giunta/gaygas.html 3. A short article about the many scientific activities of Gay-Lussac in the context of early 19th C. is found in the Spring, 2007 issue of Chemical Heritage magazine, pp.40-41.

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Synthesis and Qualitative Analysis of Gases


STUDENT VERSION Leading Question- How do you detect and analyze various gaseous compounds found in the atmosphere? Introduction Our world is full of gases and they are not readily apparent. Do they have mass? Do they have color? Are they toxic or not? The more obvious gases in our lives include the oxygen contained in air (a mixture of gases) that we need to stay alive and to support combustion, a necessary reaction in transportation vehicles and many industrial processes. Another gas in the air is carbon dioxide that is vital to plant life. If you think about it, carbon dioxide is involved in the transfor-mation of sunlight to chemicals in a plant that possess potential energy to sustain both plant and animal life processes. Excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from the burning of fuels and biological decay is involved in global warming. Then there is helium, often found originally underground mixed with natural gas from which it is extracted. Though chemically inert, it has many applications particularly in cooling systems that require very low temperatures (as a liquid, it will not solidify at absolute zero under normal pressure). On the other hand, there are various gases in our environment that have various effects when reacting with other chemicals, some-times with unfavorable results. A few examples include the production of sulfur dioxide, SO2, when sulfur in some fuels, including oil and coal, reacts with oxygen in the air. The sulfur dioxide can further react with oxygen to form sulfur trioxide (SO3). Both of these oxides are listed as pollutants because they can dissolve in water to form acid, something that is associated with acid rain and its environmental effects. Compounds of nitrogen formed in the atmosphere, collectively known as the NOxs (NO2, NO3, N2O5, and N2O) interact with sunlight to produce photochemical smog. The primary reaction that is considered particularly harmful is the production of free oxygen atoms or atomic oxygen. It is this atomic oxygen that reacts with hydrocarbons (from the incomplete combustion of gasoline and diesel fuel) to form a number of compounds that react with living tissue.

Purpose To produce (through chemical reactions) a variety of gases that will be tested for some of their chemical properties that can help to distinquish one gas from another.

Safety 1. Wear protective goggles throughout this activity. 2. Do not inhale any gases directly. If you are going to smell a gas, wave your hand over the container to push a small sample toward your nose. 3. Immediately clean up any spilled acids using water and paper towels. Wash your hands.

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Materials Consumables Small-scale pipettes of the following solutions: Sodium hydrogen sulfite (NaHSO3) Sodium nitrite (NaNO3) Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) Potassium iodide (KI) Starch Hydrochloric acid (HCl) Sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3) Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) Bromthymol blue (BTB) Iodine (I2 reagent) Non-Consumables 48 Clear plastic cups Reaction surface, pre-labeled if not done by students. Clear plastic sheeting New pipettes or toothpicks for stirring reaction solutions

Procedure 1. Obtain six clear plastic cups, heavy white paper, and saran wrap. 2. Using one cup as a template, trace the rim of the cup six times onto a sheet of the white paper. This will produce 6 circles on which you will carry out six chemical reactions to produce gases. 3. At the center of each circle, write the chemical reaction to be produced on one of the circles. The reactions are: a. HCl + NaHSO3 b. HCl + NaNO2 c. HCl + NaHCO3 d. KMnO4 + H2O2 e. HCl + NaOCl f. NaOH + NH4Cl 4. On each circle various chemicals will be added to test for the properties of the different gases that will be produced by one of the reactions listed above in #3. The arrangement of the chemicals added for testing the gaseous products is as follow:

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KI + B starch

BTB

HCl + NaHSO3

KI

I2 reagent + starch

KI + starch

BTB

HCl + NaHCO3 HCl + NaHCO3

KI

I2 reagent + starch 17

KI + starch

BTB

HCl + NaNO2

KI

I2 reagent + starch

KI + starch

BTB

KMnO4 + H2O2

KI

I2 reagent + starch

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KI + starch

BTB

HCl + NaOCl

KI

I2 reagent + starch

KI + Starch

BTB

NaOH + NH4Cl

KI

I2 reagent + starch

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5. Depending on the number of sheets of paper you are provided that contain the circles, place a piece of SaranR Wrap over each sheet of paper, smoothing the surface as much as possible. 6. Place 2 drops of each of the solutions that are indicated around the perimeter of each circle. (KI +starch, Bromthymol blue [BTB], KI, I2 reagent plus starch). Prepare to start a chemical reaction in the center of any one circle with the chemical combination indicated on your sheet of paper. Use two or three drops of each solution, then quickly cover the circle with the plastic cup and observe any changes that take place in the next several minutes. 7. Record your observations in a chart, including color changes, production of bubbles and formation of solids (precipitates).

Post-lab-Data Analysis 1. What is unique about the way each gas behaved in the presence of indicators? Describe each reaction in terms of what you saw. Remember that you were using four different chemical solutions that can change because of interacting with chemicals produced by the reaction in the center of the paper. These chemical solutions are called indicators because if they change, they indicate the presence of a specific chemical that was not there before the chemical reaction in the center of the paper. 2. Bromthymol blue is blue in basic (alkaline) solutions, changing to yellow in acidic solutions with the intermediate color green for the indicator in the bottle by itself. Which reactions were due to the production of an acid? Which reactions produced an alkaline substance? Which reactions had no effect on the indicator? 3. From your answers to #2, can you predict which gases that were generated in each reaction produced an acidic change (changing the bromthymol blue to yellow)? HINT: Refer back to the introduction about the gases that are in the atmosphere and look at the reactants that could form the particular molecule listed as a gas in the atmosphere. For instance, NaHCO3 looks like it could form CO2. NaHSO3 looks like it could form SO2 gas. What reaction might produce one of the NOx gases? 4. What acids are you familiar with that might be related to the gases in #3? (Gases have varying degrees of solubility in water. [remember Acid Rain?] Since the gases mentioned in your data that produced the color change with bromthymol blue (from blue to yellow) must have produced an acid solution, they must have dissolved in the water of the indicators solution.

Post-Lab- Implications and Applications (Teacher-based activity)

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1. Write an equation for the combustion of coal, which can be considered to be simply carbon (C). How does the burning of coal contribute to acid rain? 2. Since living organisms that undergo respiration (including plants) produce carbon dioxide (and water), write a balanced chemical equation that shows the production of carbon dioxide from the combustion of the sugar, glucose (C6H12O6). 3. Using the equation in #2, calculate the number of grams of CO2 that will be produced when 180.00 grams of glucose go through respiration to produce carbon dioxide and water. 4. Do the same calculation for the combustion of 180 grams of coal using the equation from #1. How many grams of carbon dioxide are produced ? 5. Compare the amounts of carbon dioxide produced in the combustion of coal vs. the combustion of sugar (you can think of the burning of plant material such as wood for making heat to be chemically similar to respiration). Which fuel is the lesser polluter, gram for gram, in terms of producing carbon dioxide, associated with both acid rain and global warming (a greenhouse gas)?

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5.

Observations Begin writing here Data Analysis 1. Concept Development Begin writing here Implications and Applications 1. Begin writing here

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Extension Questions Begin writing here.

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Synthesis and Qualitative Analysis of Gases


Teacher Version

Major Chemical Concept Students will use a micro-scale setup to generate a series of gases that are major contributors to both the normal and polluted (excessive quantities) atmosphere, then test their chemical properties to identify them.

National Standards 1. Unifying Concepts and Processes Evidence, models, and explanations Change, constancy, and measurement 2. Science as Inquiry Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry Understandings about scientific inquiry 3. Physical Science Chemical reactions 4. Science in Personal and Social Perspectives Environmental quality Natural and human-induced hazards

5. History and Nature of Science Science as a human endeavor Nature of scientific knowledge

Level All levels including AP

Expected Student Background: 1. Skills: Using pipettes, accurately delivering small quantities of chemicals, carefully observing changes in chemical systems. 2. Concepts: Explaining the chemistry behind the observed chemical changes; identifying unknown gases.

Time: 60-80 minutes (student prep of charts ahead of time reduces in-class time)

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Safety Read the Safety Considerations in the Student Version

Materials (for 24 students working in pairs) Consumables (see Advanced Preparation) Small-scale pipettes of the following solutions: Sodium hydrogen sulfite (NaHSO3) Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) Potassium iodide (KI) Starch Hydrochloric acid (HCl) Sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3) Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) Bromthymol blue (BTB) Iodine (I2 reagent) Non-Consumables (see Advanced Preparation) 48 Clear plastic cups Reaction surface, pre-labeled if not done by students. Clear plastic sheeting New pipettes or toothpicks for stirring reaction solutions

Advance Preparation 1. Solutions for the pipettes; see above listing of chemicals for making 250 ml of solution unless indicated otherwise. Most of these solutions should be freshly made excepting bromthymol blue, iodine reagent, and starch solution. Pipits should be placed either in glass beakers per student pair, bulb down, in a plastic cup (make sure it will be stable), or create pipette holders from what is called egg crate light panel, cutting it up into smaller squares for individual student use (3 squares by 10 squares). Sodium hydrogen sulfite (NaHSO3); 0.1 M = 2.6 g/250 ml solution Sodium nitrite (NaNO3); 0.4 M= 6.9 g/250 ml solution Potassium permanganate (KMnO4); 0.2 M= 1.6 g in 50 ml of 1.0 M H2SO4 Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); 1.0%= dilute 50 ml household bleach in 200 ml water Sodium hydroxide (NaOH); 0.5M = 20.0 g in 1.0 L solution

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Potassium iodide (KI); 0.1M = 4.2 g in 250 ml solution Starch (dilute 50 ml liquid household starch with 200 ml water) Hydrochloric acid (HCl); 1.0 M = 82 ml of 12 M HCl in 1.0 L Sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3); 1.0 M= 21.0 g/ 250 ml solution Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2); 3% (commercial) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl); 0.2M = 12.1 g/250 ml solution Bromthymol blue (BTB); 0.04%= 100 mg in 16.0 ml, 0.01M NaOH Iodine (I2 reagent); 0.04 %= 0.1 g in 50 ml of 0.1 M KI; add water to 250 ml volume 2. Sheets of paper with pre-drawn circles of the diameter of the plastic cups can be made in advance for students. Choose to include the chemicals to be added in each of the four quadrants as well as the chemical reaction in the center that generates a given gas. Or let students fill in the circles to let them become more familiar with the chemicals that are being used under each cup.

Pre-Laboratory Discussion, Questions 1. Students should be aware of the fact that gases are being generated and can pass to other reaction set-ups. Therefore, do only one reaction at a time, then remove the reaction chemicals by absorbing the liquids with a paper towel. 2. Students should be careful that pipette tips with different chemicals do not touch each other when they are in the holding beaker. Best to use the pipette, then place on a paper towel rather than returning to the beaker. 3. Reaction times may be slow- students should continue to watch for several minutes after setting off the reaction that generates the gas. 4. Show reactions that produce color changes with bromthymol blue, from pH 8 to pH 5. Also show the reaction between starch solution and I2 solution as well as with KI solution. It is important to have students distinquish between I2 and Ithrough the starch reaction. Anticipated Results Mixture NaHSO3 + HCl NaNO3 + HCl NaHCO3 + HCl H2O2 + KMnO4 NaOCl + HCl NH4Cl + NaOH Bubbles? No No Yes Yes Yes No BTB Yellow Yellow No change No change Yellow Blue KI +Starch No change Black No change No change Black No change I2 reagent Colorless No change No change No change No change No change KI No change yellow No change No change yellow No change

Teacher-Student Interaction In guided inquiry the exchanges between the teacher and students are critical. Teachers who wish to teach using guided inquiry must develop the skill of asking

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questions that will guide students thinking as they form new concepts. The questions listed in this activity are intended only as aides for the teacher since it is not possible to know all of the ways students may be thinking and answering questions directed their way. The guided inquiry process is designed to help students construct new knowledge based

Post-Laboratory Data Analysis 1. What is unique about the way each gas behaved in the presence of indicators? Describe each reaction in terms of what you saw. Remember that you were using four different chemical solutions that can change because of interacting with chemicals produced by the reaction in the center of the paper. These chemical solutions are called indicators because if they change, they indicate the presence of a specific chemical that was not there before the chemical reaction in the center of the paper. (Gas in reaction a turns I2 reagent from dark orange brown to colorless. Gas in reaction b does not bubble and turns KI + starch to black. In reaction c the unique thing is producing only bubbles. The gas produced in reaction d causes the original purple reactant KMnO4 to become colorless. In reaction e a gas forms and turns the KI + starch indicator to black. Gas in reaction f is the only one to turn the BTB indicator from green to blue. ) 2. Bromthymol blue is blue in basic (alkaline) solutions, changing to yellow in acidic solutions with the intermediate color green for the indicator in the bottle by itself. Which reactions were due to the production of an acid? Which reactions produced an alkaline substance? Which reactions had no effect on the indicator? (Acidic products were found in reactions a, b, and e. Basic or alkaline reactions occurred only in reaction f. No change in pH occurred with reactions c and d.) 3. From your answers to #2, can you predict which gases that were generated in each reaction produced an acidic change (changing the bromthymol blue to yellow)? HINT:refer back to the introduction about the gases that are in the atmosphere and look at the reactants that could form the particular molecule listed as a gas in the atmosphere. For instance, NaHCO3 looks like it could form CO2. NaHSO3 looks like it could form SO2 gas. What reaction might produce one of the NOx gases? (Gases that were produced and changed the indicator solution to acidic include, SO2 in reaction a, and NO or NO2 in reaction b. The chemical equation for reaction c looks like it could (and does) produce CO2 that, in water, produces an acidic condition. However, the indicator did not show a change in acidity.) 4. What acids are you familiar with that might be related to the gases in #3? (Gases have varying degrees of solubility in water. [remember Acid Rain?] Since the gases mentioned in your data that produced the color change with bromthymol blue (from blue to yellow) must have produced an acid solution. They must have dissolved in the water of the indicators solution. (Acids associated with the acidic reactions noted in #3 include: a. H2SO3 (sulfurous acid) or H2SO4 (sulfuric acid) for reaction a, b. HNO3 (nitric acid) and nitrous acid, HNO2 from the reaction of NO with oxygen in air to give NO2 gas which in turn reacts with H2O in an acidic solution

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Post-Lab Implications and Applications For purposes of illustration, the teacher could show the various equations for the reactions that took place in each set-up. It would also be the basis for explaining the changes that took place in the indicators. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. NaHSO3 + HCl SO2 (g) + H2O + NaCl 3NaNO2 + 2 HCl 2 NO (g) + H2O + NaNO3 2 NO (g) + O2 (g in air) 2 NO2 (g) This reaction follows from #2. HCl + NaHCO3 CO2 (g) + H2O + NaCl 5 H2O2 + 2 MnO4- (aq) + 6 H+ (aq) 5 O2 (g) + 2 Mn2+ (aq) + 8 H2O NaOCl + 2 HCl Cl2(g) + NaCl + H2O NH4Cl + NaOH NH3 (g) + H2O + NaCl

The equations that follow explain changes in both the Bromthymol blue (BTB) indicator or the iodine in solution: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. SO2 (g) + H2O H2SO3 (sulfurous acid which turns BTB yellow) SO2 (g) + H2O + I2, in starch, black 2 I- (aq, colorless) + SO42- + 4 H+ 2 NO2 (g) + H2O HNO2 + HNO3 (these acids turn BYB yellow) Cl2 (g) + 2 I- I2 + 2 Cl- (I2 produces a light yellow color in the solution) Cl2 (g) + H2O HCl + HOCl (these acids turn BTB yellow) NH3 (g) + H2O NH4+ (aq) + OH- (aq) (this is a basic solution that turns the BTB darker blue)

Extension Questions 1. Write an equation for the combustion of coal, which can be considered to be simply carbon (C). [ C (s) + O2 (g) CO2 (g) ] How does the burning of coal contribute to acid rain? (When the carbon dioxide, CO2, that is produced combines with water in the atmosphere, carbonic acid, H2CO3 , is produced.) 2. Since living organisms that undergo respiration (including plants) produce carbon dioxide (and water), write a balanced chemical equation that shows the production of carbon dioxide from the combustion of the sugar glucose ( C6H12O6 ). ( C6H12O6 + 6 O2 (g) 6 CO2 (g)+ 6 H2O (g) ) 3. Using the equation in #2, calculate the number of grams of CO2 that will be produced when 180.00 grams of glucose go through respiration to produce carbon dioxide and water. (From the balanced equation, for one mole glucose produces 6 moles of CO2; 180 g of glucose = 1 mole of glucose and 6 moles of carbon dioxide will be produced which has a mass of 6 x 44 g or 264 g.)

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4. Do the same calculation for the combustion of 180 grams of coal using the equation from #1. How many grams of carbon dioxide are produced? (180 g of carbon, C, is 180/12 or 15 moles of C. The balanced equation shows 1 mole C: 1 mole of CO2; for 15 moles carbon, 15 moles of carbon dioxide will be produced. 15 moles of carbon dioxide would have a mass of 15 x 44 g = 660 g. 5. Compare the amounts of carbon dioxide produced in the combustion of coal vs. the combustion of sugar (you can think of the burning of plant material such as wood for making heat to be chemically similar to respiration). Which fuel is the lesser polluter, gram for gram, in terms of producing carbon dioxide, one of the gases associated with both acid rain and global warming (a greenhouse gas)? (The mass ratio of carbon dioxide produced from coal combustion vs. sugar respiration is 660/264 or 2.4/1. Obviously burning coal, gram for gram is producing 2.4 times as much carbon dioxide as respiration. )

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Reactions 1: Types of Reactions


Student Version Leading Question How can the different types of reactions be used to study chemical changes? Pre-Lab: 1. What is a decomposition reaction? 2. What is a single replacement reaction? 3. What is a double replacement reaction? 4. What is a synthesis reaction? 5. Write an equation describing the reactions in numbers 1-4. 6. What is the evidence for a chemical change? 7. On a separate sheet of paper, create a report sheet for Part I, Part II, Part III, and Part IV. Materials: Part I watch glass balance tongs copper wool steel wool Part II copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate, CuSO45H2O calcium chloride hexahydrate, CaCl26H2O(s) ammonium carbonate, (NH4)2CO3(s test tube balance dropper Part III copper (II) sulfate solution, CuSO4(aq hydrochloric acid solution, HCl(aq), large test-tube Mg strip Zn solid Part IV barium chloride solution, BaCl2(aq), sodium sulfate solution, Na2SO4(aq). cobalt (II) nitrate solution, Co(NO3)2(aq), sodium phosphate solution, Na3PO4(aq test tube Safety: 1. Wear eye protection and aprons throughout the activity.

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2.

3.

Hydrochloric acid is caustic and corrosive. If you spill any on your skin wash if off with water and notify the teacher. Skin contact with other chemicals and solutions should be avoided. Dispose of the chemicals as your teacher directs.

Procedure: Part 1 1. Determine the mass of a watch glass together with a piece of compacted copper wool approximately the diameter of a quarter. 2. Hold your tongs in the hot part of a burner flame for about one minute to remove any contamination. 3. With the tongs hold the copper in the hot part of the flame for 5 min. Make observations during the heating as well as after. 4. Air cool the copper for one minute before you return it to the watch glass. 5. When the watch glass and copper are cool determine the mass. 6. Dispose of the copper as your teacher directs. 7. Repeat the entire experiment with a sample of steel wool. Part II 1. Add copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate, CuSO45H2O(s), to a depth of about 1 cm to a clean dry test-tube (13- x 100-mm). Observe the appearance of the copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate and record. 2. Determine the mass of the test-tube and sample. 3. Tilt the test-tube, spreading the hydrate so it covers about half the length of the test-tube. 4. Use a test-tube holder to hold the test-tube nearly horizontal. Move it back and forth through a cool flame (no inner blue cone) so that the entire sample is heated. Make observations while heating as well as after you are finished. (You have heated too much if the solid begins to darken.) Heating will be completed after about 2 min. 5. All the test-tube and contents to cool and determine its mass. 6. Use your dropper to add a drop of water to the substance in the test-tube. Record your observations. 7. Dispose of the chemicals as your teacher directs. 8. Repeat this part of the activity with calcium chloride hexahydrate, CaCl26H2O(s) or ammonium carbonate, (NH4)2CO3(s). Part III 1. Place 5 mL copper (II) sulfate solution, CuSO4(aq), in a large test-tube (16 x 150 mm). Add a strip of magnesium, Mg. Make observations immediately and after 5 min. 2. Place 5 mL hydrochloric acid solution, HCl(aq), in a large test-tube (16 x 150 mm). Add one piece of zinc, Zn. Make observations immediately and after 5 min. 3. Dispose of the chemicals as your teacher directs.

Part IV 1. Pour 3 mL barium chloride solution, BaCl2(aq), in a test-tube (13- x 100-mm). Add 3 mL sodium sulfate solution, Na2SO4(aq). Make observations.

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2. 3. 4.

Pour 3 mL cobalt (II) nitrate solution, Co(NO3)2(aq), in a test-tube (13- x 100-mm). Add 3 mL sodium phosphate solution, Na3PO4(aq). Make observations. Dispose of the chemicals as your teacher directs. Thoroughly wash your hands before leaving the laboratory.

Data Analysis and Concept Development: Part I 1. What evidence do you have for a chemical change in each reaction? 2. Account for the change in mass in each reaction? 3. What characteristics do the reactions have in common? 4. Write a word equation to summarize what happened in each of the chemical changes. 5. Write a symbol equation for the reaction that took place. Look up the formulas if necessary. 6. This type of reaction is sometimes called synthesis or combination when water is added.. Explain why this is an appropriate name. Part II (answer for both reactions) 1. What evidence do you have for a chemical change in each reaction? 2. Account for the change in mass in each reaction? 3. What characteristics do the reactions have in common? 4. 5. 6. Write a word equation to summarize what happened in each of the chemical changes. Write a symbol equation for the reaction that took place. Look up the formulas if necessary. This type of reaction is sometimes called decomposition. Explain why this is an appropriate name.

Part III 1. What evidence do you have for a chemical change in each reaction? 2. What characteristics do the reactions have in common? 3. Write a word equation to summarize what happened in each of the chemical changes. 4. Write a symbol equation for the reaction that took place. Look up the formulas if necessary. 5. This type of reaction is sometimes called single replacement. Explain why this is an appropriate name. Part IV 1. What evidence do you have for a chemical change in each reaction? 2. What characteristics do the reactions have in common? 3. Write a word equation to summarize what happened in each of the chemical changes. 4. Write a symbol equation for the reaction that took place. Look up the formulas if necessary. 5. This type of reaction is sometimes called double replacement. Explain why this is an appropriate name.

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Implications and Applications: 1. Classify the following reactions as single replacement, double replacement, synthesis, or decomposition. a. b. c. d. 2.

NaCl ( aq ) + AgNO3( aq ) AgCl ( s ) + NaNO3( aq ) 2Mg ( s ) + O2( g ) 2 MgO( s )

2 HgO( s ) 2 Hg (l ) + O2 ( g ) 2 Al ( s ) + 3CuSO4( aq ) Al 2 ( SO4 ) 3( aq ) + 3Cu ( s )

Is it generally possible to classify a chemical reaction from observable evidence? Why or why not? What other information would be helpful in classifying reactions?

3.

Post-Lab: 1. Identify the type of reaction. a. A metal is heated in air. The product is a black powder. The mass of the powder is greater than the mass of the metal. b. Two clear colorless solutions are mixed. A precipitate forms immediately. c. A red powder is heated. A silvery liquid and a clear colorless gas forms. d. 2. A metal and a clear liquid are mixed. A dark colored solid and a greenish solution result. Draw pictures in the mind to illustrate each reaction studied in this laboratory activity.

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Reactions 1: Types of Reactions


Teacher Version Major Chemical Concept Students will learn to identify types of chemical rweactions based on observations they make in a lab activity National Standards Physical Science Structure and Properties of Matter Chemical Reactions Level General and Honors Expected Student Background Students should be able to use a balance and burner correctly. Time Two full class periods will be needed to perform the activity. Safety: 1.Wear eye protection and aprons throughout the activity. 2.Hydrochloric acid is caustic and corrosive. If you spill any on your skin, wash it off with water and notify the teacher. Skin contact with other chemicals and solutions should be avoided. 3.Dispose of the chemicals as your teacher directs. Materials: (For 24 student working in groups of 4) Non-consumables 12 test-tubes, 16- x 150-mm 24 test-tubes, 13- x 100-mm, or six 24-well spot plates 6 burners 6 tongs 6 test-tube holders 6 medicine droppers Consumables Copper wool, 12 g Steel wool, 12 g Zinc metal, 6 g Magnesium ribbon, 0.6 g (36 cm) Copper sulfate, CuSO45H2O, 18 g Calcium chloride, CaCl26H2O, 18 g Ammonium carbonate (NH4)2CO3, 18 g 3 M Hydrochloric acid, HCl, 60 mL (25 mL conc. HCl diluted to 100 mL) 0.1 M Copper sulfate, CuSO4, 60 mL (2.5 g CuSO45H2O diluted to 100 mL) 0.1 M Barium chloride, BaCl2, 36 mL (2.4 g BaCl22H2O diluted to 100 mL)

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0.1 M Sodium sulfate, Na2SO4, 36 mL (3.2 g Na2SO410H2O diluted to 100 mL) 0.1 M Cobalt Nitrate, Co(NO3)2, 36 mL (2.9 g Co(NO3)26H2O diluted to 100 mL) 0.1 M Sodium phosphate, Na3PO4, 36 mL (3.8 g Na3PO412H2O diluted to 100 mL)

Advance Preparation: 30 min to prepare solutions. Concentrations are not critical. Other concentrations may be substituted if available. Pre-Lab: 1. What is a decomposition reaction? Two substances were made from a single substance. 2. What is a single replacement reaction? One element replaced another in a compound. 3. What is a double replacement reaction? Positive ions are exchange. i.e. switched partners. 4. What is a synthesis reaction? Two elements are combined to form a single substance. 5. Write an equation describing the reactions in numbers 1-4. Decomposition reaction: AB A + B Single replacement: AB + C AC + B Double replacement: AB + CD AD + CB Synthesis reaction: A + B AB 6. What is the evidence for a chemical change? Color change, bubble and precipitation. 7. On a separate sheet of paper, create a report sheet for Part I, Part II, Part III, and Part IV. Anticipated Report Sheets: Part I Copper wool Mass glass + wool (g) Observation during heating Observation after heating Mass after cooling (g) Part II CuSO45H2O(s) Mass test tube + sample (g) Observation during heating Observation after heating Mass test tube + sample when cool (g) Observation with water CaCl26H2O(s) (NH4)2CO3(s) Steel Wool

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Part III CuSO4 Initial observation after addition of Mg Observation after 5 min
(aq)

HCl(aq) Initial observation after addition of Zn Observation after 5 min Part IV

BaCl2(aq) Observation after Na2SO4 Co(NO3)2(aq) Observation after Na3PO4

Procedure: Part 1 1. Determine the mass of a watch glass together with a piece of compacted copper wool approximately the diameter of a quarter. 2. Hold your tongs in the hot part of a burner flame for about one minute to remove any contamination. 3. With the tongs hold the copper in the hot part of the flame for 5 min. Make observations during the heating as well as after. 4. Air cool the copper for one minute before you return it to the watch glass. 5. When the watch glass and copper are cool determine the mass. 6. Dispose of the copper as your teacher directs. 7. Repeat the entire experiment with a sample of steel wool. Part II 1. Add copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate, CuSO45H2O(s), to a depth of about 1 cm to a clean dry test-tube (13- x 100-mm). Observe the appearance of the copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate and record. 2. Determine the mass of the test-tube and sample. 3. Tilt the test-tube, spreading the hydrate so it covers about half the length of the test-tube. 4. Use a test-tube holder to hold the test-tube nearly horizontal. Move it back and forth through a cool flame (no inner blue cone) so that the entire sample is heated. Make observations while heating as well as after you are finished. (You

36

5. 6. 7. 8.

have heated too much if the solid begins to darken.) Heating will be completed after about 2 min. All the test-tube and contents to cool and determine its mass. Use your dropper to add a drop of water to the substance in the test-tube. Record your observations. Dispose of the chemicals as your teacher directs. Repeat this part of the activity with calcium chloride hexahydrate, CaCl26H2O(s) or ammonium carbonate, (NH4)2CO3(s).

Part III 1. Place 5 mL copper (II) sulfate solution, CuSO4(aq), in a large test-tube (16 x 150 mm). Add a strip of magnesium, Mg. Make observations immediately and after 2. Place 5 mL hydrochloric acid solution, HCl(aq), in a large test-tube (16 x 150 mm). Add one piece of zinc, Zn. Make observations immediately and after 5 min. 3. Dispose of the chemicals as your teacher directs. Part IV 1. Pour 3 mL barium chloride solution, BaCl2(aq), in a test-tube (13- x 100-mm). Add 3 mL sodium sulfate solution, Na2SO4(aq). Make observations. 2. Pour 3 mL cobalt (II) nitrate solution, Co(NO3)2(aq), in a test-tube (13- x 100-mm). Add 3 mL sodium phosphate solution, Na3PO4(aq). Make observations. 3. 4. Dispose of the chemicals as your teacher directs. Thoroughly wash your hands before leaving the laboratory.

Anticipated Student Results: Part I The steel wool shows a small increase in mass. because small fragments of copper escape.

The copper wool often does not

Part II Both hydrates lose mass. Both show steam and condensation. The copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate changes from blue to white. There is no color change with the calcium chloride hexahydrate. Part III The magnesium metal is replaced by a coppery colored solid and the blue color of the solution fades. Hydrogen bubbles may be noticed on the surface of the magnesium at the beginning of the activity. They are formed because the pH of 0.10 M CuSO4 is about 4. Bubbles are formed on the surface of the zinc. If the piece of zinc is small enough it may disappear. Part IV A precipitate is immediately formed when each pair of solution is mixed. Data Analysis and Concept Development: Part I 1. What evidence do you have for a chemical change in each reaction? The color changed. 2. Account for the change in mass in each reaction? The mass increased, so some substance must have been added.

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3. 4.

5.

What characteristics do the reactions have in common? In both reactions of the substance changed color and increased in mass. Write a word equation to summarize what happened in each of the chemical changes. Copper + oxygen copper oxide* Iron + oxygen iron oxide *This would be a good time to teach students the use of Roman numerals to identify the oxidation states of metals. Write a symbol equation for the reaction that took place. Look up the formulas if necessary. 2Cu(s) + O2(g) 2CuO(s) 4Fe(s) + 3O2(g) 2Fe2O3(s) This type of reaction is sometimes called synthesis or combination. Explain why this is an appropriate name. Two elements are combined to form a single substance or a single substance is synthesized from the elements. NOTE: Although these reactions started with elements, synthesis or combination also applies to using two or more compounds to synthesize another compound.

6.

Part II (answer for both reactions) 1. What evidence do you have for a chemical change in each reaction? Color change, water formed. 2. Account for the change in mass in each reaction? The water was removed. 3. What characteristics do the reactions have in common? Water was formed in each reaction. 4. Write a word equation to summarize what happened in each of the chemical changes. Copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate copper (II) sulfate + water Calcium chloride hexahydrate calcium chloride + water 5. Write a symbol equation for the reaction that took place. Look up the formulas if necessary.

CuSO4 5 H 2 O( s ) CuSO4( s ) + 5 H 2 O( l )

CaCl 2 6 H 2 O( s ) CaCl 2 ( s ) + 6 H 2 O( l ) ( NH 4 ) 2 CO3( s ) 2 NH 3( g ) + CO2 ( g ) + H 2 O(l )


6. This type of reaction is sometimes called decomposition. Explain why this is an appropriate name. Two substances were made from a single substance.

Part III 1. What evidence do you have for a chemical change in each reaction? In one reaction a color change occurred and a new solid was formed. In the other, gas bubbles appeared. 2. What characteristics do the reactions have in common? Not applicable.

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3.

4.

5.

Write a word equation to summarize what happened in each of the chemical changes. One substance disappeared and another with different properties appeared. Write a symbol equation for the reaction that took place. Look up the formulas if necessary. Copper (II) sulfate + Magnesium Copper + Magnesium sulfate Hydrochloric acid + Zinc Hydrogen + Zinc chloride Write a symbol equation for the reaction that took place. Look up the formulas if necessary.

CuSO4 ( aq ) + Mg ( s ) Cu ( s ) + MgSO4( aq ) Zn( s ) + 2 HCl ( aq ) H 2 ( g ) + ZnCl 2 ( aq )

6.

This type of reaction is sometimes called single replacement. Explain why this is an appropriate name. When looking at the equation one can see that one element replaced another in a compound.

Part IV 1. What evidence do you have for a chemical change in each reaction? A precipitate was formed. 2. What characteristics do the reactions have in common? Not applicable. 3. Write a word equation to summarize what happened in each of the chemical changes. Solutions of two compounds were mixed and a precipitate was formed. 4. Write a symbol equation for the reaction that took place. Look up the formulas if necessary. Barium chloride + Sodium sulfate Barium sulfate + Sodium chloride Cobalt (II) nitrate + Sodium phosphate Sodium nitrate + Cobalt (II) phosphate 5. Write a symbol equation for the reaction that took place. Look up the formulas if necessary.

BaCl 2( aq ) + Na 2 SO4( aq ) BaSO4 ( s ) + 2 NaCl ( aq ) H 2 SO4( aq ) + NaOH ( aq ) NaHSO4( aq ) + H 2 O(l )

3Co( NO3 ) 2 ( aq ) + 2 Na3 PO4 ( aq ) Co3 ( PO4 ) 2 ( s ) + 6 NaNO3( aq )

6.

This type of reaction is sometimes called double replacement. Explain why this is an appropriate name. Looking at the equations and formulas one can see that the positive ions were exchanged. One of the products was insoluble and precipitated.

Implications and Applications: 1. Classify the following reactions as single replacement, double replacement, synthesis, or decomposition. a.

NaCl ( aq ) + AgNO3( aq ) AgCl ( s ) + NaNO3( aq )


Double replacement

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b.

2Mg ( s ) + O2( g ) 2 MgO( s )


Synthesis

c.

2 HgO( s ) 2 Hg ( l ) + O2 ( g )
Decomposition

d. 2.

2 Al ( s ) + 3CuSO4( aq ) Al 2 ( SO4 ) 3( aq ) + 3Cu ( s )

Single replacement Is it generally possible to classify a chemical reaction from observable evidence? Why or why not? Most often it is not. One can only observe whether a chemical change has occurred. What other information would be helpful in classifying reactions? Names and formulas of starting materials would be very helpful.

3.

Post-Lab: 1. Identify the type of reaction. a. A metal is heated in air. The product is a black powder. The mass of the powder is greater than the mass of the metal. Synthesis b. Two clear colorless solutions are mixed. A precipitate forms immediately. Double replacement c. A red powder is heated. A silvery liquid and a clear colorless gas forms. Decomposition d. A metal and a clear liquid are mixed. A dark colored solid and a greenish solution result. Single replacement Draw pictures in the mind to illustrate each reaction studied in this laboratory activity.

2.

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Separation, Purification, and Identification of the Components of a Mixture


Student Version

Leading Question Can one separate a mixture of chemicals into pure substances, either as compounds or elements? Introduction How do you physically separate the components in a mixture when it is a liquid? What is the physical basis for separation using filtration of a mixture? How can temperature and solubility be used to physically separate a mixtures components? Purpose The purpose of this lab exercise is to separate various mixtures into its component parts and to understand the basis for the different separation techniques. Safety 1. Wear protective goggles throughout the laboratory activity. 2. Be very careful when handling hot liquids, particularly when pouring into a filtering device (funnel). 3. Dispose of your final products and any remaining mixture as your teacher directs. Materials Heterogeneous mixture (contents not disclosed) in a 250 ml beaker Filter paper Funnel Bunsen burner Wire gauze Melting point tubes, rubber bands (from tubing) Thermometer (analog)

Procedure 1. Place the sample of mixture provided by your teacher in a 250 ml beaker. Add approximately 100 mL of distilled water. 2. Heat the solution to boiling using either a hot plate or Bunsen burner. 3. While the solution is heating, set up a filtering system using TWO layers of filter paper and add another 250 mL beaker to catch the filtrate. 4. After the solution has come to a boil, remove the beaker with protective gloves or hot pad and pour the solution through the filter paper. 5. Observe what is in the filter paper- note the appearance of the residue on the paper. 6. Take the filtrate in the beaker and reheat it to boiling.

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7. Remove the beaker from the heat and allow it to cool slowly. Do not disturb the liquid as it cools. Look for any changes that occur to the liquid as it cools. 8. If any solids form, set up a new filter and pour the contents of the beaker through the filter, catching the filtrate. 9. Set aside the filter paper with any solid to dry for observation and for testing. 10. Take the filtrate from step #8 and evaporate it to dryness using an evaporating dish on a hot plate. Observe if any residue remains. Observe the residue under a microscope. What do you see? Describe the appearance of the solid (s). 11. Re-dissolve some of the solid in distilled water in a test tube. Add silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution to the liquid. What do you observe (solubility; chemical reaction)? 12. Repeat this procedure for some of the first solid collected on the filter paper in step # 5. What do you observe (solubility; chemical reaction)? 13. From step #9, prepare what is known as a melting point apparatus, using a melting point capillary tube, an analog thermometer and a small rubber band. Following instructions from your teacher, add some of the solid on the filter paper to the capillary tube. Attach the tube to the thermometer with a rubber band, rolling the rubber band over the tip of the thermometer and the capillary tube, until the rubber band is in the center of the tube. The tube and rubber band can be gently moved up the thermometer just beyond the thermometer bulb. 14. Place the thermometer and capillary tube in a mineral oil set-up that will be heated on a hot plate. The position of the thermometer in the oil should be such that the bulb of the thermometer as well as the sample in the capillary tube is below the surface of the oil. Be careful not to allow the open top of the capillary tube to go under the oil surface. 15. Heat the oil SLOWLY, continually observing both the temperature as well as the physical state of the crystals. You are looking for the temperature at which the crystals just begin to melt. Record the temperature. Continue to monitor the behavior of the solid and the thermometers temperature until all of the solid has melted. Record the final temperature. 16. From the product of step# 10, repeat the melting point determination of the solid remaining after the filtrate was evaporated to dryness. Do not attempt to exceed the maximum reached when melting the solid in step # 12. If the solid melts below the temperature of the first solid tested in step #12, record that temperature. If it does not melt after reaching the melting point of the first solid, then simply record that the temperature exceeds that of the temperature of the first solid. 17. Refer to the results of testing the two solids above (steps #8-16) when answering the discussion questions that follow later.

Observations Begin writing here

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Data Analysis 1. From the results of your lab procedures above, what conclusions can you make about the characteristics of any of the chemicals that have been isolated from the mixture above? For instance, after heating the liquid mixture followed by filtration, eventually a solid appeared in the filtrate of the mixture. If this same filtrate is then evaporated, leaving behind once again a solid, do you have enough data or information related to the procedures to conclude that this substance is not the same as the first solid that appeared in the beaker when cooled? What is that data or information? 2. Did the testing of the two solids [silver nitrate (AgNO3)], (each re-dissolved in water), add information that allows you to conclude that the two solids are different substances? Did you observe any difference in the dissolving (or lack thereof) of the two solids in water? What are some of the factors that influence how much of a substance (solid, liquid, gas) will dissolve in a particular solvent? Were any of these factors operating here with the two solids that were redissolved? 3. What evidence do you have that there were some substances in the mixture that were not soluble in water? 4. How could you separate out the substances remaining on the filter paper? You do not need to know specific chemicals that could be used. Simply state what you would try to do with various procedures because of characteristics you would be looking for in possible physical and chemical interactions between the substances on the filter paper and a given procedure. (see question #1 above) For instance, you might attempt to heat the substances to cause melting of one of the substances that could then be poured off (through another filter paper?) Of you could select a solvent that would dissolve either a polar or a non-polar substance. Is water a polar or non-polar substance? 5. What evidence do you have that the liquid(s) in the original mixture was a polar substance? 6. List the steps that apply directly to the isolation of two different substances found in the filtrate of the liquid mixture (after water was added to the mixture). What are the physical reasons for taking each step relative to the separation of the two substances dissolved in the liquid (filtrate) that passed through the filter?

Implications and Applications 1. If different substances that dissolve in water (solutes) have different solubilities at different temperatures, how can this characteristic property be used to separate a mixture of chemicals in solution? 2. How was the concept in #1 applied specifically in the lab procedure that you carried out? Identify specific places in the lab where differences in solubility at a given temperature were utilized to separate components of the original mixture. 3. How could a mixture of solid sodium chloride, NaCl (major component of table salt) and solid iodine, I2, (used in surgery as a disinfectant solution) be separated from each other? Some important characteristic properties of iodine, compared with sodium chloride, include: a. very low solubility in water (0.029 g/100 mL @20.0 oC) but soluble in ethyl and isopropyl alcohol (sodium chloride the reverse),

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b. converts from a solid to a VAPOR (sublimes) at 110 oC (NaCls melting point is 804 oC) 4. Outline the procedure for physically separating a mixture of sodium nitrate (very soluble in both hot and cold water) and lead chloride (much more soluble in hot water than in cold water). Extension Questions 1. Suppose you dissolve 30 g of sodium chloride, NaCl, in 100 mL of water at 100 0C. [Solubility of NaCl is 40 grams per 100 mL of water.] How many more grams of NaCl could be dissolved before the solution is saturated? If half the water is boiled away (50 mL), how many grams of NaCl will remain in solution? How many grams of NaCl will precipitate out of solution 2. Suppose you dissolve 40 g of potassium nitrate, KNO3, in 100 mL of water at 100 0 C. [Solubility of KNO3 in 1 liter of water (103 mL) is 2400 g.] How many more grams of potassium nitrate could be dissolved before the solution is saturated.? If half the solution is poured out, how many grams of KNO3 would there be in the remaining solution? If you were to take the original solution (100 mL) of potassium nitrate and boil away half (50mL) of the water, how many grams of potassium nitrate will remain in solution at 100 0 C? 3. How would you separate a mixture of 100 grams of table sugar (sucrose) and 100 grams of sodium chloride, NaCl, given the following solubilities in water for both sugar and salt? Temperature, O 0 C 0 20 40 60 80 100

Sugar Solubility, g/100mL 180 200 240 290 360 490

Salt Solubility, g/100 mL 35 35 36 38 39 40

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Separation, Purification, and Identification of the Components of a Mixture


Teacher Version

Major Chemical Concept Separation of a mixture of several pure substances based on differences in solubility at the same temperature (fractional crystallization). National Standards 1. Unifying Concepts and Processes Evidence, models, and explanations Change, constancy, and measurement 2. Science as Inquiry Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry Understandings about scientific inquiry 3. Physical Science Structure and properties of matter Chemical reactions 4. History and Nature of Science Science as a human endeavor Nature of scientific knowledge Level General, Academic and Honors

Expected Student Background: 1. Should be able to accurately follow basic lab procedures 2. Should be familiar with working with heat sources, filtering solutions, reading an analog (not digital) thermometer accurately. 3. Should be familiar with the concepts of solubility and precipitation, polar and nonpolar substances. 4. Should have good observation skills and observational evidence for physical and chemical changes.

Time: A minimum of two 45-minute class periods will be needed to complete this activity.

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Safety 1. This activity involves working with very hot solutions that need to be filtered. Students need to be instructed in safe practices, particularly ensuring the funnel holding the filter paper is secure with a clamp. 2. The setup for doing the melting point requires the use of a hot liquid. Again, the beaker for holding the oil should be secured with a clamp. 3. Attaching the capillary tube to the analog thermometer with a rubber band needs to be done carefully as the tube can snap, particularly when the tube (plus rubber band) is slid up the thermometer to the proper position.

Materials (For 24 students working in groups of 2 or 3) Heterogeneous mixture, 100 grams 12 Beakers, 250 mL 12 Funnels, funnel holders 12 Evaporating dishes 12 Test tubes (small) Filter paper 12 Bunsen burners 12 Wire gauze screens 24 Melting point capillary tubes; rubber bands (cut from tubing) 12 Thermometers (analog) Mineral oil Dilute silver nitrate solution (0.1 M) Distilled water Advance Preparation 1. The 100 grams of the heterogeneous mixture is made of 50% benzoic acid, 20 % sodium chloride, 30 % sand, and enough coarse charcoal to color the mixture. Enough glycerine (glycerol) is added to produce a mud-like consistency. 2. The mixture could be divided into individual snap-lid vials (about 2 grams) for student teams 3. For a more efficient student lab operation, it would be good to set up a few hot plates and 100 mL beakers with mineral oil for the melting point determinations.

Pre-Laboratory Discussion, Questions

1. Students need to be very clear about the procedures and related safety precautions concerning the handling of hot liquids. 2. Usually students need a briefing on the techniques for setting up and using a filtering system. 3. Discuss with students the basis for separation of a mixture in this activity- the utilization of differences in solubility for several components, either because of the solvent or temperature. It is the latter that is operating in this separation lab.

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The benzoic acid has high solubility in hot water but lower solubility in cold water. The sodium chloride and glycerol remain relatively soluble in both hot and cold water. 4. It may be useful to demonstrate the separation technique for this lab, allowing students to see how this works with chemicals in a clear solution (compared with the murky mix they will use in lab). To do this demonstration: Show two chemicals (potassium nitrate, KNO3, and sodium chloride, NaCl), of equal mass (7.5 g) that cannot be distinguished from each other by appearance [color (white) or size of particles]. Ask students how they might separate the two substances. Some may suggest that you could try to dissolve one and not the other because of the solvent. (This could be shown with a finely divided mix of sulfur and sodium chloride to which is added to water.) For starters use water. Depending on the amount of water used, some or all of the solids may dissolve. Start by placing the two solids in a 100 mL beaker. Add 20 mL of water and mix. Not all of the solids will dissolve. Slowly heat the solution to boiling; add small increments of water until all solid is dissolved. Continue to heat the solution in order to boil off some of the water. As this progresses to about half of the original volume, precipitation should have begun. Ask why there is precipitation if the original heating caused the solids to dissolve? (Differences in concentration as the amount of solvent is reduced bring the solution to saturation for one or both solids). If only one of the two solutes begins to precipitate, then it could be isolated from solution by filtering. (Students may wonder how you can tell if the precipitate is one or both substances. The activity will utilize differences in solubility when re-dissolving the isolated solid as well as a chemical test) This technique will be used in the lab in the sense that heating of the mixture will put both the sodium chloride and benzoic acid in solution. But instead of evaporating off some of the solvent to reach the saturation point for either sodium chloride or benzoic acid, the solution is allowed to cool which reduces the solubility of the benzoic acid but not the sodium chloride (reaches the saturation point for the benzoic acid but not the sodium chloride). The benzoic acid precipitates out as crystals. So, there are two techniques for separation here- effects of temperature on solubility and changing the amount of solvent. The lab exercise will use the effect on temperature on solubility. Again, this technique, which is used in many industrial/commercial processes, is known as fractional crystallization.

Procedure 1. Place the sample of mixture provided by your teacher in a 250 ml beaker. Add approximately 100 mL of distilled water. 2. Heat the solution to boiling using either a hot plate or Bunsen burner.

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3. While the solution is heating, set up a filtering system using TWO layers of filter paper and add another 250 mL beaker to catch the filtrate. 4. After the solution has come to a boil, remove the beaker with protective gloves or hot pad and pour the solution through the filter paper. 5. Observe what is in the filter paper- note the appearance of the residue on the paper. 6. Take the filtrate in the beaker and reheat it to boiling. 7. Remove the beaker from the heat and allow it to cool slowly. Do not disturb the liquid as it cools. Look for any changes that occur to the liquid as it cools. 8. If any solids form, set up a new filter and pour the contents of the beaker through the filter, catching the filtrate. 9. Set aside the filter paper with any solid to dry for observation and for testing. 10. Take the filtrate from step #8 and evaporate it to dryness using an evaporating dish on a hot plate. Observe if any residue remains. Observe the residue under a microscope. What do you see? Describe the appearance of the solid (s). 11. Re-dissolve some of the solid in distilled water in a small test tube. Add silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution to the liquid. What do you observe (solubility; chemical reaction)? 12. Repeat this procedure for some of the first solid collected on the filter paper in step # 5. What do you observe (solubility; chemical reaction)? 13. From step #9, prepare what is known as a melting point apparatus, using a melting point capillary tube, an analog thermometer and a small rubber band. Following instructions from your teacher, add some of the solid on the filter paper to the capillary tube. Attach the tube to the thermometer with a rubber band, rolling the rubber band over the tip of the thermometer and the capillary tube, until the rubber band is in the center of the tube. The tube and rubber band can be gently moved up the thermometer just beyond the thermometer bulb. 14. Place the thermometer and capillary tube in a mineral oil set-up that will be heated on a hot plate. The position of the thermometer in the oil should be such that the bulb of the thermometer as well as the sample in the capillary tube is below the surface of the oil. Be careful not to allow the open top of the capillary tube to go under the oil surface. 15. Heat the oil SLOWLY, continually observing both the temperature as well as the physical state of the crystals. You are looking for the temperature at which the crystals just begin to melt. Record the temperature. Continue to monitor the behavior of the solid and the thermometers temperature until all of the solid has melted. Record the final temperature. 16. From the product of step# 10, repeat the melting point determination of the solid remaining after the filtrate was evaporated to dryness. Do not attempt to exceed the maximum reached when melting the solid in step # 12. If the solid melts below the temperature of the first solid tested in step #12, record that temperature. If it does not melt after reaching the melting point of the first solid, then simply record that the temperature exceeds that of the temperature of the first solid. 17. Refer to the results of testing the two solids above (steps #8-16) when answering the discussion questions that follow later.

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Anticipated Student Results 1. After filtering, students should notice some solids collected on the filter paper including sand and charcoal. 2. In step #7, students will observe the formation of needle-shaped crystals forming in the beaker of filtrate as the solution cools. These are benzoic acid crystals. 3. Evaporating the filtrate to dryness in step #10 produces a white solid, which is sodium chloride. Depending on the rate of drying, some cubic crystals of the salt may be evident. After dissolving some of the white solid in distilled water to produce a solution (steps #11& #12), test for the presence of the chloride ion by adding a dilute silver nitrate solution (AgNO3), producing a precipitate of silver chloride (AgCl). The test can be repeated with some of the crystals of benzoic acid. 4. In step #15, the melting point of the benzoic acid should be around 122 oC. 5. In step #16, students should find that the melting point of the sodium chloride is above 122 oC. (mp would be 804 oC).

Post-Laboratory Data Analysis 1. From the results of your lab procedures above, what conclusions can you make about the characteristics of any of the chemicals that have been isolated from the mixture above? (The two solids that were isolated are different substances based on differences in appearance, differences in a chemical test, using AgNO3, and differences in melting point.) For instance, after heating the liquid mixture followed by filtration, eventually a solid appeared in the filtrate of the mixture. If this same filtrate is then evaporated, leaving behind once again a solid, do you have enough data or information related to the procedures to conclude that this substance is not the same as the first solid that appeared in the beaker when cooled? (yes) What is that data or information? (see above) 2. Did the testing of the two solids with silver nitrate (AgNO3), each re-dissolved in water, add information that allows you to conclude that the two solids are different substances? (Yes, one gave a positive test with silver nitrate in the form of a white precipitate) Did you observe any difference in the dissolving (or lack thereof) of the two solids in water? (If the same amount of solid was used in the same volume water, there may have been some difference, with the sodium chloride dissolving quicker and perhaps more completely) What are some of the factors that influence how much of a substance (solid, liquid, gas) will dissolve in a particular solvent? (Some of the factors that affect the rate of dissolving include the size of the particles, the temperature of the system, the type of solvent vs the solute, i.e., polar, ionic and non-polar, molecular, the extent or vigor of mechanical mixing, and the physical state of the interacting components- liquid vs. solid, gas vs. solid, gas vs. liquid.) Were any of these factors operating here with the two solids that were re-dissolved? (The extent of mechanical mixing was a factor.) 3. What evidence do you have that there were some substances in the mixture that were not soluble in water? (Looking at the deposit of solids on the filter paper, it is evident that sand-like particles as well as fine black particles did not pass through the filter paper.)

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4. What evidence do you have that temperature determined whether or not a


substance in the mixture was soluble in water? (The hot filtrate was clear without any suspended or precipitated solids evident. Upon cooling, eventually some solid formed as long sharp-looking crystals.). 5. How could you separate out the substances remaining on the filter paper? You do not need to know specific chemicals that could be used. Simply state what you would try to do with various procedures because of characteristics you would be looking for in possible physical and chemical interactions between the substances on the filter paper and a given procedure. (see question #1 above) For instance, you might attempt to heat the substances to cause melting of one of the substances that could then be poured off (through another filter paper?). Of you could select a solvent that would dissolve either a polar or a non-polar substance. (First procedure would be to determine if any of the solids would melt when placed in some container that could be heated with a hot plate or Bunsen burner. Hopefully the substance did not change chemically when it was heated in the presence of oxygen from the air. Second, different solvents other than water could be tried such as an alcohol or a liquid that does not mix with water such as an oil or a solvent from your friendly hardware store!) Is water a polar or non-polar substance? (Water is a polar substance. The solutes that were dissolved must have been either polar or ionic in nature.) 6. What evidence do you have that the liquid(s) in the original mixture was a polar substance? (The liquid mixed with water- there was no separate layer within the beaker containing the mixture and the 100 mL of water added initially. If water is polar, then the liquid in the original mixture must also be polar. [NOTE: the liquid was glycerin or glycerol.] 7. List the steps that apply directly to the isolation of two different substances found in the filtrate of the liquid mixture (after water was added to the mixture). What are the physical reasons for taking each step relative to the separation of the two substances dissolved in the liquid (filtrate) that passed through the filter? (Heating the mixture before filtering put into solution any solutes that were water soluble but were not completely dissolved at room temperature. Filtering separated the soluble from the insoluble [that which remained on the filter paper] and the solute passed through into the beaker. Allowing the filtrate in the beaker to cool lowered the solubility of one of the solutes, causing precipitation of some of that solute. Evaporating off water in the filtrate then caused additional precipitate to form from the second solute because the concentration of the solute increased (grams/liter of solution), reaching its saturation point with solute exceeding solubility limits and therefore precipitating.)

Answers to Implications and Applications 1. If different substances (solutes) that dissolve in water have different solubilities at different temperatures, how can this characteristic property be used to separate a mixture of chemicals in solution? (After heating the solution to dissolve all of the different solutes, the solution is then cooled to reduce the solubility of any one solute. The first solute to precipitate can then be filtered out. Continue to cool

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2. How was the concept in #1 applied specifically in the lab procedure that you carried out? Identify specific places in the lab where differences in solubility at a given temperature were utilized to separate components of the original mixture. (In this lab activity, the liquid mixture was first heated to near boiling. This put all solubles into solution. The mixture was then filtered to remove any insolubles. The filtrate was allowed to cool with the formation of solid (crystals) because of reduced solubility of that particular solute. After filtering out the precipitate, the filtrate was then heated to evaporate water. This eventually caused precipitation of the second solute, due to a reduction in solubility because the amount of solvent, water, was reduced. The solute concentration increased, reaching the solubility limit (saturation) with eventual precipitation occurring.) 3. How could a mixture of solid sodium chloride, NaCl (major component of table salt) and solid iodine, I2, (used in surgery as a disinfectant solution) be separated from each other? Some important characteristic properties of iodine, compared with sodium chloride, include: a. Iodine has very low solubility in water (0.029 g/100 mL @20.0 oC) but soluble in ethyl and isopropyl alcohol (sodium chloride is the reverse). (One could start with ethyl alcohol to dissolve the iodine while sodium chloride remains a solid. Filtering would isolate the sodium chloride. The filtrate containing the iodine could then be heated gently to evaporate the alcohol. An alternative method would be to use water as the solvent, dissolving the sodium chloride. Again, filtering would separate the insoluble iodine from the sodium chloride. The sodium chloride solution can then be evaporated to dryness to recover solid sodium chloride.) b. Iodine converts from a solid to a VAPOR (sublimes) at 110 oC; sodium chlorides melting point is 804 oC. (The mixture of solid sodium chloride and iodine could be gently heated in a beaker or large evaporating dish. A cover on the dish or beaker is used to collect the iodine vapor [it sublimes rather than melts], where it condenses.) 4. Outline the procedure for physically separating a mixture of sodium nitrate (very soluble in both hot and cold water) and lead chloride (much more soluble in hot water than in cold water). (This procedure is very similar in principle to what was done in this lab exercise. First a solution is made with the two solutes in water. The solution is heated to completely dissolve both chemicals. Then the solution is allowed to cool, reducing the solubility of the lead chloride (solubility is temperature dependent), which should begin to precipitate. If no precipitate is formed, it is because there is too much water. Therefore, the solution needs to be reheated, but this time the volume of the solution is reduced through evaporation of the water. Again, the solution is allowed to cool to reduce the solubility of the lead chloride that will precipitate. The process can be repeated until no more lead chloride precipitates out.) Extension Questions 1. Suppose you dissolve 30 g of sodium chloride, NaCl, in 100 mL of water at 100 0C. [Solubility of NaCl is 40 grams per 100 mL of water.]

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How many more grams of NaCl could be dissolved before the solution is saturated? ( 10 g ) If half the water is boiled away (50 mL), how many grams of NaCl will remain in solution? ( 20 g ) How many grams of NaCl will precipitate out of solution? ( 10g )

2. Suppose you dissolve 40 g of potassium nitrate, KNO3, in 100 mL of water at 100 0 C. [Solubility of KNO3 in 1 liter of water (103 mL) is 2400 g.] How many more grams of potassium nitrate could be dissolved before the solution is saturated.? (200g) If half the solution is poured out, how many grams of KNO3 would there be in the remaining solution? (20g ) If you were to take the original solution (100 mL) of potassium nitrate and boil away half (50mL) of the water, how many grams of potassium nitrate will remain in solution at 100 0 C? (40g) 3. How would you separate a mixture of 100 grams of table sugar (sucrose) and 100 grams of sodium chloride, NaCl, given the following solubilities in water for both sugar and salt? Temperature, O 0 C 0 20 40 60 80 100

Sugar Solubility, g/100mL 180 200 240 290 360 490

Salt Solubility, g/100 mL 35 35 36 38 39 40

If you determine what minimum volume of water is needed to completely dissolve the 100g of sugar, it is 20 mL at 100 oC- 490g/100ml = 100g/x; [note salt has a very low solubility compared with sugar]. Using 20 mL of boiling water, all 100g of sugar will dissolve but only 1/5 or 8 g of the salt will dissolve in 20 mL, based on 40 g/100 mL at boiling. That leaves 92 g of salt as a precipitate that can be filtered out. To remove more salt and leave most of the sugar in solution, cool the solution to 20 oC. The amount of salt that can remain in solution is 1/5 (20/100 mL) of 35g or 7 g. The amount of sugar that can remain in solution is 1/5 of 200 g or 40 g. Since there were 8 g of salt in solution at boiling, then 1 g of salt will precipitate (8-7) and 100-40 g of sugar will precipitate. When filtering this combination, you will have 40 g of sugar and 7 g of salt in solution and 60 g of sugar and 1 g of salt on the filter paper. These first two separations yield 93 g of salt separated from 60 g of sugar. The remaining solution (filtrate) can be evaporating to dryness, producing 42 g of sugar mixed in with 7 grams of salt. 1. From the results of the lab procedures, students should be able to see that it is possible to isolate two different substances that are soluble in water by taking advantage of differences in solubility at a given temperature, that by lowering the temperature of a solution mixture, there will be differential precipitation as solubility limits are reached at different temperatures (in this case, benzoic acid). Solubility data show that approximately 40 g of sodium chloride is soluble in 100 g of water at 100 oC and nearly 36 g remains soluble at 0 o C. For benzoic acid,

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the numbers are 6.8 g/100 g water at 95 oC and 0.17 g at 0 oC. So there is little change in the NaCl solubility over a wide range of temperature compared with benzoic acid. 2. It is also possible to distinquish one solid from the other, after separation, by chemical tests (AgNO3), melting point determination, physical appearance of the crystalline state, and relative solubility.

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Stoichiometry Reacting Masses


STUDENT VERSION

Leading Question(s) Is it possible to inflate a balloon using the products of a chemical reaction? Introduction Through a series of teacher demonstrations involving chemical reactions, you will be able to answer some questions about the reactions including: 1. What evidence can you observe to indicate that a chemical reaction is taking place in the test tube? 2. Examining the contents of the flask after the reaction is complete, is there any solid left? Any of the original liquid? 3. If you changed the quantities of solid and liquid that you started with, would you still see visible signs of a chemical reaction? 4. If either of the two reactants (solid and liquid) remains after the reaction, how could you determine how much of each is needed for both to be completely used (consumed).

Purpose This lab allows students, through experimentation, to determine the stoichiometric ratio of reactants that generate a gas. Safety 1. Wear protective goggles throughout the demonstration. 2. Inflating balloons should be behind a protective shield.

Materials Vinegar, 60 mL Sodium bicarbonate, 5 g Balloons, 6 Test tubes, 18 mm x150 mm, 6 Graduated Cylinder, 10-mL Test tube rack Length or string or metric ruler Funnel

Procedure

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1. Weigh out the following quantities of baking soda into separate balloons. Use a funnel to add the baking soda to each balloon. Be sure to insert the funnel well into the balloon to be sure that the baking soda is deposited in the bottom of the balloon. Balloon #1 - 0.18g Balloon #2 - 0.35g Balloon #3 0.52g Balloon #4 - 0.70g Balloon #5 - 1.00g Balloon #6 - 1.70g 2. Add 10mL of household vinegar or to each of the test tubes. 3. Attach a balloon containing the baking soda to each test tube, being careful not to let the baking soda mix with the vinegar. 4. After the balloons are securely attached to the test tubes, place them in a rack in order of increasing quantity of baking soda. 5. Lift the balloons one at a time to allow the baking soda to mix with the vinegar in the test tube. 6. Observe, paying special attention to the size of the balloons after the reactions. You can measure the diameter of each balloon. Hold a ruler horizontally and measure the largest diameter across each balloon, being careful not to change the shape of the balloon. 7. Record your observations for each test tube on the table below. Balloon # Diameter of Balloon (mm) 1 2 3 4 5 6

Observations

Data Analysis 1. Does each balloon inflate to some degree? Why? 2. Make a graph of the diameters vs. balloon number. Make balloon number the independent variable. 3. Use your observations and the graph to compare the degree to which each balloon inflated.

Concept Development

Implications and Applications

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1. What does the degree of inflation of the balloons tell you about the reactions in the test tubes? 2. What is the pattern of inflation in test tubes 1-4? 3. Noting that in these three test tubes the mass of bicarbonate increases, what effect does this have on the reactions? 4. What is the pattern of inflation in test tubes 4-6?

5. Noting that in these four test tubes the mass of bicarbonate increases, what effect does this have on the reactions?
Extension Questions 1. Calculate the number of moles of bicarbonate and acetic acid in each test tube in the inquiry activity. Use the following information. Assume that the density of the vinegar is 1.0 g/mL and that the solution is 5% acetic acid. The molar mass of acetic acid is 60 g/mol and the molar mass of sodium bicarbonate is 84 g/mol. 2. What is the mole ratio of vinegar to acetic acid in test tune #4? 3. Write the balanced equation for the reaction that takes place in each test tube. 4. How does the vinegar-bicarbonate mole ratio in test tube #4 fit into the equation you wrote? 5. The mass of NaHCO3 increases in each of the test tube. Does this follow the inflation pattern shown in your graph? If not, how to you account for the differences? [Hint: discuss limiting reactants]

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Stoichiometry Reacting Masses Teacher Version

Major Chemical Concept This activity is designed to enable students to understand that there is an ideal ratio of masses of reactants in a chemical reaction such that both reactants are used up simultaneously. National Standards 1. Unifying Concepts and Processes Evidence, models, and explanations Change, constancy, and measurement 2. Science as Inquiry Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry Understandings about scientific inquiry 3. Physical Science Chemical reactions Level General, Honors

Expected Student Background: 1. Students should understand the characteristics that indicate a chemical reaction. 2. They should be able to construct line graphs from lab data. 3. They should be able to convert grams to moles.

Time: The introductory demonstration will take about 15 minutes. The inquiry activity will require a full class period.

Safety Student should wear eye protection through the inquiry activity.

Materials Introductory Activity

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Funnel 50 mL flask, 2 Balloon, 2 10 g baking soda 40 mL of vinegar Inquiry Activity (for 24 students working in pairs) vinegar, 750 mL Sodium bicarbonate, 60 g Balloons, 72 Test tubes, 18 x150mm, 72 Test tube rack, 12 Length of string or metric ruler, 12 Electronic balance, as needed

Advance Preparation 1. You may have to experiment in advance with the best combination of test tube size, balloon size and quantities, adjusting the quantities of sodium bicarbonate and vinegar proportionally. Nine-inch balloons work well with either 18 x 150 mm test tubes or 15 x 125 mm test tubes. 2. You can re-use the same balloons for multiple classes. Be sure that all the NaHCO3 is removed from the balloons before re-using them.

Pre-Laboratory Discussion, Questions 1. Perform the introductory demonstration to show the reaction between vinegar and sodium bicarbonate. Do the reaction twice using 20 mL vinegar and 3 g bicarbonate in the first trial and 20 mL vinegar and a little less than 1 g bicarbonate the second trial. After the first trial there will be excess bicarbonate remaining in the beaker. In the second trial, all the bicarbonate will be used up. These two trials will set up the pre-lab questions. 2. In addition, as you do the demonstrations, follow this procedure to give students an idea about the technique they will use in the inquiry activity a. Insert the funnel into the mouth of the balloon and add baking soda to the balloon. b. Pour the vinegar into the flask. c. Without allowing the baking soda to enter the flask, stretch the mouth of the balloon over the neck of the flask. d. Turn the balloon upright so that the baking soda falls into the beaker. Attaching the balloon to the test tune so that the balloons inflate to a circular shape will help students as they measure the balloons. e. Observe. Ask students: What evidence can you observe to indicate that a chemical reaction is taking place in the test tube (during the introductory demonstration)?

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3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

There is bubbling in the flask and the balloon inflates, both indications that a gas is being produced in the flask. Also, in the first trial, the white solid disappeared, indicating that a reactant has been used up. After the reaction in the introductory activity is complete examine the contents of the flask. What do you see? In trial #1 the remaining liquid in the flask looks clear. In trial #2 there is some solid left at the bottom of the flask. Is there any solid left? There is no solid remaining in trial #1. This should indicate to students that the sodium bicarbonate has been completely consumed in the reaction. In your post-lab discussion with students you can use this as an example of a limiting reagent, but there is no need to use the term at this point. In trial #2 some of the sodium bicarbonate remains in the bottom of the flask after the reaction stops. This indicates that the vinegar is the limiting reagent in this case and the bicarbonate is in excess. Is there any vinegar remaining? This may be difficult for students to answer. You may need to ask the question If there is any vinegar in the test tube, how could we detect it? That may lead students to think about adding a small amount of sodium bicarbonate and look for bubbling. If you changed the quantities of baking soda and vinegar that you started with in the introductory activity, would you still see visible signs of a chemical reaction? Yes, you would. As long as there is some bicarbonate and vinegar, there will be a chemical reaction. The focus of this activity is to discover the fact that there are amounts of each reactant that can be mixed so that both reactants will be used up simultaneously. Are there the right amounts in a chemical reaction so that both reactants are both completely used up during the chemical reaction? Based on the introductory demonstration, we could adjust the amount to bicarbonate or vinegar up or down by trial and error until we found exactly the right amounts. At this point students may or may not understand that by balancing the equation for the reaction they can predict the correct stoichiometric masses to be used in a reaction so that there is no limiting or excess reagent. However, the inquiry activity will take students one step closer to that understanding.

Teacher-Student Interaction In guided inquiry the exchanges between the teacher and students are critical. Teachers who wish to teach using guided inquiry must develop the skill of asking questions that will guide students thinking as they form new concepts. The questions listed in this activity are intended only as aides for the teacher since it is not possible to know all of the ways students may be thinking and answering questions directed their way. The guided inquiry process is designed to help students construct new knowledge based on what they already know. The form of guided inquiry used in this activity is based on the learning cycle that can be characterized by five Esengage, explore, explain, extend and evaluate. So, for example, the introductory demonstration is designed to engage students thinking about quantities in chemical reactions. It should serve as a question, not an answer. The ensuing inquiry activity allows students to explore for themselves how the masses of reactants in a chemical reaction affect the products of the reaction. In the data analysis and post-lab question phase of the activity the teacher can explain the stoichiometry and include relevant vocabulary like limiting reactant and

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excess reactant. The extensions questions allow students to apply what they learn to new cases. Teachers who use guided inquiry also have built-in formative assessments, which are also important in inquiry. By listening carefully to student answersfrom individual students and from the class as a wholethe teacher can discover how well students are learning the desired concepts. This evaluation takes place throughout the activity rather than waiting for the activity to be over and give a quiz. By assessing student progress on a continuing basis the teacher can adjust strategies and ideas to help students learn at the time they are most likely to learn. Anticipated Student Results Balloon Mass vinegar (g) Mass bicarbonate (g) Balloon diameter 1 0.5 0.18 2 0.5 0.35 3 0.5 0.52 4 0.5 0.70 5 0.5 1.00 6 0.5 1.70

The volume (and diameter) of each balloon after the reactions are complete will depend on the type of balloons and the exact size of the test tubes used. However, students should report that the balloons in test tubes 1-4 increase in size. Test tube #4 contains the approximate stoichiometric proportions of reactants. The balloons in test tubes 5 and 6 should have approximately the same volume as #4. The reason for this although you may not wish to discuss it with students until lateris that once the vinegar is consumed (as it is in test tube #4) adding more bicarbonate will not produce any additional carbon dioxide. In order for students to understand this you will have to review with them that the experiment is set up so that the mass of vinegar is constant in each test tube. The mass of bicarbonate is increased in each tube. When two consecutive balloons have the same volume (diameter), it means that the first of those two balloons contained the correct stoichiometric masses of reactants, producing the maximum amount of products. In this experiment, the product is carbon dioxide gas that fills the balloons.

Post-Laboratory Data Analysis 1. Does each balloon inflate to some degree? Why? Yes, each balloon inflates because there are some of both reactantsvinegar and sodium bicarbonate-- in

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each test tube. Therefore, a gas (carbon dioxide) partially inflates each of the balloons. 2. Make a graph of the diameters vs. balloon number. Make balloon number the independent variable. The graph will generally look like the figure below. The volume (as measured by diameter) of the each balloon increases in test tubes 14 and then remains the same.

3. Use your observations and the graph to compare the degree to which each balloon inflated. In test tubes 1-4 the volume of each succeeding balloon increases and then in test tubes 5-6 remains about the same as in test tube 4. Questions 1. What does the degree of inflation of the balloons tell you about the reactions in the test tubes? It tells you how much gas is produced in the reactions. The more gas that is produced the greater to degree of inflation of the balloons. 2. What is the pattern of inflation in test tubes 1-4? Each succeeding balloon inflates more than the one in the previous test tube. 3. Noting that in these four test tubes the mass of bicarbonate increases, what effect does this have on the reactions? The fact that each succeeding balloon is inflated more than the previous one must be the result of a greater mass of sodium bicarbonate reactant being added to the constant mass of vinegar in each test tube. The more that the reaction proceeds to make product, the more bicarbonate that is used. 4. What is the pattern of inflation in test tubes 4-6? Each of these test tubes is inflated to about the same degree, indicating that even though in test tubes 5 and 6 we added more bicarbonate, no more carbon dioxide was produced. That means that in test tube #4 the maximum volume of carbon dioxide was produced.

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5. Noting that in these three test tubes the mass of bicarbonate increases, what effect does this have on the reactions? In test tubes #4-6, the addition of more sodium bicarbonate did not increase the volume of carbon dioxide produced means that in test tube #4 the vinegar and bicarbonate are used up simultaneously and that the addition of more bicarbonate in test tubes 5 and 6 has no effect. This means that the ratio of masses in test tube #4 is the ideal ratio leading to no bicarbonate or vinegar left when the reaction stops. This is the ideal stoichiometric ratio.

Answers to Implications and Application Extension Questions 1. Calculate the number of moles of bicarbonate and acetic acid in each test tube in the inquiry activity. Use the following information. Assume that the density of the vinegar is 1.0 g/mL and that the solution is 5% acetic acid. The molar mass of acetic acid is 60 g/mol and the molar mass of sodium bicarbonate is 84 g/mol. Test Tube Moles Acetic Acid Moles Sodium Bicarbonate 1 8.3 x 10-3 2.1 x 10-3 2 8.3 x 10-3 4.2 x 10-3 -3 3 8.3 x 10 6.2 x 10-3 -3 4 8.3 x 10 8.3 x 10-3 -3 5 8.3 x 10 1.2 x 10-2 -3 6 8.3 x 10 2.0 x 10-2 2. What is the mole ratio of vinegar to acetic acid in test tube #4? The mole ratio is 1:1 3. Write the balanced equation for the reaction that takes place in each test tube? a.NaHCO3 + HC2H3O2 NaC2H3O2 + CO2 + H2O 4. How does the vinegar-bicarbonate mole ratio in test tube #4 fit into the equation you wrote? The ideal mole ratio for sodium bicarbonate and acetic acid that was determined from test tube #4 is 1:1. That is the same mole ratio for sodium bicarbonate and acetic acid in the balanced equation. So finding the ideal ratio of reacting masses and converting those masses to moles allows us to determine experimentally the combining ratios in a balanced equation. 5. The mass of NaHCO3 increases in each of the test tube. Does this follow the inflation pattern shown in your graph? If not, how to you account for the differences? [Hint: discuss limiting reactants] In the first four test tubes, as the moles of NaHCO3 increases, the balloons are inflated to a greater degree. However, in the fifth test tube and increase in the moles of NaHCO3 produces no increase in the size of the inflated balloon compared to test tube #4. We should conclude, therefore, that in the reaction in test tube #5, the vinegar is the limiting reactant. In test tubes #1-4, the NaHCO3 is the limiting reactant.

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Stoichiometry II Reacting Mole Ratios


STUDENT

Leading Question Is it possible to determine by experiment the ratio of reacting moles in a chemical reaction that will lead to both reactants being used up at the same time?

Introduction By doing what amounts to a continual variation on the amounts of two reactants, it is possible to determine the proper ratio of two reactants that will produce the maximum amount of product while, at the same time, both reactants will be used up with nothing remaining except the product(s). Purpose This lab provides the opportunity to determine the mole ratio of two reactants in a chemical reaction. Safety 1. Wear safety goggles and an apron in the lab at all times. Do not ingest the chemicals. Wash your hands after working with the chemicals. 2. Your instructor will provide you with safety information about the chemical solutions you will use in this activity.

Materials (for a class of 24 students) 24-well microplate set of two solutions supplied by your teacher beral pipets (2) toothpick

Procedure 1. Place 4 drops of water in each of 9 wells in the 24-well plate. 2. Add 1 drop of 0.10M calcium chloride (CaCl2) to well 1, 2 drops to well 2, 3 drops to well 3, etc., until you add 9 drops to well 9. 3. Add 9 drops of 0.10M sodium oxalate (Na2C2O4) to well 1, 8 drops to well 2, 7 drops to well 3, etc. until you add 1 drop to well 9. 4. Mix the contents of each filled well in the plate by gently shaking, being careful not to spill any of the contents. You can also stir with a toothpick or plastic stirrer. Be sure to wash the stirrer after each use. Allow about 5 minutes for any observed precipitate to settle.

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5. Observe the solids in each of the well and visually determine which well has the most precipitate. If two wells are difficult to rank, redo those. Recall the drop ratio of CaCl2 to Na2C2O4 for this well. 6. Prepare a table on which you record the well number, the number of drops of each solution and the well with the most precipitate. 7. Compare your results with other lab groups to determine which well was identified most often as the one with the maximum precipitate.

Well Drops of H2O Drops of

1 4 1

2 4 2

3 4 3

4 4 4

5 4 5

6 4 6

7 4 7

8 4 8

9 4 9

-----------------Drops of 9 -----------------Maximum Precipitate (X)


Observations

Data Analysis 1. Which well did your group identify as the one with the maximum precipitate? 2. Which well was identified by most of the other lab groups in the class? 3. What does the amount of precipitate tell you about the chemical reaction that took place in the wells of the microplate? 4. What were the concentrations of the solutions in the well identified as having the most precipitate? 5. What was the number of drops of each solution in that well? 6. What factor in the molarity equation does the number of drops represent? (M = n/V) 7. Given your answers to questions 4-6, what must be true about the number of moles of each solute in the identified well?

Concept Development 1. What is the mole ratio of the two solutions you used? 2. Write the molecular equation for the reaction in this lab. 3. Insert the mole ratio numbers in the appropriate place in this equation and then continue to balance the equation.

Extension Questions

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1. Write the net ionic equation for reaction in this lab. 2. In an experiment like the one you just did, 0.10 M solutions of AgNO3 and Na2CO3 are mixed in the wells of a microplate set up as diagrammed below:

Well Drops H2O Drops AgNO3 Drops Na2CO3 Max. ppt.

1 4 1

2 4 2

3 4 3

4 4 4

5 4 5

6 4 6

7 4 7

8 4 8

Consider the equation: AgNO3 + Na2CO3 Ag2CO3 + NaNO3 If Ag2CO3 is the precipitate in the reaction, which well would you expect to have the maximum precipitate? Why?

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Stoichiometry II- Reacting Mole Ratios Teacher Version

Major Chemical Concept The ratio of reacting moles in a chemical equation can be determined experimentally and these ratios represent the coefficients in the balanced equation for the reaction. National Standards 1. Unifying Concepts and Processes Evidence, models, and explanations Change, constancy, and measurement 2. Science as Inquiry Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry Understandings about scientific inquiry 3. Physical Science Chemical reactions Level General, Honors

Expected Student Background: 1. Students will need to understand molarity as a way to express the concentration of solutions, including the mathematical expression. 2. They should be able to write and balance equations, including net ionic equations. 3. Students should understand the terms precipitate, limiting reagent and excess reagent.

Time: One class period Safety 1. Wear safety goggles and an apron in the lab at all times. Do not ingest the chemicals. 2. Wash your hands after working with the chemicals.

Materials Solution Set A 0.10 M calcium chloride (dissolve 1.11 g CaCl2 in enough water to make 100 mL of solution)

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0.10M sodium oxalate (dissolve 1.34 g Na2C2O4 in enough water to make 100 mL of solution) Solution Set B 0.10 M barium nitrate (2.61 g Ba(NO3)2 in enough water to make 100 mL of solution) 0.10 M sodium sulfate (1.42 g Na2SO4 in enough water to make 100 mL of solution) Solution Set C 0.10 M barium chloride (2.08 g BaCl2 in enough water to make 100 mL of solution) 0.10 M potassium chromate (1.94 g K2CrO4 in enough water to make 100 mL of solution) Solution Set D 0.1 M calcium nitrate (dissolve 1.64 g Ca(NO3)2 in enough distilled water to make 100 mL of solution) 0.1 M sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) (dissolve 1.06 g Na2CO3 in enough distilled water to make 100 mL of solution) small microplate, 12 beral pipets, 24 toothpick 12

Advanced Preparation 1. The sets of solutions in the materials section above are only suggestions. You can vary the cation and anion that form the precipitate and use solutes that include these ions. The solution sets suggested all produce a 1:1 mole ratio for the precipitate ions. If you want to use solutions that produce a 2:1 mole ratio then modify the directions so that students use only 8 wells of the microplate and solutions with equal molarities. This will produce a well with a 2:1 mole ratio. 2. Instead of dropping the solutions into microplate wells, an alternate setup would be to use thin-stemmed micropipets with the stems cut off in order to provide a greater depth of solution.

Pre-Laboratory Discussion, Questions 1. How is the concentration of solutions expressed in chemistry? The most common method of expression the concentration of solutions is molarity. 2. What expression is used to calculate molarity? The mathematical expression is M = n/V, where M is the molarity, n is number of moles and V is volume of solution. 3. How can this mathematical expression be used to expressed the number of moles in a solution? In this lab it is important for students to understand that the molarity equation can be rearranged to solve for number of moles n = MxV. In order to understand the answer to #4 (following) this is an important mathematical notion.

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4. If two solutions have equal concentrations (molarity) and equal volumes, what must be true about the number of moles of dissolved solute? In this lab all the solutions have the same molarity (0.10 M). If you have equal volumes of two of these solutions, the number of moles in the samples will be equal. 5. How can mole ratios be determined from a balanced equation? In a balanced chemical equation the coefficients give the mole ratios. 6. What are limiting and excess reagents? If the reactants in a chemical equation are not mixed in the correct stoichiometric proportions, one of the reactants will be used up before the other. The reactant that is used up first is called the limiting reagent because the reaction stops when there is no more of that reactant. The reactant that is left over when the reaction stops is called the excess reagent. 7. What is a precipitate in a chemical reaction? If two solutions are mixed and a reaction occurs, one of the possible products may be an insoluble solid. This solid is called a precipitate. 8. Given the equation for a chemical reaction, how do you identify the precipitate? A precipitate can be identified by applying solubility rules to the products of the reaction. 9. What is a net ionic equation? A net ionic equation shows only the species undergoing change in the reaction.

Teacher-Student Interaction In guided inquiry the exchanges between the teacher and students are critical. Teachers who wish to teach using guided inquiry must develop the skill of asking questions that will guide students thinking as they form new concepts. The questions listed in this activity are intended only as aides for the teacher since it is not possible to know all of the ways students may be thinking and answering questions directed their way. The guided inquiry process is designed to help students construct new knowledge based on what they already know. The form of guided inquiry used in this activity is based on the learning cycle that can be characterized by five Esengage, explore, explain, extend and evaluate. Activities like this lab allow students to explore for themselves how the masses of reactants in a chemical reaction affect the products of the reaction. It is important that this first-hand experience be focused on what is happening in the wells of the microplate and not on side issues like vocabulary. Later in the learning cycle--in the post-lab question phase of the activity--the teacher can explain the stoichiometry and include relevant vocabulary like limiting reactant and excess reactant. The concepts and vocabulary should relate back to the students experiences in the lab. The extensions questions allow students to apply what they learn to new cases. Teachers who use guided inquiry also have built-in formative assessments, which are also important in inquiry. By listening carefully to student answersfrom individual students and from the class as a wholethe teacher can discover how well students are learning the desired concepts. This evaluation takes place throughout the activity rather than waiting for the activity to be over and give a quiz. By assessing student progress on a continuing basis the teacher can adjust strategies and ideas to help students learn at the time they are most likely to learn.

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If microscale experiments are new to your students you will need to orient students to the equipment and to the skills needed to make observations when smaller quantities of materials are involved. Also, the drops used in this lab must be of equal volume. You may wish to give students time to practice delivering uniform size drops from a beral pipette.

Anticipated Student Results Well Drops H2O Drops _______ Drops _______ Max. ppt. 1 4 1 2 4 2 3 4 3 4 4 4 5 4 5 6 4 6 7 4 7 8 4 8 9 4 9

Post-Laboratory Data Analysis Extension Questions 1. Write the net ionic equation for reaction in this lab. Ca2+(aq) + C2O4 2- (aq) Ba2+ (aq) Ba2+(aq) Ca2+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq) + CrO42- (aq) + CO32-(aq) CaC2O4(s) BaSO4(s)

BaCrO4(s) CaCO3(s)

In an experiment like the one you just did, solutions of 0.10 M AgNO3 and 0.10 M Na2CO3 are mixed in the wells of a microplate set up as diagrammed below: Well Drops H2O Drops AgNO3 Drops Na2CO3 1 4 1 2 4 2 3 4 3 4 4 4 5 4 5 6 4 6 7 4 7 8 4 8

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Max. ppt. 2. Consider the equation below: AgNO3 + Na2CO3 Ag2CO3 + NaNO3 If Ag2CO3 is the precipitate in the reaction, which well would you expect to have the maximum precipitate? Why? Students need to recognize that if they balance the equation, they will know the mole ratio for the ions that make up the precipitate. The balanced equation is: 2 AgNO3 + Na2CO3 Ag2CO3 + 2 NaNO3 Remember that the number of drops used represents the relative number of moles of solute. Therefore, the mole ratio they should look for in the experiment is 2:1 (AgNO3 to Na2CO3 ). That ratio corresponds to well #6 in which there is twice the volume of AgNO3 as Na2CO3 and, therefore, twice the number of moles of AgNO3.

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The Mole: Lab Activity (Student Version) You just got a job working at a factory where they make giant robots. Since the robots tend to be surly, manipulative, and generally dishonest, its a good thing you never get to see the finished product. Instead, your job is to assemble a little tiny component of the robot that consists of one bolt, one washer, and one nut. This component is called a hoozit. (The hoozit may not look like much, but its very important. It helps the robots dance better.) Each morning, you have to walk to the hardware bins, get the bolts, washers, and nuts youll need for todays output of hoozits. To save yourself the trouble of counting out the bolts, washers, and nuts individually, you are going to measure them out by mass.

Figure 1: The bolt-washer-nut assembly, also known as a hoozit. Part 1 Procedure

1. Using a balance, measure out 20 g bolts, 20 g washers, and 20 g nuts. 2. Take the hardware back to your lab bench and assemble it into hoozits, each containing exactly one bolt, one washer, and one nut. When you run out of one component, stop. 3. Write down the numbers of bolts, washers, or nuts that you have left over after you have made your last hoozit.
Part 1 Question

After you made as many hoozits as possible, did you have any hardware left over? Why or why not?
Part 2 Procedure

1. Return any leftover hardware from Part 1 to the appropriate hardware bins. 2. Obtain fresh batches of bolts, washers, and nuts to make more hoozits. This time, try to think of a way in which you can make sure that you get the same number of bolts, washers so that you wont have any hardware left over. Again, you may not 71

count out individual bolts, washers, and nuts. You can only measure their masses using a balance. 3. Write down your plan in complete sentences. 4. Carry out your plan.
Part 2 Questions

Did you have any hardware left over this time? Did you have more or less hardware left over in Part 2 than in Part 1? Why do you think your plan worked or didnt work?
Part 3 Thought Experiment

After less than a week, you quit your job at the robot factory because it is boring and tedious, and your conscience groans at the thought of helping to make such illbehaved androids. Worst of all, one of these robo-jerks has just been made your supervisor. You get a new job at a chemical laboratory where your first assignment is to react hydrogen and oxygen to make water. You cant count out individual atoms of hydrogen or oxygen, but since each water molecule contains two hydrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms, you decide to measure out 200 g hydrogen and 100 g of oxygen.
Part 3 Questions

1. Do you think you will have any oxygen or hydrogen left over after you react them to make water? Which do you think you are more likely to have left over, oxygen or hydrogen? (Hint: An oxygen atom has eight times the mass of a hydrogen atom.) 2. Can you think of a better way to measure out your oxygen and hydrogen so that you will not have any of either left over after you react them to make water? Just as in Part 2, you are only allowed to measure the mass of your hydrogen and oxygen.

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The Mole: Lab Activity


Teacher notes

To save money, use smaller bolts, washers, and nuts. The hardware should be big enough for the average student to manipulate easily, but the larger the hardware, the more expensive it will be. Wing-nuts might be easier for some students to manipulate with their fingers.

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MOLECULAR MASS OF A GAS

STUDENT VERSION Leading Questions Can you measure the mass of a small amount of gas determine its molecular mass without knowing its chemical formula?
Introduction Based on the fact that a mole of any gas occupies, on the average, 22.4 liters at standard conditions of temperature (273 K) and pressure (1 Atm), a sample of gas collected and measured in terms of its mass and volume (density) can be converted to its mass per mole or molecular mass. There is also an accepted assumption (Avogadros Hypothesis) that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules. However, the conditions under which the gas is collected, i.e., temperature and atmospheric pressure, must be measured in order to convert to standard conditions. Purpose To determine the molecular mass of a gas from the measurements used to calculate the density of its vapor. Safety 1. Wear protective goggles during the lab activity. 2. If working with an open flame, be aware of the flammable vapors produced in this activity. 3. When removing with the flask from the heat source, be aware of hot surfaces. Use tongs or thick paper toweling to grasp the neck of the flask. 4. Do not inhale any of the vapors escaping from the flask.

Materials 12 Erlenmeyer flasks, 125 ml 12 thermometers 12 graduated cylinders, 100 ml 12 ring stands, rings, and clamps 12 Bunsen burners or electric hot plates 12 beakers, 400-600 ml capacity 12 straight pins 4 balances 200 ml propanol (10 ml per student pair) 12 aluminum foil squares, 6 x 6 cm rubber bands

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Procedure 1. Set up apparatus to heat a flask and its contents. If you use a Bunsen burner, add a ring and wire gauze to the ring stand. Place on the ring a 400 ml beaker two thirds filled with cold water. Heat the water to boiling. If using a heating plate, place the 400 ml beaker with the water directly on the heating plate. Heat the water to boiling. 2. While the water is being heated, prepare a 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask that will hold an unknown liquid. To remove any residual moisture in the flask, heat the flask on the exterior with a Bunsen flame. Allow it to cool on a clean surface. 3. Before adding the liquid, place a 5-cm square of aluminum tightly over the mouth of the flask and secure with a small rubber band. 4. With a pin or needle, VERY CAREFULLY puncture the center of the foil with as small a hole as possible. Do not push the needle into the foil beyond the tapered tip of the needle. Too large a hole will produce poor experimental results. 5. Weigh the empty flask with attached foil and rubber band. Record the measurement. 6. Carefully remove the foil from the flask and add approximately 3.0 ml. of the unknown liquid provided. Add one tiny crystal of iodine to color the liquid. Replace the foil and fasten the rubber band the foil just under the rim of the flask. MAKE SURE THE FOIL IS TIGHTLY ATTACHED. Attach a clamp to the flask for attaching to the ring stand. 7. If the water in the 400 ml is boiling, lower the flask into the boiling water and clamp the flask to the ring stand. Make sure the flask is immersed up to the clamp level. 8. Heat the liquid in the flask until all the liquid has evaporated and no vapor comes out of the pinhole. 9. Continue heating the flask for about 2 minutes after all of the liquid appears to have evaporated. 10. Remove the flask, WIPE IT DRY, then set on a clean surface to cool to room temperature. Make sure to dry the foil on the outside. (DO NOT REMOVE THE FOIL!) 11. While the flask is cooling, measure the temperature of the boiling water. Record it and the barometric pressure in the room. 12. Weigh the cool flask and contents (note liquid in flask-what is it?). 13. Measure the volume of the flask by filling with water, then emptying into a graduated cylinder.

Observations

Data Analysis 1. Record your data in the data table below. a. Mass of flask + cap _________g b. Mass of flask + cap + condensate (liquid) _________g c. Volume of flask (V1) _________ml

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d. Temperature of boiling water (T1) e. Barometric pressure in room

________oC ________mm Hg

2. Find the mass of the condensed vapor (from the original liquid) 3. To determine the mass of 1 mole of the original liquid, we need to first deal with the liquid condensate as a gas in the flask. Applying the idea that a mole of any gas occupies 22.4 L (on the average) at standard conditions of temperature and pressure (STP), it is necessary to change the volume of our gaseous chemical to what volume it would be at STP. To do this, we must also include the effect of temperature and pressure. Calculate the adjusted volume at STP for the gaseous chemical volume at the temperature of the boiling water using Charles Law. [ V1/ T1 = V2/T2 (T1 in K); (T2=273K) ] 4. Calculate the adjusted volume at STP due to pressure effects using Boyles Law, V1P1= V2P2 where P1 is room pressure and P2 is Standard pressure of 760 mm Hg. V1 is the previously calculated volume at STP. 5. Using the fact that a mole of any gas occupies 22.4 liters at STP, our STPadjusted volume of gas has a mass determined in the lab above. Simple ratios will allow us to calculate the mass of one mole of the gas based on density: mass1/volume2=massm(1mole)/22.4 l 6. Mass is the mass of one mole of original liquid that was converted to a gas. 7. From the formula given to you of the unknown liquid, compare your lab calculation with the formula mass calculation. What is the % error?

Concept Development

Implications and Applications 1. When you originally added the liquid to the flask and capped it, there was air in the flask. Why is the mass of the air not taken into account in this experiment when massing the flask before heating and after heating? 2. When the liquid in the flask turns completely to a gas upon heating, is the total mass of gas in the flask equal to the original mass of the liquid? Explain. 3. From question #2, how does the mass of gas in the flask compare with the original mass of the liquid that was heated? (use your mass data) 4. Calculate the number of moles of vapor that condensed in the flask. What information and data do you have to use for this calculation? 5. In the cooled flask with its foil cap and liquid (condensed vapor) still in place, do you think there is some vapor in the flask? Explain.

Extension Questions 1. When an unknown liquid was analyzed to determine its molecular mass, using the techniques of this lab exercise, the following measurements were obtained: Volume of flask = 250 ml

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Temperature of the boiling water = 98.9 oC Barometric pressure = 754.6 mm Hg Mass of flask + condensate = 97.71 g Mass of flask = 97.48

Calculate the molecular mass of the liquid.

2. A gas has a density of 1.25 g/L at STP. What is its molecular mass? 3. At a room temperature of 20.5 o C and a pressure of 1.25 Atm, 10 liters of gas has a mass of 1.34g. Calculate the molecular mass of this gas.

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Molecular Mass of a Gas


Teacher Version

Major Chemical Concept Students will use the concept of a molar volume at STP to find the molecular mass of a compound (liquid at room temperature is converted to a gas)

National Standards 1. Unifying Concepts and Processes Evidence, models, and explanations Change, constancy, and measurement 2. Science as Inquiry Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry Understandings about scientific inquiry 3. Physical Science Structure and properties of matter Chemical reactions Interactions of energy and matter History and Nature of Science

4. History and Nature of Science Science as a human endeavor Level Honors, AP

Expected Student Background: Skills: Accurately using measuring tools including balance, thermometer, graduated cylinder, unit analysis calculations. Concepts: Avogadros hypothesis, Charles and Boyles gas laws (and combined gas law), Ideal Gas Law, phase changes, barometric pressure, Kelvin scale.

Time: 90 minutes or two 45-minute periods with first period to set up apparatus and second period to do the activity.

Safety Read the Safety Considerations in the Student Version. Also be alert to the fact that a flammable alcohol is being used near an open flame if you are not using a hotplate. Students should be cautioned

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Materials (for 24 students working in pairs) Non-consumables 12 Erlenmeyer flasks, 125 ml 12 thermometers 12 graduated cylinders, 100 ml 12 ring stands, rings, and clamps 12 Bunsen burners or electric hot plates 12 beakers, 400-600 ml capacity 12 straight pins 4 balances Consumables 200 ml propanol (10 ml per student pair) 12 aluminum foil squares, 6 x 6 cm rubber bands

Advance Preparation
It would be helpful for students if the heating apparatus, ring stands with protective rings and beakers are set up in advance.

Pre-Laboratory Discussion, Questions 1. Review the students understanding of the relationships in both Charles and Boyles laws- how temperature and pressure affect the volume of a gas. If not already taught, show the derivation of the Combined Gas Law for use in the lab data calculations. [ V1 P1/ T1 = V2 P2/T2] where P2 and T2 are at STP. V2= V1 x P1/P2 x T2/T1

NOTE that volume is in liters in order to use the molar volume concept of 22.4 liters at STP; students need to convert ml measurements from lab to liters. 2. Review the idea of phase changes and condensation. 3. Review the use of Kelvin temperatures for proportionality in calculations involving Standard Temperature and volume of gases. 4. Emphasize the need for caution in working with an open flame and flammable alcohol. 5. Make sure students actually measure the temperature of the boiling water because that temperature is pressure (atmospheric) dependent and will not necessarily be 100.0 oC.

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6. Review with students how to calculate % error. (they need to have the formula of the alcohol they used)

Teacher-Student Interaction than waiting for the activity to be over and give a quiz. By assessing student progress on a continuing basis the teacher can adjust strategies and ideas to help students learn at the time they are most likely to learn. If microscale experiments are new to your students you will need to orient students to the equipment and to the skills needed to make observations when smaller quantities of materials are involved. Also, the drops used in this lab must be of equal volume. You may wish to give students time to practice delivering uniform size drops from a beral pipette.

Anticipated Student Results 1. The ideal mass of liquid in the flask would be in the range of 0.20-0.25 g. 2. At 100 o C, there would be roughly about 0.0040 moles in the 125 mL flask. Post-Laboratory Data Analysis Post-Laboratory Implications and Applications 1. When you originally added the liquid to the flask and capped it, there was air in the flask. Why is the mass of the air not taken into account in this experiment when massing the flask before heating and after heating? (The volume and mass of the air before heating and after cooling (the vapor condenses to a liquid) is essentially the same.) 2. When the liquid in the flask turns completely to a gas upon heating, is the total mass of gas in the flask equal to the original mass of the liquid? Explain. (No, the liquid when heated vaporizes, with much of the vapor (formerly liquid) escaping. What remains of the vapor in the flask is considerably less in mass than the mass of the original liquid- 7.85 g vs 0.24 g) 3. From question #2, how does the mass of gas in the flask compare with the original mass of the liquid that was heated? (use your mass data) ( 7.85 g of liquid vs 0.24 g of condensed vapor after heating and cooling) 4. Calculate the number of moles of vapor that condensed in the flask. What information and data do you have to use for this calculation? (Since the vapor before condensation was a gas occupying a known volume at a known temperature and atmospheric pressure, you can calculate the number of moles of the vapor turned liquid by using either the ideal gas law, PV= rRT or the several step method of converting the volume at lab conditions to a volume at STP. Once you have this corrected volume at STP, a simple ratio equivalent to 1 mole/22.4 L at STP will yield the calculated number of moles.) 5. In the cooled flask with its foil cap and liquid (condensed vapor) still in place, do you think there is some vapor in the flask? Explain.

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Extension Questions 1. When an unknown liquid was analyzed to determine its molecular mass, using the techniques of this lab exercise, the following measurements were obtained: Volume of flask = 250 ml Temperature of the boiling water = 98.9 oC Barometric pressure = 754.6 mm Hg Mass of flask + condensate = 97.71 g Mass of flask = 97.48 Calculate the molecular mass of the liquid. ( Using PV=nRT, calculate the number of moles of gas present under lab conditions: 754.6 mm x 0.25 L= n [62.4 mm-L/mole-K]371.9K; n=0.081 moles. .23g/.0.0081 moles= 28.4 g (per mole) 2. A gas has a density of 1.25 g/L at STP. What is its molecular mass? ( 1.25 g/L = X/22.4 L (per mole); X = 1.25g x 22.4/ mole = 28.0 g/ mole) 3. At a room temperature of 20.5 o C and a pressure of 1.25 Atm, 10 liters of gas has a mass of 1.34g. Calculate the molecular mass of this gas. (Find the volume of the gas if at STP using the combined gas law: PV/T= PV/T; 1.25 Atm x 10 L/ 293.5 K= 1 Atmx V/ 273 K; V = 1.25 x 10L x 273/ 293.5 ; V = 11.6 L at STP; moles equal 11.6 L/22.4 L per mole or 0.52 moles. 1.34 g/ 0.52 moles = X/ 1 mole; X = 1.34g x 1m/0.52 m or 2.58 g (per mole)

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Reactions 2: Identifying Products of a Reaction STUDENT


Leading Question How are the products in a chemical reaction different from the reactants? How can we show the difference by experimentation? Introduction Prior to performing this experiment, it is important to answer the following questions in order to evaluate your understanding of the chemistry concepts that are being illustrated. 1.How do you recognize a chemical reaction? 2.What is a flame test? 3.What is the evidence of a double replacement reaction? 4.What is the only way to identify the products in a reaction? 5.What is filtrate? 6.On a separate sheet of paper, draw a data table to be used in the laboratory. Purpose This laboratory exercise is being used to relate different chemical reactions to various categories of chemical change. Safety: 1. Wear eye protection throughout the laboratory activity. 2. Hydrochloric acid is caustic and corrosive. If you spill any on your skin wash it off with water and notify the teacher. Skin contact with other chemicals and solutions should be avoided. 3. Dispose of the chemical substances as your teacher directs. Materials K2CO3 solid CaCl2 solid distilled water 3 M HCl 100 mL beaker, 2 Stirring rod Test tube, 13 x 100 mm, 4 Wood splint, 4 Funnel Filter paper Lab burner

Procedure: 1.Weigh 2.5 g potassium carbonate, K2CO3, and 2 g calcium chloride, CaCl2. Place in separate 100-mL beakers.

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2 Add 25 mL distilled water to each beaker. Stir until the entire solid is dissolved. 3.Number four 13 x 100-mm test-tubes from 1 to 4. Put 2 mL potassium carbonate solution in Tube 1 and 2 mL calcium chloride solution in Tube 2. Place a clean splint in Tubes 1 and 2. 4.Fold a piece of filter paper to fit the funnel. 5. Add the remaining solution of potassium carbonate to the remaining solution of calcium chloride. When the reaction is complete, filter the solution with pleated filter paper to hasten filtration. Remove the filtrate and wash the precipitate with10 mL distilled water. If the filtrate is cloudy, filter again through the same filter paper. 6. Place 2 mL filtrate and a clean splint in Tube 3. 7. With a clean splint remove a small amount of precipitate from the filter paper. Put the splint and the solid in Tube 4. Add 2 mL distilled water. 8. Perform flame tests by holding each wet splint from Tubes 1-4 in the burner flame. Observe the first color you see. Do not allow the splint to burn. Dispose of the splints in the trash can. 9. Add three drops 3 M hydrochloric acid, HCl, to each solution in the testtube. Formation of bubbles indicates that the carbonate ion, CO32-, was originally present. 10.If your teacher directs, set aside some of the filtrate to observe the crystals that form. 11.Dispose of the solutions and filter paper as your teacher directs. 12.Thoroughly wash your hands before leaving the laboratory. Data Analysis: 1.What evidence do you have that a chemical change has occurred? 2.Describe the reactants and products. 3.Using the results of the test performed on the solutions, identify the precipitate formed and the substance found in the filtrate.

Implications and Applications: 1.Draw pictures to represent: a.CaCl2 before the water is added. b.CaCl2 after the water is added. 83

c.K2CO3 before the water is added. d.K2CO3 after the water is added. e.The substance in the filter paper. f.The substance dissolved in the filtrate. 2.Lead (II) chromate, PbCrO4, can be used as a pigment to give a yellow color to paint. What compound could be added to Pb(NO3)2 to produce this pigment? 3.The labels have come off two bottles of white solids in the chemistry storeroom. The labels are KCl and K2CO3. How could you determine which label belongs on which bottle?

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Reactions 2: Identifying Products of a Reaction TEACHER

Major Chemical Concept Students will learn to identify products of a chemical reaction by performing experiments in the lab. National Standards Physical Science Chemical Reactions Level: General and Honors Expected Student Background: Students should be familiar with filtration and be able to use a burner safely. Time: 45 min Safety: 1. Wear eye protection throughout the laboratory activity. 2. Hydrochloric acid is caustic and corrosive. If you spill any on your skin wash it off with water and notify the teacher. Skin contact with other chemicals and solutions should be avoided. 3. Dispose of the chemical substances as your teacher directs. Materials: (For 24 students working in groups of 4) Nonconsumables 12 beakers, 100-mL 6 funnels 6 Erlenmeyer flasks, 125-mL 24 test-tubes, 13- x 100-mm 6 burners 6 stirring rods 6 graduated cylinders, 25-mL 6 blue cobalt glass squares, if available, for viewing the potassium flame test. Consumables Calcium chloride, CaCl2, 24 g Potassium carbonate, K2CO3, 30 g Filter paper 3 M Hydrochloric acid, HCl, 12 mL (25 mL conc. HCl diluted to 100 mL) 24 Splints

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Advance Preparation 20 min to assemble the materials. Pre-Lab: 1. How do you recognize a chemical reaction? Chemical reactions are recognized by changes in the properties of the species involved. 2. What is a flame test? A flame test is when a small amount of the substance on the splint is lit and a color is observed in the flame. 3 What is the evidence of a double replacement reaction? A precipitate is formed. 4. What is the only way to identify the products in a reaction? Only experimentation can confirm the identity of substances produced in a chemical reaction. 5. What is filtrate? Filtrate is the liquid that passes through the filter paper. 6. On a separate sheet of paper, draw a data table to be used in the laboratory.

Anticipated data chart: Test Flame Acid Test tube 1 Test tube 2 Test tube 3 Test tube 4

Procedure:
1.Weigh 2.5 g potassium carbonate, K2CO3, and 2 g calcium chloride, CaCl2. Place in separate 100-mL beakers. 2. Add 25 mL distilled water to each beaker. Stir until the entire solid is dissolved. 3. Number four 13 x 100-mm test-tubes from 1 to 4. Put 2 mL potassium carbonate solution in Tube 1 and 2 mL calcium chloride solution in Tube 2. Place a clean splint in Tubes 1 and 2. 4. Fold a piece of filter paper to fit the funnel. 5. Add the remaining solution of potassium carbonate to the remaining solution of calcium chloride. When the reaction is complete, filter the solution with pleated filter paper to hasten filtration. Remove the filtrate and wash the precipitate with 10 mL distilled water. If the filtrate is cloudy, filter again through the same filter paper. 6. Place 2 mL filtrate and a clean splint in Tube 3. 7. With a clean splint remove a small amount of precipitate from the filter paper. Put the splint and the solid in Tube 4. Add 2 mL distilled water.

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8. Perform flame tests by holding each wet splint from Tubes 1-4 in the burner flame. Observe the first color you see. Do not allow the splint to burn. Dispose of the splints in the trash can. 9. Add three drops 3 M hydrochloric acid, HCl, to each solution in the test-tubes. Formation of bubbles indicates that the carbonate ion, CO32-, was originally present. 10. If your teacher directs, set aside some of the filtrate to observe the crystals that form. 11. Dispose of the solutions and filter paper as your teacher directs. 12.Thoroughly wash your hands before leaving the laboratory. Anticipated Student Results: 1. What evidence do you have that a chemical change has occurred? A precipitate is formed.

2.

Test Flame Acid

Test-tube1 Violet Bubbles

Test-tube2 Red No reaction

Test-tube3 Violet No reaction

Test-tube 4 Orange Bubbles

Describe the reactants and products. Observations of reactants: Potassium carbonate white solid Calcium chloride white solid Both dissolved in water Observation of products: One substance precipitates and the other dissolves in water, passing through the filter paper. 3. Using the results of the test performed on the solutions, identify the precipitate formed and the substance found in the filtrate. The precipitate is calcium carbonate; the substance in the filtrate is potassium chloride.

Implications and Applications: 1. Draw pictures to represent: a. CaCl2 before the water is added.

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b.

CaCl2 after the water is added.

c.

K2CO3 before the water is added.

d.

K2CO3 after the water is added.

e.

The substance in the filter paper.

f.

The substance dissolved in the filtrate.

Ca2+ = Cl- = K+ = CO32- =


2. Lead (II) chromate, PbCrO4, can be used as a pigment to give a yellow color to paint. What compound could be added to Pb(NO3)2 to produce this pigment?

K2CrO4(aq) or Na2CrO4(aq)

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3.

The labels have come off two bottles of white solids in the chemistry storeroom. The labels are KCl and K2CO3. How could you determine which label belongs on which bottle? Make a solution of a small portion of each solid. Test each solution with a solution of calcium chloride. The one that precipitates is K2CO3. Alternatively, add dilute hydrochloric acid to both. The one that forms bubbles is K2CO3.

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Comparing the Reactivity of Aluminum, Calcium, Magnesium, and Sulfur with Water and Dilute Acid
STUDENT VERSION Leading Question Do metals and nonmetals react with water and with acid? Purpose To determine if metals react with water and acid in the same way as non-metals.

Pre-Lab Questions 1. When a metal is added to water, what is produced?

2. When a metal is added to acid, what is produced? 3. When a nonmetal is added to water, what is produced? 4. When a nonmetal is added to acid, what is produced?
Safety 1. Wear protective goggles throughout the laboratory activity. 2. Use care in handling the solids. Pick up your samples with forceps to prevent possible chemical burns. 3. Dispose of the reaction products and any remaining solid elements as your teacher directs.

Materials Test-tubes, 18- x 150-mm Wire test-tube holder Forceps or tongs Laboratory burner, ring stands, and wire gauze Beakers, 250-mL aluminum shot (large pea size) or turnings magnesium ribbon, 10-cm each (large pea size, when rolled tightly) lump sulfur (large pea size) Calcium turning Distilled water Hydrochloric acid Test-tubes, 13- x 100-mm Red and blue litmus paper and/or pH paper

Procedure 1. On a separate sheet of paper, construct two separate tables to collect data from the procedure that will be performed in the lab. One table will have the data from the H2O cases, and the other the data from the HCl cases

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2. Pour about 5 mL of distilled water into an 18- x 150-mm test-tube. Test the water with litmus or pH paper before adding the solid, and before disposing of the testtube contents. Add a piece of aluminum metal (Al) to the water. Observe the system for 1-2 min, and record any evidence of chemical reaction. NOTE: Heating a system sometimes speeds up a reaction. (Heating can be performed by placing your test-tube in a hot water bath.) If no change (or little change) is noticed after 1-2 min, heat the system for one minute, and record your observations. 3. If there is evidence that a gas is being produced, test the gas with a burning splint (for H2) or with a glowing splint (for O2). 4. Dispose of the residue of this system as directed by your teacher. 5. Repeat Steps 1-5 separately using calcium, sulfur, and magnesium. Record your observations on the chart you constructed. 6. Perform similar tests on each of the elements using about 5 mL of dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl). Record observations of each system. Test the acid solution with litmus or pH paper before adding the solid, and before disposing of the contents. 7. Record observations on the chart you constructed. 8. Thoroughly wash your hands before leaving the laboratory. Post-lab - Data Analysis: In interpreting the observations, the following chemical facts are needed: H2 gas will burn rapidly in air; O2 and Cl2 gas will not. O2 gas will support burning; a glowing splint thrust into O2 will burst into flame. Cl2 gas has a choking odor. A burning splint thrust into H2 gas will cause an explosion. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. List the elements that reacted with water in order of most to least vigorous. List the elements that reacted with acid in order of most to least vigorous. Compare the element order in the two lists. Compare your groups results with one other group and report your findings. Using the reactivity position of elements on your list, deduce any patterns you find between reactivity and element position on the Periodic Table.

Post-lab - Implications and Applications: 1. Write balanced equations for all reactions observed between elements and water. Write balanced equations for all reactions observed between elements and hydrochloric acid. What chemical similarities are there between reactions of elements with water and elements with acid?

2.

3.

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4.

How would you explain the difference in reactivity between an element in water and an element in acid? Using the result of your activities, how would you expect the reactivity of gallium (Element 31) to compare to the reactivity of aluminum, if both elements were placed in dilute hydrochloric acid? Explain your response. Based on your answer in #5, compare with one other group and explain why your answers are the same or different. Please write down the members from the other group. State how you would expect strontium metal (Element 38) to react with water. Explain your reasoning. Based on your answer in #7, compare your results with one other group (different from the one in #6) and explain why your answers are the same or different. Please write down the members from the other group.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Extension Questions 1. Based on electron arrangements and common ions formed in chemical reactions, explain how the reactivity of sodium metal would compare to the reactivity of magnesium metal. What reactivity trend would you expect to find in the alkali elements, starting with lithium and going down the column? Explain your reasoning. Based on your study of reactivity so far, how would you expect the reactivity of lithium, beryllium, and boron to compare? Explain your reasoning.

2.

3.

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Comparing the Reactivity of Aluminum, Calcium, Magnesium, and Sulfur with Water and Dilute Acid TEACHER VERSION Major Chemical Concept Chemical reactivity of representative elements can be related to the elements position on the Periodic Table. This relationship is shown by reactions observed between several elements with water and dilute hydrochloric acid. National Standards 1. Science as Inquiry Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry Understandings about scientific inquiry 2. Physical Science Structure and Properties of Matter Chemical Reactions Level General and Honors Expected Student Background: 1. Experience with observational evidence for chemical change. 2 Knowledge of atomic theory, electron structures of elements, and common ions. 3. Ability to write balanced equations given the reactants for reactions observed. 4. Knowledge of alkali metal reactivity trends, if possible. Time Two full class periods will be needed to perform the activity. Students will need time to compare results from the activity for the Data Analysis and Concept Development and Implications and Applications sections before being able to take them home. If this arrangement is not feasible, three to four class periods will be required. Safety 1. Direct students to hold test-tubes with wire test-tube holders, and set test-tubes in a rack when not holding them. 2. If students wish to test the gas emitted for flammability, direct them to point the mouth of the test-tube away from themselves and other people. Materials (For 24 students working in groups of 4) 6 Test-tubes, 18- x 150-mm 6 Wire test-tube holders 6 Forceps or tongs 6 Laboratory burners, ring stands, and wire gauze 6 Beakers, 250-mL 12 Pieces of aluminum shot (large pea size) or turnings 12 Strips of magnesium ribbon, 10-cm each (large pea size, when rolled tightly) 12 Pieces of lump sulfur (large pea size)

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Calcium turnings (Ca oxidizes in air. Use of old Ca that has not been kept in an air tight container might not react at first until the protective oxide layer has been soaked through.) Distilled water 6 M Hydrochloric acid, HCl, 2 L (Dilute 750 mL conc HCl to 1500 mL total volume with distilled H2O) 6 Test-tubes, 13- x 100-mm (for gas testing) Red and blue litmus paper and/or pH paper Advance Preparation: 1. The metals and sulfur should be prepared and placed in labeled containers. Element samples should be of comparable size and conformation. You may wish to have students make a tight coil of the magnesium ribbon samples. Pre-Lab: 1. Review safety guidelines. 2. Instruct students how to dispose of residues from the systems. Remind them to clean the beakers between tests. 3. When a metal is added to water, what is produced? A hydroxide and hydrogen gas 4. When a metal is added to acid, what is produced? A salt in solution and hydrogen gas 5. When a nonmetal is added to water, what is produced? No reaction 6. When a nonmetal is added to acid, what is produced? No reaction 7. On a separate sheet of paper, construct two separate tables to collect data from the procedure that will be performed in the lab. One table will have the data from the H2O, and the other the data from the HCl. Anticipated Tables: Solids Litmus or pH test before H2O Without Heat With heat Test for H2 Test for O2 Litmus or pH test after reaction

Al Ca S Mg Table A Reactions with Water

Solids

Litmus or pH test before HCl

Without Heat

With heat

Test for H2

Test for O2

Test for Cl2

Litmus or pH test after reaction

Al Ca

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S Mg Table B Reactions with Acid Procedure: 1. Pour about 5 mL of distilled water into an 18- x 150-mm test-tube. Test the water with litmus or pH paper before adding the solid, and before disposing of the test-tube contents. Add a piece of aluminum metal (Al) to the water. 2. Observe the system for 1-2 min, and record any evidence of chemical reaction. NOTE: Heating a system sometimes speeds up a reaction. (Heating can be performed by placing your test-tube in a hot water bath.) If no change (or little change) is noticed after 1-2 min, heat the system for one minute, and record your observations. 3. If there is evidence that a gas is being produced, test the gas with a burning splint (for H2) or with a glowing splint (for O2). 4. Dispose of the residue of this system as directed by your teacher. 5. Repeat Steps 1-3 separately using calcium, sulfur, and magnesium. Record your observations on the chart you constructed. 6. Perform similar tests on each of the elements using about 30 mL of dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl). Record observations of each system. Test the acid solution with litmus or pH paper before adding the solid, and before disposing of the contents. 7. Record observations on the chart you constructed. 8. Thoroughly wash your hands before leaving the laboratory. Teacher-Student Interaction Before students begin the activity walk through the class to be sure students have constructed the required tables on which to record their data. As students perform the activity be sure that they are observing safety precautions. You will also want to be available to students who have questions about their observations, especially in cases where it might be difficult for students to determine if a reaction is taking place.

Anticipated Student Results: This chart summarizes the expected results. evolution of hydrogen gas. H2O N.R. Reacts N.R. N.R.

All the observed reactions involve

Al Ca Mg S

HCl Reacts strongly Reacts violently Reacts very strongly N.R.

Solids

Litmus or pH test of H2O before reaction

Without Heat

With heat

Test for H2

Test for O2

Litmus or pH test after reaction

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Al

Neutral

N.R.

Ca S Mg

Neutral

Neutral Neutral

Reacts vigorously bubbles N.R. N.R.

May react slightly Few tiny bubbles Reacts more vigorously N.R. May react slightly Few small bubbles

Negative No pop or explosion Small pop or explosion Negative Negative

Negative Glowing splint does not ignite Negative

Neutral

Basic

Negative Negative

Neutral Neutral

Table A Reactions with Water

Solids

Litmus or pH test of HCl before reaction


Acidic

Without Heat

With heat

Test for H2

Test for O2

Test for Cl2

Litmus or pH test after reaction


Neutral or less acidic

Al

Some bubbles Reacts strongly Rapid Bubbles Reacts very vigorously N.R. No bubbles Many bubbles Reacts very strongly

More bubbles Reacts violently More bubbles Reacts violently N.R. No bubbles More bubbles Reacts violently

Small pop or explosion

Ca

Acidic

Small pop or explosion

Negative - Glowing splint does not ignite Negative

Negative

Negative

Neutral or less acidic

Acidic

Mg

Acidic

Negative - No pop or explosion Small pop or explosion

Negative

Negative

Neutral or less acidic Neutral or less acidic

Negative

Negative

Table B Reactions with Acid

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Post Lab - Data Analysis: In interpreting the observations, the following chemical facts are needed: H2 gas will burn rapidly in air; O2 and Cl2 gas will not. O2 gas will support burning; a glowing splint thrust into O2 will burst into flame. Cl2 gas has a choking odor. A burning splint thrust into H2 gas will cause an explosion. 1. List the elements that reacted with water in order of most to least vigorous. Calcium 2. List the elements that reacted with acid in order of most to least vigorous. Calcium, magnesium, aluminum, sulfur (no reaction) 3. Compare the element order in the two lists. Calcium is the most reactive in each set of data, but comparisons of the other elements can only be made by reacting them with acid. 4. Compare your groups results with one other group and report your findings. Answers will vary. 5. Using the reactivity position of elements on your list, deduce any patterns you find between reactivity and element position on the Periodic Table. Magnesium, aluminum, and sulfur are all in Period 3 of the table. Magnesium is more reactive than aluminum, and aluminum is more reactive than sulfur when combined with dilute acid. Magnesium and calcium are in the same family (column); data show calcium is more reactive than magnesium. Post Lab - Implications and Applications: 1. Write balanced equations for all reactions observed between elements and water.

Ca( s ) + 2 H 2O(l ) Ca (OH ) 2( s ) + H 2 ( g ) Mg ( s ) + H 2O(l ) N .R. Al( s ) + H 2O( l ) N .R. S ( s ) + H 2O( l ) N .R.
2. Write balanced equations for all reactions observed between elements and hydrochloric acid.

Ca ( s ) + 2 HCl ( aq ) CaCl 2( aq ) + H 2( g ) Mg ( s ) + 2 HCl ( aq ) MgCl 2 ( aq ) + H 2 ( g ) 2 Al ( s ) + 6 HCl ( aq ) 2 AlCl 3( aq ) + 3H 2 ( g ) S ( s ) + HCl ( aq ) N .R.


3. What chemical similarities are there between reactions of elements with water and elements with acid? When calcium reacts with water, there is a single displacement of hydrogen from water and the formation of hydrogen gas. This is an oxidation-reduction

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reaction; the calcium is oxidized and the hydrogen is reduced. The reaction is exothermic. Reactions of calcium, magnesium, and aluminum with acid share all characteristics listed for calcium and water. One interesting difference between the calcium with water and calcium with acid reactions is that calcium reacts with water, forming a precipitate, but no precipitate forms in the reaction of calcium with acid. This difference is due to the low solubility of Ca(OH)2, and the high solubility of CaCl2 in water. 4. How would you explain the difference in reactivity between an element in water and an element in acid? In all reactions hydrogen ion is reduced. Since the concentration of the hydrogen ion is much greater in acid than in water, and since increased concentration of reactants generally increases reaction rate, the reactivity of elements with acid is greater than it is with water. Sulfur reacted with neither water nor acid. Using the result of your activities, how would you expect the reactivity of gallium (Element 31) to compare to the reactivity of aluminum, if both elements were placed in dilute hydrochloric acid? Explain your response. Gallium is listed directly below aluminum on the Periodic Table. Calcium was more reactive than magnesium, and it is located below magnesium. Since calcium, magnesium, and aluminum react by losing electrons (that is, oxidize) in these reactions, it would be reasonable to assume a similar type of reaction by gallium with acid. Calciums two valence electrons are in the fourth energy level, whereas the two valence electrons of magnesium are in the third energy level. The higher reactivity of calcium can be explained, if one assumes that calciums valence electrons are attracted less strongly than magnesiums because those of calcium are farther away from the attractive force of the nucleus. There are also more inner shell electrons to shield the nucleus. Given a similar situation in the comparison of electron arrangements of aluminum and gallium one predicts that gallium will be more reactive than aluminum. Based on your answer in #5, compare with one other group and explain why your answers are the same or different. Please write down the members from the other group. State how you would expect strontium metal (Element 38) to react with water. Explain your reasoning. Strontium reacts more vigorously with water than calcium for the same reasons. Based on your answer in #7, compare your results with one other group (different from the one in #6) and explain why your answers are the same or different. Please write down the members from the other group.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Extension Questions: 1. Based on electron arrangements and common ions formed in chemical reactions, explain how the reactivity of sodium metal would compare to the reactivity of magnesium metal. Sodium and magnesium both have the third energy level as their valence level. Neutral atom electron arrangements are Na (2-8-1), and Mg (2-8-2). Since Na

98

has one electron removed to become Na+ and Mg has two electrons removed to become Mg+2, and the number of inner shell shielding electrons is the same for both, sodium should be more reactive. Further support for the argument is that the attraction of sodiums nucleus for electrons is caused by eleven protons, while magnesium has twelve protons in its nucleus. 2. What reactivity trend would you expect to find in the alkali elements, starting with lithium and going down the column? Explain your reasoning. The reactivity should be greater, as one goes from element to element down the column. Each of these elements reacts by having one electron removed from it. With each successive element, the distance of the valence electron from the nucleus increases by one energy level and electron shielding increase. These factors combine to make removal of the valence electron easier, and reactivity increases. Based on your study of reactivity so far, how would you expect reactivities of lithium, beryllium, and boron to compare? Explain your reasoning. Lithium should be most reactive, followed by beryllium, and then boron. Lithium needs to have only one electron removed, while beryllium need two electrons removed, and boron would have to have three electrons removed. These would be expected to follow the same patter as their period analogues, but should be less reactive because their valence electrons are closer to their nuclei and have less inner shell electron shielding. NOTE: This pattern is not observed as clearly, in actuality, as the pattern for the third period analogues.

3.

99

The Mole: Pencil and Paper Activity


Part 1: Moles of Elements Why?

In chemical reactions, atoms and molecules react in specific ratios. Exactly one oxygen atom joins with exactly two hydrogen atoms to make a water molecule. In the same way, if we wanted to make sodium chloride from sodium and chlorine, wed need exactly one sodium atom for every chlorine atom we used. Since we cant see atoms and molecules, we need a way to know that we have the right ratios of atom when we carry out chemical reactions. Even though we cant count atoms, we can measure mass. Using something called a mole, we can use the masses of our reactants to know whether were using the right ratios of our reactants in chemical reactions.
Learning Objectives

Understand the mole as Avogadros number of any atom. Understand the meaning of molar mass, and the difference between molar mass and atomic mass
Success Criteria

Quickly be able to covert quantities of elements from masses to moles and vice versa.
Prerequisites

Atoms, molecules, elements, and compounds, atomic mass,


Information

Nitric oxide is a strange compound. It is a gas, and it is poisonous if you breathe it. At the same time, your blood contains small amounts of nitric oxide. This nitric oxide helps keep you from getting heart disease. Without nitric oxide, lots of people might die young from heart attacks. A molecule of nitric oxide is made of one nitrogen atom and one oxygen atom. If we wanted to build a nitric oxide molecule, we would take one nitrogen atom and one oxygen atom and attach them together. Of course, we cant really do that. Atoms are too small for us to pick up one-at-a-time with our hands. What we really have to do is combine billions of nitrogen atoms with billions of oxygen atoms at the same time, to make billions of nitric oxide molecules. To do this, well need one nitrogen atom for every oxygen atom we use; that is, well need to have the same number of nitrogen atoms as oxygen atoms. Since we cant count out atoms one-by-one, how in the world can we know that we have the same numbers of nitrogen atoms and oxygen atoms? 100

It just so happens that 14.01 g of nitrogen just happens to contain 6.022 1023 nitrogen atoms. At the same time, 16.00 g oxygen contains 6.022 1023 oxygen atoms. Without counting any atoms, we know that if we use 14.01 g nitrogen and 16.00 g oxygen, we will have the right numbers of nitrogen atoms and oxygen atoms to make nitric oxide without any atoms left over. Think about those numbers for a minute14.01 g nitrogen and 16.00 g oxygen. If you take a look at the periodic table, youll see that the atomic mass of nitrogen is 14.01 amu, and the atomic mass of oxygen is 16.00 amu. You can see this same pattern in all the elements. Lets look at hydrogen. The atomic mass of hydrogen is 1.008 amu. This means that if we have 1.008 grams of hydrogen, we have 6.022 1023 hydrogen atoms. Meanwhile, aluminum has an atomic mass of 26.98 amu. This means that if we have 26.98 grams of aluminum, we have 6.022 1023 aluminum atoms. The table in Model 1 below shows the atomic masses and the masses in grams of 6.022 1023 atoms of several familiar elements. We have a special name for 6.022 1023 atoms of any element. We call this number of atoms a mole. A mole of any element contains the same number of atoms as a mole of any other element: 6.022 1023 atoms. However, a mole of nitrogen has a different mass than a mole of oxygen. We call these masses molar masses. We say the molar mass of nitrogen is 14.01 g/mol, and the molar mass of oxygen is 16.00 g/mol. Notice we use units of g/mol for molar masses, not simply g. Since we cant count out individual atoms to make sure we have the same number of nitrogen and oxygen atoms when were trying to make nitric oxide, we can do the next best thing by using 1 mole of nitrogen atoms and 1 mole of oxygen atoms. This way, we know we have the same number of oxygen atoms and nitrogen atoms6.022 1023.
Model 1 atomic mass of the element

element

molar mass

hydrogen helium carbon nitrogen oxygen sodium aluminum silicon chlorine iron gold

1.008 amu 4.003 amu 12.01 amu 14.01 amu 16.00 amu 22.99 amu 26.98 amu 28.09 amu 35.45 amu 55.85 amu 197.0 amu

1.008 g/mol 4.003 g/mol 12.01 g/mol 14.01 g/mol 16.00 g/mol 22.99 g/mol 26.98 g/mol 28.09 g/mol 35.45 g/mol 55.85 g/mol 197.0 g/mol

101

Key Questions

Use the table in Model 1 to answer the following questions. 1. For each element, how are the atomic mass and the molar mass alike?

2. How are they different?

3. What is the mass in grams of 6.022 1023 atoms of silicon?

4. What is the mass in grams of 6.022 1023 atoms of silver?

5. What is the mass of 1.2044 1024 atoms of iron?

6. How many atoms are there in 6.005 g carbon?

7. How many atoms are there in 26.98 g of aluminum?

8. How many atoms are there in 98.99 g gold?

9. What is the mass in grams of 3 moles of helium?

10. What is the mass in grams of 0.5 moles sodium?

102

Exercises

Use the table in Model 1 to help you answer the following questions. 1. A molecule of hydrogen chloride is made of one hydrogen atom and one chlorine atom. If you wanted to make hydrogen chloride from hydrogen and chlorine, youd need to make sure you had one hydrogen atom for every chlorine atom you were using, or else youll end up with hydrogen or chlorine atoms left over. Can you think of a way to make sure you have one hydrogen atoms for every chlorine atom you are using?

2. A water molecule is made of one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms. Lets say you wanted to make water from hydrogen and oxygen. Can you think of a way to make sure you have two hydrogen atoms for every oxygen atom you are using?

3. A molecule of aluminum chloride is made of one aluminum atom and three chlorine atoms. Lets say you wanted to make aluminum chloride from aluminum and chlorine. Can you think of a way to make sure you have three chlorine atoms for every aluminum atom you are using?

4. Suppose you needed to make nitric oxide, but only had 7 g of nitrogen to work with. How much oxygen (in grams) would you need to use to make sure that no atoms are left over?

5. How many moles of oxygen atoms is this?

6. Suppose you wanted to make nitric oxide, you had 28.02 g nitrogen, and you want to use all of it. How much oxygen (in grams) would you need to use to make sure that no atoms are left over?

103

7. How many moles of oxygen atoms is this?

8. Can you think of a general way to convert the mass in grams of a sample of an element to moles of that element?

9. Can you think of a general way to convert the number of moles of an element to mass in grams?

Additional Exercises

1. How many moles are there in the following? a. 25.00 g manganese

b. 43.50 g boron

c. 14.34 g neon

d. 72.00 g titanium

2. What is the mass in grams of the following? a. 4.500 moles zinc

b. 3.425 moles fluorine

c. 2.560 moles nickel 104

d. 1.113 moles chromium

Information

Certain elements are made of molecules containing more than one atom. Oxygen gas is made of molecules, and each oxygen molecule contains two oxygen atoms. Nitrogen is made of molecules, and each nitrogen molecule contains two nitrogen atoms. (To keep things straight, we call free oxygen atoms atomic oxygen, and we call oxygen molecules molecular oxygen. We call free nitrogen atoms atomic nitrogen and we call nitrogen molecules molecular nitrogen.) Just as we can talk about moles of oxygen atoms and moles of nitrogen atoms, we can also talk about moles of oxygen molecules and moles of nitrogen molecules. A mole of oxygen molecules is 6.022 1023 oxygen molecules. A mole of nitrogen molecules is 6.022 1023 nitrogen molecules. Since the molecular mass of molecular oxygen is 32.00 amu, the molar mass of molecular oxygen is 32.00 g/mol. In the same way, the molecular mass of molecular nitrogen is 28.02 amu, the molar mass of molecular nitrogen is 28.02 g/mol.
Model 2 formula of the atomic element formula of the molecular element molar mass of molecular element

element

molar mass of atomic element

hydrogen oxygen nitrogen fluorine chlorine bromine iodine sulfur phosphorus


Key Questions

H O N F Cl Br I S P

H2 O2 N2 F2 Cl2 Br2 I2 S8 P4

1.008 g/mol 16.00 g/mol 14.01 g/mol 19.00 g/mol 35.45 g/mol 79.90 g/mol 126.90 g/mol 32.07 g/mol 30.97 g/mol

2.016 g/mol 32.00 g/mol 28.02 g/mol 38.00 g/mol 70.90 g/mol 159.80 g/mol 253.80 g/mol 256.56 g/mol 123.88 g/mol

1. How are the formulas for the atomic elements different from the formulas for the molecular elements?

105

2. What relationship do you notice between the subscripts in the formulas for the molecular elements, the molar masses of molecular elements?

Exercises

1. What is the mass in grams of 2.300 moles of atomic oxygen? What is the mass in grams of 2.300 moles of molecular oxygen?

2. What is the mass in grams of 3.401 moles of atomic fluorine? What is the mass in grams of 3.401 moles of molecular fluorine?

3. How many moles of atoms are there in 20.34 g phosphorus? How many moles of molecules are there in 20.34 g phosphorus?

4. How many moles of atoms are there in 34.25 g of bromine? How many moles of molecules are there in 34.25 g of bromine?

Reference

Hanson, David M. Moles and Molar Mass in Foundations of Chemistry: Applying POGIL Principles. Lisle, Illinois: Pacific Crest, 2006, p. 5.

106

The Mole: Pencil and Paper Activity (Teacher Version)


Part 1: Moles of Elements Why?

In chemical reactions, atoms and molecules react in specific ratios. Exactly one oxygen atom joins with exactly two hydrogen atoms to make a water molecule. In the same way, if we wanted to make sodium chloride from sodium and chlorine, wed need exactly one sodium atom for every chlorine atom we used. Since we cant see atoms and molecules, we need a way to know that we have the right ratios of atom when we carry out chemical reactions. Even though we cant count atoms, we can measure mass. Using something called a mole, we can use the masses of our reactants to know whether were using the right ratios of our reactants in chemical reactions.
Learning Objectives

Understand the mole as Avogadros number of any atom. Understand the meaning of molar mass, and the difference between molar mass and atomic mass
Success Criteria

Quickly be able to covert quantities of elements from masses to moles and vice versa.
Prerequisites

Atoms, molecules, elements, and compounds, atomic mass,


Information

Nitric oxide is a strange compound. It is a gas, and it is poisonous if you breathe it. At the same time, your blood contains small amounts of nitric oxide. This nitric oxide helps keep you from getting heart disease. Without nitric oxide, lots of people might die young from heart attacks. A molecule of nitric oxide is made of one nitrogen atom and one oxygen atom. If we wanted to build a nitric oxide molecule, we would take one nitrogen atom and one oxygen atom and attach them together. Of course, we cant really do that. Atoms are too small for us to pick up one-at-a-time with our hands. What we really have to do is combine billions of nitrogen atoms with billions of oxygen atoms at the same time, to make billions of nitric oxide molecules. To do this, well need one nitrogen atom for every oxygen atom we use; that is, well need to have the same number of nitrogen atoms as oxygen atoms. Since we cant count out atoms one-by-one, how in the world can we know that we have the same numbers of nitrogen atoms and oxygen atoms? 107

It just so happens that 14.01 g of nitrogen just happens to contain 6.022 1023 nitrogen atoms. At the same time, 16.00 g oxygen contains 6.022 1023 oxygen atoms. Without counting any atoms, we know that if we use 14.01 g nitrogen and 16.00 g oxygen, we will have the right numbers of nitrogen atoms and oxygen atoms to make nitric oxide without any atoms left over. Think about those numbers for a minute14.01 g nitrogen and 16.00 g oxygen. If you take a look at the periodic table, youll see that the atomic mass of nitrogen is 14.01 amu, and the atomic mass of oxygen is 16.00 amu. You can see this same pattern in all the elements. Lets look at hydrogen. The atomic mass of hydrogen is 1.008 amu. This means that if we have 1.008 grams of hydrogen, we have 6.022 1023 hydrogen atoms. Meanwhile, aluminum has an atomic mass of 26.98 amu. This means that if we have 26.98 grams of aluminum, we have 6.022 1023 aluminum atoms. The table in Model 1 below shows the atomic masses and the masses in grams of 6.022 1023 atoms of several familiar elements. We have a special name for 6.022 1023 atoms of any element. We call this number of atoms a mole. A mole of any element contains the same number of atoms as a mole of any other element: 6.022 1023 atoms. However, a mole of nitrogen has a different mass than a mole of oxygen. We call these masses molar masses. We say the molar mass of nitrogen is 14.01 g/mol, and the molar mass of oxygen is 16.00 g/mol. Notice we use units of g/mol for molar masses, not simply g. Since we cant count out individual atoms to make sure we have the same number of nitrogen and oxygen atoms when were trying to make nitric oxide, we can do the next best thing by using 1 mole of nitrogen atoms and 1 mole of oxygen atoms. This way, we know we have the same number of oxygen atoms and nitrogen atoms6.022 1023.
Model 1 atomic mass of the element

element

molar mass

hydrogen helium carbon nitrogen oxygen sodium aluminum silicon chlorine iron gold

1.008 amu 4.003 amu 12.01 amu 14.01 amu 16.00 amu 22.99 amu 26.98 amu 28.09 amu 35.45 amu 55.85 amu 197.0 amu

1.008 g/mol 4.003 g/mol 12.01 g/mol 14.01 g/mol 16.00 g/mol 22.99 g/mol 26.98 g/mol 28.09 g/mol 35.45 g/mol 55.85 g/mol 197.0 g/mol

108

Key Questions

Use the table in Model 1 to answer the following questions. 1. For each element, how are the atomic mass and the molar mass alike? For any element, they have the same numerical value. 2. How are they different? They have different units. Atomic masses are in units of amus while molar masses are in g/mol. 3. What is the mass in grams of 6.022 1023 atoms of silicon? 28.09 g 4. What is the mass in grams of 6.022 1023 atoms of silver? 107.87 g 5. What is the mass of 1.2044 1024 atoms of iron? 111.7 g 6. How many atoms are there in 6.005 g carbon? 3.011 1023 carbon atoms 7. How many atoms are there in 26.98 g of aluminum? 6.022 1023 8. How many atoms are there in 98.99 g gold? 3.022 1023 atoms 9. What is the mass in grams of 3 moles of helium? 12.09 g 10. What is the mass in grams of 0.5 moles sodium? 11.50 g

109

Exercises

Use the table in Model 1 to help you answer the following questions. 1. A molecule of hydrogen chloride is made of one hydrogen atom and one chlorine atom. If you wanted to make hydrogen chloride from hydrogen and chlorine, youd need to make sure you had one hydrogen atom for every chlorine atom you were using, or else youll end up with hydrogen or chlorine atoms left over. Can you think of a way to make sure you have one hydrogen atoms for every chlorine atom you are using? Use 1 mole of H atoms and 1 mole of Cl atoms, that is, 1.008 g H and 35.45 g Cl. 2. A water molecule is made of one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms. Lets say you wanted to make water from hydrogen and oxygen. Can you think of a way to make sure you have two hydrogen atoms for every oxygen atom you are using? Use 1 mole O atoms and 2 moles H atoms, that is 16.00 g O and 2 1.008 g = 2.016 g H. 3. A molecule of aluminum chloride is made of one aluminum atom and three chlorine atoms. Lets say you wanted to make aluminum chloride from aluminum and chlorine. Can you think of a way to make sure you have three chlorine atoms for every aluminum atom you are using? Use 1 mole of Al atoms and 3 moles of Cl atoms, that is, 26.98 g Al and 3 35.45 g = 106.35 g Cl. 4. Suppose you needed to make nitric oxide, but only had 7 g of nitrogen to work with. How much oxygen (in grams) would you need to use to make sure that no atoms are left over? 8.00 g 5. How many moles of oxygen atoms is this? 0.5 moles 6. Suppose you wanted to make nitric oxide, you had 28.02 g nitrogen, and you want to use all of it. How much oxygen (in grams) would you need to use to make sure that no atoms are left over? 32.00 g oxygen 7. How many moles of oxygen atoms is this? 110

2 moles 8. Can you think of a general way to convert the mass in grams of a sample of an element to moles of that element? divide the mass in grams by the molar mass of the element 9. Can you think of a general way to convert the number of moles of an element to mass in grams? multiply the number of moles by the molar mass
Additional Exercises

1. How many moles are there in the following? a. 25.00 g manganese 0.4550 moles b. 43.50 g boron 4.024 moles c. 14.34 g neon 0.7106 moles d. 72.00 g titanium 1.504 moles 2. What is the mass in grams of the following? a. 4.500 moles zinc 294.26 g b. 3.425 moles fluorine 60.08 g c. 2.560 moles nickel 150.2 g 111

d. 1.113 moles chromium 57.88 g


Information

Certain elements are made of molecules containing more than one atom. Oxygen gas is made of molecules, and each oxygen molecule contains two oxygen atoms. Nitrogen is made of molecules, and each nitrogen molecule contains two nitrogen atoms. (To keep things straight, we call free oxygen atoms atomic oxygen, and we call oxygen molecules molecular oxygen. We call free nitrogen atoms atomic nitrogen and we call nitrogen molecules molecular nitrogen.) Just as we can talk about moles of oxygen atoms and moles of nitrogen atoms, we can also talk about moles of oxygen molecules and moles of nitrogen molecules. A mole of oxygen molecules is 6.022 1023 oxygen molecules. A mole of nitrogen molecules is 6.022 1023 nitrogen molecules. Since the molecular mass of molecular oxygen is 32.00 amu, the molar mass of molecular oxygen is 32.00 g/mol. In the same way, the molecular mass of molecular nitrogen is 28.02 amu, the molar mass of molecular nitrogen is 28.02 g/mol.
Model 2 formula of the atomic element formula of the molecular element molar mass of molecular element

element

molar mass of atomic element

hydrogen oxygen nitrogen fluorine chlorine bromine iodine sulfur phosphorus


Key Questions

H O N F Cl Br I S P

H2 O2 N2 F2 Cl2 Br2 I2 S8 P4

1.008 g/mol 16.00 g/mol 14.01 g/mol 19.00 g/mol 35.45 g/mol 79.90 g/mol 126.90 g/mol 32.07 g/mol 30.97 g/mol

2.016 g/mol 32.00 g/mol 28.02 g/mol 38.00 g/mol 70.90 g/mol 159.80 g/mol 253.80 g/mol 256.56 g/mol 123.88 g/mol

1. How are the formulas for the atomic elements different from the formulas for the molecular elements? The molecular element formulas include subscripts to show how many atoms of the element make up the molecule. 2. What relationship do you notice between the subscripts in the formulas for the molecular elements, the molar masses of molecular elements?

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The molar mass of the molecular element is the molar mass of the atomic element multiplied by the amount of the subscripts in the formula of the molecular element.
Exercises

1. What is the mass in grams of 2.300 moles of atomic oxygen? What is the mass in grams of 2.300 moles of molecular oxygen? 36.08g, 72.16 g 2. What is the mass in grams of 3.401 moles of atomic fluorine? What is the mass in grams of 3.401 moles of molecular fluorine? 64.62 g, 129.24 g 3. How many moles of atoms are there in 20.34 g phosphorus? How many moles of molecules are there in 20.34 g phosphorus? 0.6568 moles, 0.1642 moles 4. How many moles of atoms are there in 34.25 g of bromine? How many moles of molecules are there in 34.25 g of bromine? 0.4287 moles, 0.2143 moles
Reference

Hanson, David M. Moles and Molar Mass in Foundations of Chemistry: Applying POGIL Principles. Lisle, Illinois: Pacific Crest, 2006, p. 5.

113

The Mole: Pencil and Paper Activity


Part 2: Moles of Compounds Why?

In chemical reactions, atoms and molecules react in specific ratios. We cant count out atoms individually, nor can we count molecules and formula units one-by-one. Just as the mole helps us know how many atoms of this element or that were using in a chemical reaction, the mole can help us know how many molecules or formula units of a compound we are using.
Learning Objectives

Understand the mole as Avogadros number of any molecule or formula unit. Understand the meaning of molar mass, and the difference between molar mass and molecular or formula mass.
Success Criteria

Quickly be able to calculate the masses of reactants and products from balanced chemical equations
Prerequisites

Atoms, molecules, elements, and compounds, atomic mass, molecular mass, formula mass
Information

A mole of any element is 6.022 1023 atoms. However, we can count compounds in moles, too. A mole of water is 6.022 1023 molecules of water. The molecular mass of water is 18.01 amu. The mass of 6.022 1023 water molecules is 18.01 g. The molar mass of water is 18.01 g/mol. Likewise, a mole of sodium chloride is 6.022 1023 formula units of sodium chloride. The formula mass of sodium chloride is 58.44 amus. The mass of 6.022 1023 formula units of sodium chloride is 58.44 g. The molar mass of sodium chloride is 58.44 g/mol.
Model 1 molecular mass of the compound

molecular compound

molar mass

water nitric oxide methane

18.01 amu 30.01 amu 16.04 amu

18.01 g/mol 30.01 g/mol 16.04 g/mol 114

sulfur dioxide hydrogen chloride carbon dioxide


Model 2

64.07 amu 36.46 amu 44.01 amu

64.07 g/mol 36.46 g/mol 44.01 g/mol

ionic compound

formula mass of the compound

molar mass

sodium chloride aluminum oxide iron(III) oxide magnesium sulfate sodium hydroxide
Key Questions

1.008 amu 101.96 amu 215.55 amu 120.38 amu 40.00 amu

1.008 g/mol 101.96 g/mol 215.55 g/mol 120.38 g/mol 40.00 g/mol

Use the tables in Model 1 and Model 2 to answer the following questions. 1. How are the molecular mass and the molar mass of a molecular compound alike?

2. How are the two different? 3. How are the formula mass and the molar mass of an ionic compound alike? 4. How are the two different? 5. What is the mass in grams of 6.022 1023 formula units of sodium hydroxide? 6. What is mass in grams of 6.022 1023 molecules of sulfur dioxide? 7. What is the mass in grams of 2 moles of nitric oxide? 115

8. What is the mass in grams of 0.25 moles of magnesium sulfate? 9. How many moles are there in 100 g of carbon dioxide? 10. How many moles are there in 107.78 g iron(III) oxide?

Additional Exercises

1. How many moles are there in the following? a. 25.60 g KCl b. 23.22 g CH4 2. What is the mass in grams of the following? a. 3.419 moles MnO2 b. 0.450 moles BH3
Problems

Use the tables in Models 2 and 3 and a periodic table to answer the following questions. 1. Iron(III) oxide is converted into iron metal by reacting it with carbon according to the following chemical equation 2 Fe2O3 + 3 C 4 Fe + 3 CO2 In this equation, 2 moles of Fe2O3 react with 3 moles of carbon to yield 4 moles of iron and 3 moles of CO2. What is the mass in grams of each of these substances in the chemical equation?

116

2. We can make water from hydrogen and oxygen, according the the following chemical equation: 2 H2 + O2 2 H2O How many moles of each reactant and product are used in this equation?

How many grams of each reactant and each product are used?

If you reacted 4 moles H2 with 2 moles O2, how many moles of water would be produced?

How many grams of water is this?

3. Common sand is made of silicon dioxide, SiO2. Sand can be made into silicon for making computer chips by reacting the silicon dioxide with carbon according to this equation: SiO2 + 2 C Si + 2 CO Suppose we react 1 g SiO2 with 2 g C. Will we have the right proportions of silicon dioxide and carbon? Why or why not?

Reference

Hanson, David M. Moles and Molar Mass in Foundations of Chemistry: Applying POGIL Principles. Lisle, Illinois: Pacific Crest, 2006, p. 5.

117

The Mole: Pencil and Paper Activity (Teacher Version)


Part 2: Moles of Compounds Why?

In chemical reactions, atoms and molecules react in specific ratios. We cant count out atoms individually, nor can we count molecules and formula units one-by-one. Just as the mole helps us know how many atoms of this element or that were using in a chemical reaction, the mole can help us know how many molecules or formula units of a compound we are using.
Learning Objectives

Understand the mole as Avogadros number of any molecule or formula unit. Understand the meaning of molar mass, and the difference between molar mass and molecular or formula mass.
Success Criteria

Quickly be able to calculate the masses of reactants and products from balanced chemical equations
Prerequisites

Atoms, molecules, elements, and compounds, atomic mass, molecular mass, formula mass
Information

A mole of any element is 6.022 1023 atoms. However, we can count compounds in moles, too. A mole of water is 6.022 1023 molecules of water. The molecular mass of water is 18.01 amu. The mass of 6.022 1023 water molecules is 18.01 g. The molar mass of water is 18.01 g/mol. Likewise, a mole of sodium chloride is 6.022 1023 formula units of sodium chloride. The formula mass of sodium chloride is 58.44 amus. The mass of 6.022 1023 formula units of sodium chloride is 58.44 g. The molar mass of sodium chloride is 58.44 g/mol.
Model 1 molecular mass of the compound

molecular compound

molar mass

water nitric oxide methane

18.01 amu 30.01 amu 16.04 amu

18.01 g/mol 30.01 g/mol 16.04 g/mol 118

sulfur dioxide hydrogen chloride carbon dioxide


Model 2

64.07 amu 36.46 amu 44.01 amu

64.07 g/mol 36.46 g/mol 44.01 g/mol

ionic compound

formula mass of the compound

molar mass

sodium chloride aluminum oxide iron(III) oxide magnesium sulfate sodium hydroxide
Key Questions

1.008 amu 101.96 amu 215.55 amu 120.38 amu 40.00 amu

1.008 g/mol 101.96 g/mol 215.55 g/mol 120.38 g/mol 40.00 g/mol

Use the tables in Model 1 and Model 2 to answer the following questions. 1. How are the molecular mass and the molar mass of a molecular compound alike? The two have the same numerical value. 2. How are the two different? The molecular mass is in units of amus, while the molar mass is in units of g/mol. 3. How are the formula mass and the molar mass of an ionic compound alike? The two have the same numerical value. 4. How are the two different? The formula mass is in units of amus, while the molar mass is in units of g/mol. 5. What is the mass in grams of 6.022 1023 formula units of sodium hydroxide? 40.00 g 119

6. What is mass in grams of 6.022 1023 molecules of sulfur dioxide? 64.07 g 7. What is the mass in grams of 2 moles of nitric oxide? 60.02 g 8. What is the mass in grams of 0.25 moles of magnesium sulfate? 30.01 g 9. How many moles are there in 100 g of carbon dioxide? 2.272 moles 10. How many moles are there in 107.78 g iron(III) oxide? 0.5 moles
Additional Exercises

1. How many moles are there in the following? a. 25.60 g KCl 34.34 moles b. 23.22 g CH4 1.447 moles 2. What is the mass in grams of the following? a. 3.419 moles MnO2 297.2 g b. 0.450 moles BH3 6.225 g

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Problems

Use the tables in Models 2 and 3 and a periodic table to answer the following questions. 1. Iron(III) oxide is converted into iron metal by reacting it with carbon according to the following chemical equation 2 Fe2O3 + 3 C 4 Fe + 3 CO2 In this equation, 2 moles of Fe2O3 react with 3 moles of carbon to yield 4 moles of iron and 3 moles of CO2. What is the mass in grams of each of these substances in the chemical equation? 431.10 g Fe2O3 36.03 g C 223.40 g Fe 132.03 g CO2 2. We can make water from hydrogen and oxygen, according the the following chemical equation: 2 H2 + O2 2 H2O How many moles of each reactant and product are used in this equation? 2 moles H2 1 mole O2 2 moles H2O How many grams of each reactant and each product are used? 4.032 g H2 32.00 g O2 36.02 g H2O If you reacted 4 moles H2 with 2 moles O2, how many moles of water would be produced? 4 moles H2O How many grams of water is this? 72.04 g H2O 3. Common sand is made of silicon dioxide, SiO2. Sand can be made into silicon for making computer chips by reacting the silicon dioxide with carbon according to this equation: 121

SiO2 + 2 C Si + 2 CO Suppose we react 1 g SiO2 with 2 g C. Will we have the right proportions of silicon dioxide and carbon? Why or why not? Because chemical reactions require balance on the basis of atoms, molecules, and formula units; or moles; not on the basis of mass. This equation calls for 1 mole of SiO2 to react with 2 moles of C, not 1 g of SiO2 2 g of C.
Reference

Hanson, David M. Moles and Molar Mass in Foundations of Chemistry: Applying POGIL Principles. Lisle, Illinois: Pacific Crest, 2006, p. 5.

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