Field Guide

A Reference Guide to Mining Machine Applications

CAT GLOBAL MINING

www.CAT.com © 2006 Caterpillar

Printed in U.S.A. AEXQ0030

Scope
This document is primarily intended for use by Caterpillar and CAT dealer project managers as a ready reference for the assessment of machine application and haul road conditions on their project sites. It may also prove useful to other Caterpillar and CAT dealer personnel in need of a concise reference tool. It contains practical benchmarking data that is achievable with correct and well-managed machine application. It is also intended to provide guidance on assessing haul road design and maintenance that supports sound industry practices.

Contents
Basic Application Benchmarks and Operating Techniques Loading Tools Trucks Wheel Dozers Motor Graders Track-type Tractors/Wheel Tractor Scrapers Basic Haul Road Design and Maintenance Design Maintenance Management Ideas Management Strategies Hauling System Application Zones Reference Information Percentage Swell and Load Factors Approximate Loose Weight of Materials Typical Rolling Resistances Approximate Coefficient of Traction Factors Formulas and Rules of Thumb Weights and Measures Miscellaneous Technical Data Machine Specifications Track-type Tractors Wheel Loaders Wheel Dozers Trucks Motor Graders Tractor Scraper Underground Mining Equipment

2 8 14 18 22 26 34 41 45 49 50 52 53 54 56 60 63 65 67 69 73 75 77

Loading Tools

CAT GLOBAL MINING

LOADING TOOLS

Basic Application Benchmarks First pass must be a good pass (operator has entire truck exchange to get bucket full) Ensure truck is correctly “spotted” by loader (with first pass, or the horn) Hydraulic Front Shovels • First two passes: Upper half of face • 3rd / 4th passes: Load out the center • Final passes: Clean up floor • Keep work area as tight as possible • Avoid excessive prying or corner loading; don’t swing into pile • Maximize GET* tip contact and minimize bowl contact (i.e., boom up and curl bowl through material). • Use “boom-up” to minimize bucket heel contact. • Never operate a bare edge

and Operating Techniques Hydraulic Backhoes (ME**) • Maintain tight work zone; ideally dig no more than 45 degrees either side of center line (i.e., work over idlers and swing no more than 60 degrees to truck) • Watch poorly blasted toe • Maximize GET* tip contact and minimize bucket contact (i.e., enter face with tips at the correct angle and curl bucket through material). Use boom-up to minimize bucket heel contact • Never operate a bare edge Wheel Loaders • Enter pile straight-on, with floor of bucket parallel to floor • Keep frame straight when digging • Lift bucket before crowding • Fill bucket by the time lift arms are horizontal • Minimize non-productive floor contact (cleanup)

2 • Maintain proper kick-out adjustment • Keep time in face below 0.2 minute (12 seconds) • Wheel turns only from face to truck • Never operate a bare edge Rope Shovels • 70 - 90 degree maximum swing • Efficient support machine activity to keep floor clean • Power cable maintenance • Never operate a bare edge

Watch for...

* GET - Ground Engaging Tools ** ME - Mass Excavation

LOADING TOOLS

Basic Application Benchmarks
Rope Shovels

and Operating Techniques
Hydraulic Front Shovels Just above boom/ stick pivot 24 - 28 seconds (avg. 27 seconds) 90 - 100%

4

Optimum Bench Height

Top of boom sheaves 28 - 40 seconds (avg. 35 seconds) 100 - 105%

Cycle Times

Bucket Fill Factor in Well-shot Rock

Most Efficient Pass Match

3 - 5 passes

4 - 6 passes

Favorable Site Conditions

• Working a single face of the
correct height • Stable/level floor • Wide benches (to facilitate truck maneuverability) • Well-shot material

• Selective digging: can also efficiently mine
multiple targets

• Tight load area with tight material • Can work in poor floor conditions • Angle tracks slightly to face • Define dig pattern,
L to R or R to L, and maintain pattern

Adverse Site Conditions to Avoid

• Poor underfoot

• Excessive tramming • Low benches

LOADING TOOLS

Basic Application Benchmarks
Hydraulic Backhoes (Mass Excavation) Length of stick, or between truck siderail and ducktail 24 - 28 seconds (avg. 25 seconds) 80 - 110%

and Operating Techniques
Large Wheel Loaders Bucket hinge pin height at maximum lift 32 - 42 seconds (avg. 38 seconds) 90 - 110%

6

Optimum Bench Height Cycle Times Bucket Fill Factor in Well-shot Rock Most Efficient Pass Match Favorable Site Conditions

4 - 6 passes

4 - 6 passes

• Correct bench height (worth 10-15%
more production than too high) • Truck below HEX (worth 15-20% over same-level loading) • Tight load area, with tight material • Short swing — 60° (worth 5% over 90° swing) • Well-shot material • Remove farthest pass during truck exchange • Maintain key-cut

• Level, dry, smooth, firm floors • Sufficient crossfall and drainage in high rainfall areas to minimize tire damage • Well-fragmented materials that minimize crowding time, particularly in the toe-area of the cut • Lower face profile • Multi-face loading

Adverse Site Conditions to Avoid

• High benches • Excessive tramming • Unstable benches • Low angle of repose material

• Poor/wet underfoot • Tight load areas • Tire damage due to poor clean up

Trucks

CAT GLOBAL MINING

TRUCKS

Basic Application Benchmarks

and Operating Techniques

10

Exchange Time
The elapsed time from when the loaded truck receives its last load until the next truck receives its first loading pass

Good

0.7 minute (42 seconds) Correct Loading Incorrect Loading Correct Loading Incorrect Loading

Acceptable 0.9 minute (54 seconds)

Load Placement

Lateral

Center load above hoist cylinders or load arrow. Longitudinal Centered about centerline of body. General No substantial amount of material on headboard. Enough freeboard to minimize spillage from sides through corners and from the rear on grades. Target 33%/66% load split on front/ rear axles.

Payload Accuracy

VIMS/TPMS Payload system will read “heavy” if the load is placed rearward and “light” when the load is placed forward of the correct point. Payload accuracy can vary 3 – 5% for each 600 mm (2 feet) the load is out of position laterally.

TRUCKS

Basic Application Benchmarks

and Operating Techniques

12

Watch for...

• Truck Position - Spotted in correct position by loader operator, rather than where truck operator decides to stop. Can be spotted by horn or by first pass. Positioned to help facilitate faster cycles: • At 45° for wheel loaders • Depending on loading technique for shovels and backhoes Not parked with rear tires up on toe of pile. No excessive queuing or waiting for loading tool. • Safety - Truck parked with Parking Brake ON, Trans. in “N” (Retarder may be applied in addition to Parking Brake, but Parking Brake must be applied whenever truck is stopped more than momentarily). • Body - Watch for wear-through of liner plates: Dual Slope bodies typically wear the front “triangle” of the rear slope, and rear corners.

Wear is typically even across the rear 1/3 of the floor. Also, ensure correct alignment of body pads. • Tires - Tires offer a valuable insight into road and pit conditions. Look for sidewall cutting, impact and cutting in the tread face, erosion and cracking in the bead/flange area, etc.

Check TKPH (TMPH)* for all chosen haul profiles. Visit tire “graveyard” looking for scrapped tires with significant tread remaining. Identify causes and work to improve life and tread utilization.

* TKPH - Tonne Kilometers Per Hour (Tons Mile Per Hour)

Wheel Dozers

CAT GLOBAL MINING

WHEEL DOZERS

Basic Application Benchmarks

and Operating Techniques

16

Watch for...

• General • Keep loads small and “roll”. • Avoid excessive downpressure. • Don’t ballast front tires. • Push load with machine straight as possible. • Minimize heel-plate contact. • Maintain full blade contact with the floor. • Blade Angle • Keep heel-plate parallel with floor and the back of the blade vertical. • A blade rolled too far forward will wear end-bits and moldboard prematurely and decrease productivity.

• Truck / Wheel Dozer Match The following truck/wheel dozer model sizes are recommended for pushing dumped material from these truck models (target is a two-pass clean up procedure): 834 – 773 / 777 844 – 777 / 785 854 – 785 / 789 / 793

Motor Graders

CAT GLOBAL MINING

MOTOR GRADERS

Basic Application Benchmarks General Grade in 2nd or 3rd gear (6–11 km/h / 4-7 mph). Grading in 4th gear greatly accelerates circle drive pinion and cutting edge wear. Speed is excessive if cutting edge shows signs of excessive heat (tempering back/bluing) and flaking. Maintain 1st gear for all ripping, manually operate throttle. Ensure cutting edges maintain protection for moldboard; change ahead of moldboard damage (recommend when 10 mm [1/2 inch] remaining). Keep edges sharp for improved penetration. Use scarifiers to break up hard-packed top surface for material redistribution if blade is unable to penetrate effectively. A number of passes may be required to penetrate effectively.

and Operating Techniques Blade Position Tip Angle Top of moldboard should be 50 mm 100 mm (2”- 4”) ahead of the cutting edge (16 and 24 motor graders). Maintaining a constant tip angle in operation minimizes cutting edge wear. Blade Angle Use widest possible pass width/ increase angle if material flows around leading edge. When using the Graderbit system or a serrated edge, use a blade angle of 10 degrees maximum. Maintain full width cutting edge contact with road surface.

20

Watch for...

Work Envelope Maintain full blade contact with the floor to avoid high point loading. Consider using track-type tractors or wheel dozers when not able to maintain contact.

For further information, consult H-series Motor Grader Application Guide AEGQ0945.

Track-Type Tractors/ Wheel Tractor Scrapers

CAT GLOBAL MINING

TRACK-TYPE TRACTORS
Watch for...

Basic Application Benchmarks

and Operating Techniques

24

General Operation Excessive tramming between jobs (<5% of time). Loose or missing track hardware. Ripping General Rip downhill wherever possible. When ripping for scrapers, rip in the same direction as the scrapers will load. Generally, speeds of 1.5-2.5 km/hr (1-1.5 mph) at 2/3 throttle will give the most economical production, with reduced speeds in shock/impact conditions. Begin pass with ripper tip rearward, then pull tip forward/under the tractor after tip penetrates ground. Excessive track slippage and blunt tips are good indicators that ripper position is not correct.

Pin breakage in shank protectors or ripper tips is also a good indication of incorrect operation Dozing General “Big loads slow” rather than “small loads fast”. Doze in 1st gear. Steer machine with Blade Tilt cylinders rather than steering clutches when blade is loaded; track slap in the middle of a cut is a good indication that steering clutches are being used. Use slot dozing wherever possible, as it can be worth up to 20% extra production and assure the tractor is pushing all it can push. Start to doze from the front of the cut. Work to the rear, moving back 1 to 2 machine lengths each additional pass.

Keep slot depth to be a maximum of 2/3 blade height. Minimize corner loading, prying and impact; maintain a steady dozing pressure. Blade Position On Dual Tilt machines, begin cut with blade tilted forward for better penetration, then begin to lay blade back when about full. Continue to fill blade while lying back, until blade is full and racked fully back. GET Penetration ripper tip reinforcing ribs must face upward; they ship on the shank with the rib down. Ensure GET pins, retainers and bolts are installed correctly and are not missing. Never operate a bare shank.

Truck / Dozer Dump Match The following TTT model sizes are recommended for pushing dumped material from these truck models: D9 – 777 D10 – 777 / 785 / 789 D11 – 789 / 793 / 797
For further information, consult The Handbook of Ripping AEDK0752.

Ripper Position

SCRAPERS

Basic Application Benchmarks and Operating Techniques

25

Watch for...

Loading Time Average

Good: 0.4-0.5 minute (24-30 seconds)* 0.6-0.7 minute (36-43 seconds)* * Open bowl/push-loaded Wheel-Tractor Scraper (shorter time for tandem, longer time for single-powered) Consult publications for self-loading (elevating/ auger) and push-pull machines.

Basic Haul Road Design and Maintenance

Scraper/Tractor The following TTT model sizes are recommended for push loading the following scraper models. 621 – D8 631 – D9 / D10 651 – D10 / D11
For further information, consult Making the Most of Scraper Potential AEGQ2380 and Optimum Scraper Load Time AEGC0195.

CAT GLOBAL MINING

Basic Haul Road Design and

Maintenance

28

Horizontal and General Vertical Alignment

To maximize safe working conditions, corners and crests must be designed such that machine operators are capable of seeing and avoiding hazards when travelling at normal operating speeds. These calculations must be completed using worst case scenarios (i.e., smallest obstacle, longest stopping distance, highest expected speeds, wet roads, etc.).

1 10

Cross-slopes

On Flats Apply the minimum slope to maintain drainage for expected rainfall conditions on site. If conditions permit, consider a 2% constant crossfall, with loaded trucks running on the “uphill” side of the road. This can help optimize tire load sharing across the rear of the truck. Otherwise, a crown with minimum slope angle.

On Grades Minimal cross-slope required unless rainfall is very heavy, as drainage is provided by downgrade.

2° constant crossfall

Basic Haul Road Design and

Maintenance

30

Grade

General Smooth and of constant grade to minimize transmission shifts and maintain higher average grade speed. This also allows more constant braking effort on returns.
Correct Incorrect

Corners

Radius Use maximum practical radius. Keep constant and smooth as possible. Super-elevation Employ if speeds exceed 15 km/h (10 mph) per Performance Handbook recommendations (Tables section). Super-elevation greater than 10% should be used with caution due to the danger of sideways slippage in wet conditions. 1 way Straights/Corners A minimum 2 - 2.5 widths is recommended. 2 way - In Straights A minimum of 3 - 3.5 truck widths. - In Corners A minimum of 3.5 - 4 truck widths.

Road Width

One-way (Straights/Corners) Two-way (In Straights) Two-way (In Corners)

Basic Haul Road Design and

Maintenance

32

Bench Width

General Truck to clear loader under full acceleration. Minimum width = machine turning radius + safety berm. General Must be able to adequately carry away maximum expected rainfall, with a minimum of puddling, pot holing, or entry of water into the road sub-base. All Locations Berm should be a minimum half of wheel height at the dump edge and along all haul road/highwall edges. Check against local mining regulations. For trucks running radial-ply tires, assume a minimum rolling resistance of: • 1.5% for a hard, well-maintained, permanent haulroads In practice, a 5% increase in rolling resistance can result in up to a 10% decrease in production and a 35% increase in production costs.

Bench Width

Drainage

Safety Berms (windrows)

Rolling Resistance

• 3% for a well-maintained road with
little flexing

• 4% for a road with 25 mm (1”)
tire penetration

• 5% for a road with 50 mm (2”)
tire penetration • 8% for a road with 100 mm (4”) tire penetration • 14% for a road with 200 mm (8”) tire penetration

1/2 wheel height

Drainage

Basic Haul Road Design and

Maintenance

34

Rules of Thumb

Can you travel comfortably at 60 km/h (35 mph) on haul road in a light vehicle? Haul road begins at the loading face and ends at the dump. Can you travel at a reasonable speed to the dump zone?

Soft/Wet Areas

It is far more practical to fully remove wet/soft spots in the haul road completely and refill than to continually try and maintain. Fix it once, fix it right! Watering to remove the hazard of dust also helps maintain compaction (and strength) of the road base. Use “checker board” or “spot” intermittent watering pattern on slopes to reduce the risk of slippage during braking. “Spot” watering works well for areas with limited water supply.

Dust

Basic Haul Road Design and

Maintenance

36

Analysis Tools

Fleet Production and Cost (FPC)

Fleet Productivity Optimization (FPO) Use FPO to assess machine application severity: • To identify locations/features on the road for improvement • To quantify the severity of the haul from strut pressure data • To illustrate transmission shift frequency and gear on grade • To identify brake/retarder application (frequency and location) Note: Earlier version of FPO were known as (ASA) Application Severity Analysis

Vital Information Management System (VIMS) Use VIMS to help manage machine application: • Datalogger data export to FPO to quantify haul road conditions • Better payload management to optimize speed on grade • Check event logs for high brake temperatures, engine over-speeds, etc. • Use RAC (Road Analysis Control) to alert an operator to a damaging haul road condition

Use FPC to compare actual cycle times with theoretical values: • Are trucks achieving predicted speed on grades? • Are trucks cycling in predicted cycle times? • Are truck wait times at the loader in the predicted range? If theoretical values don’t match actual times, investigate possible causes: • Rough/slippery roads causing operators to slow • Higher rolling resistance than planned/expected • Tight corners forcing machine to slow • Poor visibility due to dust or obscured views • Pinch points, STOP signs at intersections, etc.

Basic Haul Road Design and

Maintenance

38

Loading Zone

Watch for smooth floor, with adequate water removal, kept clear of debris fallen from the face and from trucks as they leave the zone. Make certain trucks are not backing onto rocks fallen from the face, or driving over rocks spilled during loading, as this damages tires and powertrain components and adversely affects payload accuracy. Avoid tight, high-speed turns as trucks return to the load area. Can the truck leave the loading zone under full and continuous acceleration, or is the loading zone too tight, too rough, or too congested with other machines to allow this to occur? A well-maintained, smooth haul road, with sufficient drainage, free from potholes, ruts and gullies, with smooth/constant grades, adequate passing room (road width), adequate corner radius (super-elevated if necessary), etc., that allows safe and reliable operation at the highest possible road speed. Is spillage that falls from moving trucks removed quickly? Are there signs of rubber being deposited on tight or rocky turns?

Loading Zone

Main Haul Road

Are operators applying high braking forces to negotiate corners? Can the truck achieve expected road speeds for all segments?

Basic Haul Road Design and Maintenance 39

Dump Zone

A smooth floor that allows trucks to maintain speed until they reach dump zone, entering parallel to edge and braking in a straight line before turning and stopping to reverse and dump. Safety berms of regulation height along the entire edge. Ensure dump is stable, or dump short and push off.

Management Ideas

CAT GLOBAL MINING

Management Ideas

42

Management Strategies

Present machine application issues to mine management in a language they understand; i.e., Productivity (lost or gained) and Cost per Ton. Identify the potential to improve productivity. • Better bucket fill factors through: • Improved fragmentation • Correct bucket selection, GET selection and GET maintenance • Correct bench heights • Correct loader orientation to face • Faster loader cycle times through: • Correct orientation to face • Correct truck placement • Improved material condition • Improved floor conditions

• Higher average OHT road speeds through: • Smoother Roads (including loading and dump zones) -use Vital Information Management System (VIMS) - RAC - FPO -use TPMS (Truck Payload Measurement System) - FPO • Minimize rolling resistance • Better haul road designs that: -reduce switchbacks -remove cross-overs with STOP signs -allow constant speed/gear on grades • Better payload control to ensure highest possible gear on grade -use VIMS/TPMS and VIMS Supervisor

Use Cat® Software Tools [FPC, EMF, DOZSIM, etc.] to: • Compare theoretical with actual: • Grade speeds/Cycle times • Fuel consumption • Total machine/fleet productivity • Model the effects on total productivity through changes to: • Average road speeds -higher on-grade speeds -reduced rolling resistance -reduced corner severity -removal of speed limits • Improved bucket fill factors and truck/loader match • Reduced truck exchange and waiting times • Reduced fuel consumption • Improved component life and machine/fleet availability • Improved tire life/reduced tire costs

Management Ideas

44

Hauling Systems Application Zones

Consider whether the most economic earthmoving system is being used in the application. The following values are rules of thumb but will vary with underfoot conditions, material type, required production rate, and operator skill:

Dozers: 0 to 150 m (0 to 500 ft)

Load and Carry: 50 to 120 m (150 to 400 ft)

Scrapers: 120 to 1200 m (400 to 4000 ft)

Articulated Trucks: 120 to 1200 m (400 to 4000 ft)

Rear Dump Truck: 120 to 9000 m (400 to 29,500 ft)

Management Ideas

46

Support Equipment

Tractors, Wheel Dozers, Motor Graders and Water Trucks Consider the benefits outlined in “Management Strategies” for correct support machine use: allows optimum machine productivity, minimum impact on major component lives, maximum tire life, maximum haul road life, and most importantly, maximum operational safety.

Also consider that Wheel Dozers are typically more cost-effective than Track-type Tractors in lighter applications, such as haul road and shovel clean up, and offer greater speed for better coverage and improved flexibility.

Reference Information

CAT GLOBAL MINING

Reference Information
Percentage swell and load factors of different materials*
CINDERS CLAY Dry Wet CLAY & GRAVEL Dry Wet COAL Anthracite Bituminous EARTH, LOAM Dry Wet GRAVEL Dry Wet GYPSUM HARDPAN LIMESTONE ROCK, WELL BLASTED SAND Dry Wet SANDSTONE SHALE & SOFT ROCK SLAG, BANK SLATE 65 TRAP ROCK % Swell 45 40 40 40 40 35 35 25 25 12 12 74 50 67 65 12 12 54 65 23 .60 65 Load Factor .69 .72 .72 .72 .72 .74 .74 .80 .80 .89 .89 .57 .67 .60 .60 .89 .89 .65 .60 .81 .61

48
Approxiamate loose weight of materials*
BASALT BAUXITE, KAOLIN CALICHE CARNOTITE, URANIUM ORE CINDERS CLAY Natural Bed Dry Wet CLAY & GRAVEL Dry Wet COAL Anthracite, Raw Washed Ash, Bituminous Coal Bituminous, Raw Washed DECOMPOSED ROCK 75% Rock, 25% Earth 50% Rock, 50% Earth 25% Rock, 75% Earth EARTH Dry packed Wet excavated Loam GRANITE Broken or Crushed GRAVEL Pit Run Dry Dry 1/4” – 2” Wet 1/4” – 2” GYPSUM Broken Crushed lbs/yd3 3,300 2,400 2,100 2,750 950 2,800 2,500 2,800 2,400 2,600 2,000 1,850 900-1,100 1,600 1,400 3,300 2,900 2,650 2,550 2,700 2,100 2,800 3,250 2,550 2,850 3,400 3,050 2,700 kg/m3 1960 1420 1250 1630 560 1600 1480 1660 1420 1540 1190 1100 530-650 950 830 1960 1720 1570 1510 1600 1250 1660 1930 1510 1690 2020 1810 1600

*Varies with moisture content, grain size, degree of compaction, etc. Tests must be made to determine exact material characteristics.

*Varies with moisture content, grain size, degree of compaction, etc. Tests must be made to determine exact material characteristics.

Reference Information
Approximate loose weight of materials*
HEMATITE, IRON ORE, HIGH GRADE LIMESTONE Broken or Crushed 2,600 1540 MAGNETITE, IRON ORE 4,700 2790 PYRITES, IRON ORE 4,350 2580 SAND Dry, Loose 2,400 1420 Damp 2,850 1690 Wet 3,100 1840 SAND & CLAY Loose 2,700 1600 Compacted 4,050 2400 SAND & GRAVEL Dry 2,900 1720 Wet 3,400 2020 SANDSTONE 2,550 1510 SHALE 2100 1250 SLAG Broken 2,950 1750 SNOW Dry 220 130 Wet 860 520 STONE, CRUSHED 2,700 1600 TACONITE 3,600-4,200 1630-1900 TOPSOIL 1,600 950 TAP ROCK Broken 2,950 1750 * Varies with moisture content, grain size, degree of compaction, etc. Tests must be made to determine exact material characteristics. lbs/yd3 4,000-5,400 kg/m3 1810-2450

50
Typical Rolling Resistances in lbs. per gross ton of weight*
A hard, smooth, stabilized, surfaced roadway without penetration under load, watered, maintained . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 A firm, smooth, rolling roadway with dirt or light surfacing, flexing slightly under load or undulating, maintained fairly regularly, watered . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 Snow Packed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 Loose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90 A dirt roadway, rutted, flexing under load, little if any maintenance, no water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 Rutted dirt roadway, soft under travel, no maintenance, no stabilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .150 Loose sand or gravel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .200 Soft, muddy, rutted roadway, no maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . .200 to 400
*Various tire sizes and inflation pressures will greatly reduce or increase estimating purposes when specific information on performance of particular equipment on given soil conditions is not available.

Reference Information
Approximate coefficient of traction factors
TRACTION FACTORS CONCRETE CLAY LOAM Dry Wet Rutted LOOSE SAND QUARRY PIT GRAVEL ROAD (LOOSE NOT HARD) PACKED SNOW ICE EARTH Firm Loose COAL, STOCKPILED
*Semi-Skeleton shoes = .27

52
Formulas and rules of thumb
Production (yds./hr.) = Load (cu.yds.) X Trips per hour Load (b.c.y.) = Weight of Load (lbs.) Lbs. Per Bank Yard Bank Yards = Loose yds. X load factor Bank Yards = Loose yds. X 100 100 + % Swell Tracks .45 .45 .90 .70 .30 .55 .50 .25 .12* .45 .60 .60

Rubber Tires .90 .55 .40 .70 .30 .65 .36 .20 .12 .55 .90 .45

Bank Yards = Compacted Yards Shrinkage Factor Trips per Hour = 60 min. Cycle Time (min.) Or Working Min. per Hr. Cycle Time (min.)

Cycle Time = Fixed Time + Variable Time Fixed Time = (see respective machine production tables) Variable Time = Total Haul Time + Total Return Time Travel Time (min.) = Distance (ft.) Speed (ft. per min.) Or Distance (ft.) Mph X 88

Rolling Resistance (lbs.) = RR Factor (lbs./ton) X Weight on Wheels (tons) = 40lbs./ton + 30 lbs./ton (for each 1” tire penetration) X weight on wheels (lbs.) = 2% + 11/2% (for each 1” tire penetration) X Weight on Wheels (lbs.) Grade Resistance (lbs.) = 20 lbs./ton X % grade (units) X Total Weight (tons) = % grade (decimal) X Total Weight (lbs.) Total Road Resistance Factor (lbs./ton or %) = Rolling Resistance Factor (lbs./ton or %) + Grade Resistance Factor (lbs./ton or %)Total Pull Required = Rolling Resistance (lbs.) + Grade Resistance (lbs.)

Reference Information
Formulas and rules of thumb
Total Pull Required = Rolling Resistance (lbs.) + Grade Resistance (lbs.) Usable Lbs. Pull (Traction limitation) = Coeff. of Traction X Weight on Drivers Alt. Derating: 3% lb. Pull loss for each 1000 feet above 3000 feet Hourly Prod. Req’d = Quan. (b.c.y.) Working Time (hr.)

54
Weights and Measures
APOTHECARIES’ WEIGHT 20 grains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 scruple 8 drams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 ounce 3 scruples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 dram 12 ounces . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 pound Ounce and pound are the same as in Troy Weight AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT 27.344 grains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 dram 16 drams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 ounce 16 ounces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 pound 2,240 lbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 long ton 25 pounds . . . . . . . . . . . .1 quarter 4 quarters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 cwt 2,000 lbs . . . . . . . . . . . .1 short ton

No. Units Req’d = Hourly Prod. Req’d. Unit Prod. No. of Scrapers a Pusher will load = Scraper cycle time Pusher cycle time Drawbar Horsepower = lbs. Pull X ft./min. 33000 Typical dragline calculating factors: Using 110˚ swing, average swing cycle For 1/2 yd. = 24 seconds For 11/2 yd = 30 seconds For 2 yd. = 33 seconds Bucket Factors: Easy digging =approx. 95-100% of rated capacity Med. digging= approx. 80-90% of rated capacity Medium hard digging = approx. 65-75% of rated capacity Hard digging = approx. 40-65% of rated capacity Typical shovel calculating factors: Using 90˚ swing average swing cycle For 1/2 yd. = 20 sec. For 1 yd. = 21 sec. For 11/2 yd.= 22 sec. For 2 yd. = 23 sec. For 21/2 yd. = 24 sec. Dipper Factors: Easy digging = approx. 95-100% or rated capacity Medium digging = approx. 85-90% of rated capacity Medium hard digging = approx. 70-80% of rated capacity Hard digging = approx. 50-70% of rated capacity

TROY WEIGHT 24 grains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 pwt 20 pwt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 ounce 12 ounces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 pound used for weighing gold, silver, and jewels CLOTH MEASURE 2 1/4 inches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 nail 4 nails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 quarter 4 quarters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 yard CUBIC MEASURE 1,728 cubic inches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 cubic foot 27 cubic feet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 cubic yard 128 cubic feet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 cord (wood) 40 cubic feet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 ton (shipping) 2,150.42 cubic inches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 standard bushel 231 cubic inches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 U.S. standard gallon 1 cubic foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .about 4/2 of a bushel DRY MEASURE 2 pints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 qt 8 qts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 peck LIQUID MEASURE 4 gills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 pt 2 pts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 qt 2 barrels . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 hogshead LONG MEASURE 12 inches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 foot 3 feet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 yd 5 1/2 yards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 rod 4 pecks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 bushel 36 bushels . . . . . . . . . .1 chaldron 4 qts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 gallon 31-1/2 gallons . . . . . . . . . .1 barrel

40 rods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 furlong 8 furlongs . . . . . . . . . . .1 std. Mile 3 miles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 league

Reference Information
Weights and Measures
MARINERS’ MEASURE 6 ft . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 fathom 71/2 cable lengths . . .1 mile 6076.1 feet . .1 nautical mile PAPER MEASURE 24 sheets . . . . . . . . . .1 quire 2 reams . . . . . . . . . .1 bundle SQUARE MEASURE 144 sq. inches . . . .1 sq. foot 9 sq. feet . . . . . . . .1 sq. yard 301/4 sq. yards . . . .1 sq. rod 120 fathoms . . . . .1 cable length 5280 feet . . . . . . . . . . . .1 std. mile

56
Weights and Measures
METRIC EQUIVALENTS – LINEAR MEASURE 1 sq. centimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.1550 sq. inch 1 sq. inch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.452 sq. centimeters 1 sq. decimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.1076 sq. foot 1 sq. foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9.2903 sq. decimeters 1 sq. meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.196 sq. yds 1 sq. yard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.8361 1 acre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160 sq. rods 1 sq. rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.00625 acre 1 hectare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.47 acres 1 acre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.4047 hectare 1 sq. kilometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.386 sq. mile 1 sq. mile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.59 sq kilometers METRIC EQUIVALENTS – WEIGHTS 1 gram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.03527 ounce 1 ounce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28.35 grams 1 kilogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.2046 pounds 1 pound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.4536 kilogram 1 metric ton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.98421 English ton 1 English ton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.016 metric tons METRIC EQUIVALENTS – MEASURE OF VOLUME 1 cubic centimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.061 cubic inch 1 cubic inch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16.39 cubic centimeters 1 cubic decimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.0353 cubic foot 1 cubic foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28.317 cubic decimeters 1 cubic meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.308 cubic yards 1 cubic yard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.7646 cubic meter 1 stere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.2759 cord 1 cord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.624 steres 1 liter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.908 quart dry . . . . . . . .1.0567 quarts liquid 1 quart dry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.101 liters 1 quart liquid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.9463 liter 1 dekaliter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.6417 gallons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.135 pecks 1 gallon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.3785 dekaliter 1 peck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.881 dekaliter 1 hectoliter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.8375 bushels 1 bushel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.3524 hectoliter

20 quires . . .1 ream (480 sheets) 5 bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 bale 40 sq. rods . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 rood 4 roods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 acre 640 acres . . . . . . . . . . . .1 sq. mile

SURVEYOR’S MEASURE 7.92 inches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 link 25 links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 rod 4 rods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 chain 10 sq. chains or 160 sq. rods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 acre 640 acres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 sq. mile 36 sq. miles ( 6 miles sq.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 township TIME MEASURE 60 seconds . . . . . . . . .1 min. 60 min . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 hr. 24 hr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 day 7 days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 week 28, 29, 30,or 31 days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 calendar month 30 days . . . . . . . . . . .1 month . . . . . . . . . .in computing interest 365 days . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 yr 366 days . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 leap yr. MISCELLANEOUS 3 inches . . . . . . . . . . .1 palm 6 inches . . . . . . . . . . .1 span 21.8 inches . . .1 Bible cubit 4 inches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 hand 18 inches . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 cubit 21/2 ft . . . . . . . . . . .1 military pace

METRIC EQUIVALENTS – LINEAR MEASURE 1 centimeter .0.3937 inches 1 inch . . . . . . . . .2.54 centimeters 1 decimeter . . .3.937 inches 1decimeter . . . . . . . . . .0.328 foot 1 foot . . . .3.048 decimeters 1 meter . . . . . . . . . . .39.37 inches 1 meter . . . . . . .1.0936 yards 1 yard . . . . . . . . . . . .0.9144 meter 1 dekameter . . .1.9884 rods 1 rod . . . . . . . . .0.5029 dekameter 1 kilometer . . . .0.62137 mile 1 mile . . . . . . . .1.6093 kilometers

Reference Information
Weights and Measures
APPROXIMATE METRIC EQUIVALENTS 1 decimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 inches 1 liter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 06 quarts liquid . . . . . . . . . .0.9 quart dry 1 meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.1 yds 1 kilometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5/8 of a mile 1 hectoliter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25/8 bushels 1 hectare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21/2 acres 1 kilogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21/5 lbs 1 stere, or cubic meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1/4 of a cord 1 metric ton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2,200 pounds TEMPERATURES (in Fahrenheit) Milk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .freezes 30 above zero Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .freezes 32 above zero Olive Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .freezes 36 above zero Wine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .freezes 20 above zero Vinegar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .freezes 28 above zero Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .boils at 173 above zero Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .boils at 212 above zero Petroleum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .boils at 306 above zero Blood heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98.4 above zero Eggs hatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104 above zero

58
Miscellaneous Technical Data
To find diameter of a circle, multiply circumference by .31831. To find circumference of a circle, multiply diameter by 3.1416. To find area of a circle, multiply square of diameter by .7854. To find surface of a ball, multiply square of diameter by 3.1416. To find side of an equal square, multiply diagonal by .7072. To find cubic inches in a ball, multiply cube of diameter by .5236. Doubling the diameter of a pipe increases its capacity four times. Double riveting is from 16 to 20 percent stronger than single. One cubic foot of anthracite coal weighs about 53 pounds. One cubic foot of bituminous coal weighs from 47 to 50 pounds. One ton of coal is equivalent to two cords of wood for steam purposes. A gallon of water (US standard) weighs 81/3 lbs. And contains 231 cubic inches. There are nine square feet of heating surface to each square foot of grate surface. A cubic foot of water contains 71/2 gallons, 1728 cubic inches, and weighs 62 1/2 pounds. Each nominal horsepower of a boiler requires 30 to 35 lbs. of water per hour. To sharpen dull files, lay them in diluted sulfuric acid until they are eaten deep enough. A horsepower is equivalent to raising 33,000 lbs. one foot per minute, or 550 lbs. on foot per second. To find the pressure in pound per square inch of column of water, multiply the height of the column in feet by .434. Steam rising from water at its boiling point (212 degrees) has a pressure equal to the atmosphere (14.7 lbs. to the square inch).

Machine Specifications

CAT GLOBAL MINING

Miscellaneous

62

Track-type Tractor

MODEL Operating Weight lb (kg) Flywheel Power hp (KW) Engine Model Blade Capacity SU U CD yd3 (m3) Blade Width SU U CD ft/in (m) (included end bits) Track On Ground ft/in (m) General Dimensions Height ft/in (m) (to top of canopy ROPS) Overall Length ft/in (m) (U-Blade & Single Shank Ripper)

D9T 105,600 (47 900) (Differential Steer) 410 (306) C18 ACERT 17.7 (13.5) 21.4 (16.4)

D10T 146,500 (66 451) 580 (433) C27 ACERT 24.2 (18.5) 28.7 (22)

D11R 230,100 (104 600) 850 (634) 3508B TA 35.5 (27.2) 45 (34.4)

D11R CD 248,600 (113 000) 850 (634) 3508B TA

57 (43.6)

14'2" (4.31) 15'3" (4.65)

15'11" (4.86) 17'3" (5.26)

18'4" (5.60) 20'10" (6.35) 22'0" (6.71)

11'5" (3.47)

12'9" (3.89)

14'7" (4.44)

14'7" (4.44)

13'1" (3.99)

14'2" (4.34)

15'0" (4.57)

15'0" (4.57)

27'8" (8.48)

30'4" (9.26)

34'1" (10.68)

35'5" (10.50)

Miscellaneous

64

Wheel Loaders

MODEL Operating Weight Engine Flywheel Power Rated Payload Dump Height Dump Reach Bucket Size Breakout Force Full Turn Tip Load (hp) (kW) (T) (t) (ft/in) (mm) (ft/in) (mm) (yd3) (m3) (lb) (kN) (lb) (kg) (lb) (kg)

994F 427,300 192 244 3516B 1438 933 38 34.5 18'3" 5698 7'5" 2263 19.5 - 41 15 - 31 222,553 989 243,760 110 570

994FHL 430,900 193 782 3516B 1438 933 34 31 19' 5931 8'11" 2643 19.5 - 41 15 - 31 203,968 1015 203,968 92 518

994FSHL 467,100 207 068 3516B 1438 933 34 31 24' 7315 9'6" 2926 41-47 31-36 156,562 696 152,014 68 952

992G 210,424 95 447 3508B 800 597 24 22 15'2" 4626 7'7" 2315 15 - 30 11.4 - 23 137,692 612 112,764 51 149

992G HL 218,513 99 116 3508B 800 597 24 22 17'3" 5250 7'7" 2304 15 - 30 11.4 - 23 134,753 599 108,664 49 289

Miscellaneous

66

Wheel Dozers

MODEL Operating Weight Engine Flywheel Power Blade Capacity - Semi - U - Coal - Straight Blade Width - Semi - U - Coal - Straight Transmission Gears Top Speed - Forward - Reverse

(lb) (kg) (hp) (kW) (yd3) (m3) (yd3) (m3) (yd3) (m3) (ft/in) (mm) (ft/in) (mm) (ft/in) (mm)

854G 219,128 99 395 3508B 800 597 33.1 25.4 58.2 44.7

844 156,120 70 815 3412E 620 463 20.7 15.9 40.2 30.7

834G 103,849 47 106 3456 481 359 14.56 11.13 29 22.2 10.33 7.9 16' 11" 5151 18' 7" 5677 16' 8" 5074 4F/3R 24.1 38.7 14.3 23

20' 9" 6321 23' 7" 7200

19' 4" 5846 17' 9" 5418

3F/3R (mph) (kph) (mph) (kph) 13.6 23.2 15 24.2

3F/3R 14 22.5 15.4 24.8

Miscellaneous

68

Trucks

MODEL Body Type Gross Machine Operating Weight* Target Payload* Capacity Heaped (2:1) (SAE) Engine Gross Power Tire Size Top Speed (loaded) Loading Height Overall Length Overall Width (mph) (km/h) (ft/in) (m) (ft/in) (m) (ft/in) (m) (hp) (kW) (lb) (kg) (tons) (tonnes) (yd3) (m3)

773E Dual Slope** 219,000 (99 300) 60 (54.3) 46 (35.2) 3412E 710 (530) 24.00R35 41.1 (65.8) 12'5" (3.77) 31'9" (9.69) 16'8" (5.08)

775E Dual Slope** 239,000 (108 400) 68 (62.1) 53.9 (41.2) 3412E 760 (567) 24.00R35 41.1 (65.8) 12'11" (3.93) 31'9" (9.69) 16'8" (5.08)

777D Dual Slope** 360,000 (163 293) 100 (90.7) 73.6 (60.1) 3508B 1000 (746) 27.00R49 39.9 (60.4) 14'4" (4.39) 32'1" (9.78) 20'0" (6.10)

*Reference Caterpillar’s 10/10/20 Payload Policy Revision #4 for information on gross machine operating weight and target payload

**Data provided is for a representative body and liner package. Several dual slope, flat floor, and mine specific design (MSD) bodies and liner packages are available. All weights, capacities, and dimensions are dependent on the machine configuration (body type, attachment, tires, and optional equipment) selected.

Miscellaneous

70

Trucks

MODEL Body Type Gross Machine Operating Weight* Target Payload* Capacity Heaped (2:1) (SAE) Engine Gross Power Tire Size (hp) (kW) (lb) (kg) (tons) (tonnes) (yd3) (m3)

785C Dual Slope** 550,000 (249 475) 155+ (140+) 102 (78) 3512B 1450 (1082) 33.00R51

789C Dual Slope** 700,000 (317 513) 201+ (182+) 137 (105) 3516B 1900 (1417) 37.00R57

793C Dual Slope** 846,000 (383 727) 240+ (218+) 169 (129) 3516B HD 2300 (1715) 40.00R57 46/90R57 44/80R57 33.7 (54.3) 19'3" (5.87) 42'3" (12.87) 24'4" (7.44)

797 Flat Floor** 1,375,000 (623 690) 380+ (345+) 290 (220) 3524B HD 3550 (2648) 59/80R63

Top Speed (loaded) Loading Height Overall Length Overall Width

(mph) (km/h) (ft/in) (m) (ft/in) (m) (ft/in) (m)

34 (54.8) 16'4" (4.97) 36'2" (11.02) 21'4" (6.64)

33.8 (54.4) 17'1" (5.21) 39'11" (12.18) 25'2" (7.67)

39.9 (64.2) 23'2" 7.08) 47'8" (14.53) 30'0" (9.15)

*Reference Caterpillar’s 10/10/20 Payload Policy Revision #4 for information on gross machine operating weight and target payload

**Data provided is for a representative body and liner package. Several dual slope, flat floor, and mine specific design (MSD) bodies and liner packages are available. All weights, capacities, and dimensions are dependent on the machine configuration (body type, attachment, tires, and optional equipment) selected.

Miscellaneous

72

Motor Graders

MODEL Operating Weight lb (kg) Flywheel Power Base : Gears 1-8 VHP : Gears 4-8 hp (kW) Engine Model Blade Length ft (m) Minimum Turn Distance ft/in (m) (full articulation & front wheel steer) TOP SPEED Forward Reverse mph (km/h) General Dimensions Height (to canopy top of ROPS) ft/in (m) Overall Length ft/in (m) (with ripper & push plate) Width ft/in (m) (at top of front tires)

14H 41,010 (16,600)

16H 54,350 (24,740)

24H 136,610 (61,950)

220 (164) 240 (179) 3176C 14' (4.27) 26'3" (8)

265 (198) 285 (213) 3196 16' (4.88) 27'0" (8.2)

500 (373)

3412E HEUI 24' (7.32) 39'11" (12)

28.7 (46.1) 31.8 (51.1)

29.9 (48.1) 26.9 (43.2)

23.4 (37.7) 22.4 (36.1)

10'11" (3.34)

11'7" (3.52)

14'3" (4.35)

35'4" (10.77)

38'2" (11.62)

51'10" (15.80)

9'3" (2.82)

10'1" (3.08)

13'8" (4.23)

Miscellaneous

74

Tractor Scraper

MODEL Empty Weight lb (kg) Flywheel Power Tractor (gears 1-2) (gears 3-8) (elevator on gears 1-2) Scraper (gears 1-2) (gears 3-8) hp (kW) Engine Model Tractor Scraper Capacity Struck Heaped yd3 (m3) Rated Load lb (kg) Top Speed (Loaded) mph (km/h) Width of Cut ft/in (m) General Dimensions Height ft/in (m) (top of scraper) Length ft/in (m) Width ft/in (m)

633E II 112,580 (51065)

637G 112,760 (51,147)

651E 134,760 (61,130)

657E 152,290 (69,080)

(Elevating Scraper) 450 (335) 450 (335) 490 (365) 490 (365) 490 (365) 249 9186) 274 (204)

552 (410) 605 (452)

550 (410) 605 (452) 400 (298) 440 (328)

3408E

3412E HEUI

3408E HEUI C9 32 (24.5) 44 (33.6) 104,000 (47,175) 33 (53) 12'8" (3.85)

3412E HEUI 3408E HEUI 32 (24.5) 44 (33.6) 104,000 (47,175) 33 (53) 12'8" (3.85)

23.2 (17.1) 34 (26) 82,000 (37,285) 33.4 (53.8) 11'6" (3.51)

24 (18.3) 34 (26) 82,000 (37,285) 33 (53) 11'6" (3.51)

14'1" (4.29)

14'1" (4.29)

15'5" (4.71)

15'5" (4.71)

48'7" (14.81) 13'3" (4050)

47'9" (14.56) 12'11" (3.94)

53'1" (16.2) 14'4" (4.35)

53'1" (16.2) 14'4" (4.35)

Miscellaneous

76

Underground Mining Equipment

MODEL
Description Engine Power (Gross) Engine Model Weight (Empty) Weight (Loaded) Capacity (Body) Heaped SAE 2:1 Turning Radius SAE Outer Clearance Radius Inner Turning Radius Height (Cab) Overall Length* Loading Height* Width* Axle Oscillation Articulation Angle Speeds Forward 1st Speed Forward 2nd Speed Forward 3rd Speed Forward 4th Speed Forward 5th Speed Forward 6th Speed Forward 7th Speed Forward Speeds Reverse 1st Speed Reverse 2nd Speed Reverse 3rd Speed Reverse 4th Speed Reverse Tires Unladen Front Axle Weight Unladen Rear Axle Weights Laden Front Axle Weight Laden Rear Axle Weights Weight Distribution Front Unladen Weight Distribution Rear Unladen Weight Distribution Front Laden Weight Distribution Rear Laden

AD30 DE-1732 (*Based on 14.4m Body)
3

AD45 DE-1644 (*Based on m Body)
3

Metric Imperial 298 kW 400 hp Caterpillar 3406E ATAAC 30 000 kg 66,139 lb 60 000 kg 132,277 lb 30 tonnes 33.1 tons 3 18.8 yd3 14.4 m 8007 mm 315.2 inch 8571 mm 337.4 inch 5030 mm 198.0 inch 2600 mm 102.4 inch 10 160 mm 400.0 inch 2385 mm 93.9 inch 2690 mm 105.9 inch ± 10.0° ± 42.5° 5.5 km/h 9.9 km/h 17.6 km/h 31.0 km/h 3.4 mph 6.2 mph 10.9 mph 19.3 mph

Metric 380 kw Caterpillar 3408E HEUI 40 000 kg 85 000 kg 45 tonnes 21.3 m3 8594 mm 9228 mm 5295 mm 2700 mm 10 660 mm 2898 mm 3000 mm ± 12.0° ± 42.5° 7.7 km/h 10.5 km/h 14.2 km/h 18.9 km/h 25.2 km/h 32.7 km/h 41.6 km/h

Imperial 510 hp 88,185 lb 187,393 lb 49.6 tons 27.9 yd3 338.3 inch 363.3 inch 208.5 inch 106.3 inch 419.7 inch 114.1 inch 118.1 inch

4.8 mph 6.5 mph 8.8 mph 11.8 mph 15.7 mph 20.3 mph 25.9 mph

6.8 km/h 4.2 mph 0.0 km/h 0.0 km/h 0.0 km/h BRIDGESTONE 26.5 x R25 MS VSNT E4 1 kg 0,002 lb 1 kg 0,002 lb 1 kg 0,002 lb 1 kg 0,002 lb 50% 50% 50% 50%

7.3 km/h 4.5 mph 9.5 km/h 5.9 mph 0.0 km/h 0.0 km/h BRIDGESTONE 29.5 x R29 MS VSNT E4 28 500 kg 62831.67 11 500 kg 25353.13 40 469 kg 89217.88493 44 531 kg 98174.77098 71% 29% 48% 52%

Miscellaneous

78

Underground Mining Equipment

MODEL
Description Engine Power (Gross) Engine Model Weight (Empty) Weight (Loaded) Capacity (Body) Heaped SAE 2:1 Turning Radius SAE Outer Clearance Radius Inner Turning Radius Height (Cab) Overall Length* Loading Height* Width* Axle Oscillation Articulation Angle Speeds Forward 1st Speed Forward 2nd Speed Forward 3rd Speed Forward 4th Speed Forward 5th Speed Forward 6th Speed Forward 7th Speed Forward Speeds Reverse 1st Speed Reverse 2nd Speed Reverse 3rd Speed Reverse 4th Speed Reverse Tires Unladen Front Axle Weight Unladen Rear Axle Weights Laden Front Axle Weight Laden Rear Axle Weights Weight Distribution Front Unladen Weight Distribution Rear Unladen Weight Distribution Front Laden Weight Distribution Rear Laden

AD55 DE-1681 DNW1 & UP (*Based on 26.9m3 Body) Metric Imperial 485 kW 650 hp Caterpillar C18 DI TA AAAC 47 467 kg 104,647 lb 102 000 kg 224,871 lb 55 tonnes 60.6 tons 3 35.2 yd3 26.9 m 9171 mm 361.1 inch 9885 mm 389.2 inch 5540 mm 218.1 inch 3000 mm 118.1 inch 11 547 mm 454.6 inch 3045 mm 119.9 inch 3346 mm 131.7 inch ± 10.0° ± 42.5° 8.1 km/h 11.2 km/h 15.1 km/h 20.3 km/h 27.6 km/h 37.2 km/h 50.4 km/h 7.9 km/h 10.7 km/h 0.0 km/h 0.0 km/h BRIDGESTONE 35 X 65 R33 MS VSNT E4 31 300 kg 16 167 kg 48 202 kg 53 798 kg 66% 34% 47% 53% 5.1 mph 6.9 mph 9.4 mph 12.6 mph 17.1 mph 23.1 mph 31.3 mph 4.9 mph 6.6 mph

69,005 lb 35,642 lb 106,268 lb 118,603 lb

Miscellaneous

80

Underground Mining Equipment

MODEL
Description Engine Power (Gross) Engine Power (Gross) Dual Engine Model Speeds Forward 1st Speed Forward 2nd Speed Forward 3rd Speed Forward 4th Speed Forward 5th Speed Forward 6th Speed Forward 7th Speed Forward Speeds Reverse 1st Speed Reverse 2nd Speed Reverse 3rd Speed Reverse 4th Speed Reverse Tires Hydraulic Cycle Times Raise Dump Lower (empty, Float, Position) Total Dimensions Rated Payload Bucket Capacity** Width (Overall) excluding bucket Height (Overall) Length (Tramming) Turning Radius SAE Outer Clearance Radius Inner Turning Radius Weight (Empty) Weight (Loaded) Axle Oscillation Articulation Angle Ground Clearance Unladen Front Axle Weight Unladen Rear Axle Weights Laden Front Axle Weight Laden Rear Axle Weights Weight Distribution Front Unladen Weight Distribution Rear Unladen Weight Distribution Front Laden Weight Distribution Rear Laden **SAE 2:1

R1300G DE-1784
Metric 123 kW Imperial 165 hp

R1600G DE-1839
Metric Imperial 186 kW 250 hp 201 kW 270 hp Caterpillar 3176C EUI ATAAC 5.0 km/h 8.7 km/h 15.2 km/h 22.1 km/h 3.1 mph 5.4 mph 9.5 mph 13.7 mph

Caterpillar 3406E EUI ATAAC 4.9 km/h 8.8 km/h 15.3 km/h 26.1 km/h 3.0 mph 5.5 mph 9.5 mph 16.2 mph

4.5 km/h 2.8 mph 8.0 km/h 5.0 mph 14.0 km/h 8.7 mph 23.8 km/h 14.8 mph BRIDGESTONE 17.5X25 20 PLY STMS L5S 5.0 secs 2.0 secs 2.3 secs 9.3 secs 6800 kg 3.1 m3 2071 mm 2118 mm 8707 mm 4650 mm 5741 mm 2914 mm 20 950 kg 27 750 kg ± 10.0° ± 42.5° 335 mm 8200 kg 12 850 kg 18 650 kg 9100 kg 39% 61% 67% 33% 14,991 lb 4.1 yd3 81.5 inch 83.4 inch 342.8 inch 183.1 inch 226.0 inch 114.7 inch 46187 lb 61178 lb

5.7 km/h 3.6 mph 9.9 km/h 6.2 mph 17.2 km/h 10.7 mph 23.8 km/h 14.8 mph BRIDGESTONE 18X28 28 PLY STMS L5S 7.6 secs 1.6 secs 2.0 secs 11.2 secs 10 200 kg 4.8 m3 2564 mm 2400 mm 9711 mm 5490 mm 6638 mm 3291 mm 29 800 kg 40 000 kg ± 10.0° ± 42.5° 344 mm 12 550 kg 17 250 kg 28 114 kg 11 886 kg 42% 58% 70% 30% 22,487 lb 6.3 yd3 100.9 inch 94.5 inch 382.3 inch 216.1 inch 261.3 inch 129.6 inch 65,698 lb 88,185 lb

13.2 inch 18,078 lb 28,329 lb 41,116 lb 20,062 lb

13.5 inch 27,668 lb 38,030 lb 61,981 lb 26,204 lb

Miscellaneous

82

Underground Mining Equipment

MODEL
Description Engine Power (Gross) Engine Power (Gross) Dual Engine Model Speeds Forward 1st Speed Forward 2nd Speed Forward 3rd Speed Forward 4th Speed Forward 5th Speed Forward 6th Speed Forward 7th Speed Forward Speeds Reverse 1st Speed Reverse 2nd Speed Reverse 3rd Speed Reverse 4th Speed Reverse Tires Hydraulic Cycle Times Raise Dump Lower (empty, Float, Position) Total Dimensions Rated Payload Bucket Capacity** Width (Overall) excluding bucket Height (Overall) Length (Tramming) Turning Radius SAE Outer Clearance Radius Inner Turning Radius Weight (Empty) Weight (Loaded) Axle Oscillation Articulation Angle Ground Clearance Unladen Front Axle Weight Unladen Rear Axle Weights Laden Front Axle Weight Laden Rear Axle Weights Weight Distribution Front Unladen Weight Distribution Rear Unladen Weight Distribution Front Laden Weight Distribution Rear Laden **SAE 2:1

R1700G DE-1498 Metric 231 kW 250 kW Caterpillar 3176C EUI DI-T ATAAC 4.7 km/h 8.3 km/h 14.3 km/h 24.1 km/h

Imperial 310 hp 335 hp

2.9 mph 5.1 mph 8.9 mph 15.0 mph

5.4 km/h 3.3 mph 9.4 km/h 5.8 mph 16.4 km/h 10.2 mph 25.3 km/h 15.7 mph BRIDGESTONE 26.5X25 36 PLY STMS L5S 6.7 secs 2.8 secs 2.4 secs 11.9 secs 12500 kg 5.8 m3 2689 mm 2557 mm 10 589 mm 5539 mm 6878 mm 3229 mm 38 500 kg 51 000 kg ± 8.0° ± 44.0° 429 mm 17 000 kg 21 500 kg 36 950 kg 14 050 kg 44% 56% 72% 28% 27,558 lb 7.6 yd3 105.9 inch 100.7 inch 416.9 inch 218.1 inch 270.8 inch 127.1 inch 84,878 lb 112,436 lb

16.9 inch 37,479 lb 47,399 lb 81,461 lb 30,975 lb

Miscellaneous

84

Underground Mining Equipment

MODEL
Description Engine Power (Gross) Engine Power (Gross) Dual Engine Model Speeds Forward 1st Speed Forward 2nd Speed Forward 3rd Speed Forward 4th Speed Forward 5th Speed Forward 6th Speed Forward 7th Speed Forward Speeds Reverse 1st Speed Reverse 2nd Speed Reverse 3rd Speed Reverse 4th Speed Reverse Tires Hydraulic Cycle Times Raise Dump Lower (empty, Float, Position) Total Dimensions Rated Payload* Bucket Capacity** Width (Overall) excluding bucket Height (Overall) Length (Tramming) Turning Radius SAE Outer Clearance Radius Inner Turning Radius Weight (Empty) Weight (Loaded) Axle Oscillation Articulation Angle Ground Clearance Unladen Front Axle Weight Unladen Rear Axle Weights Laden Front Axle Weight Laden Rear Axle Weights Weight Distribution Front Unladen Weight Distribution Rear Unladen Weight Distribution Front Laden Weight Distribution Rear Laden *Ore pass dumping only **SAE 2:1

R2900G Xtra DE-1825 Metric Imperial 282 kW 378 hp 306 kW 410 hp Caterpillar 3406E EUI ATAAC 5.1 km/h 9.0 km/h 15.1 km/h 24.8 km/h 3.2 mph 5.6 mph 9.4 mph 15.4 mph

R2900G Xtra DE-1826 Metric Imperial 282 kW 378 hp 306 kW 410 hp Caterpillar 3406E EUI ATAAC 5.3 km/h 9.3 km/h 16.4 km/h 24.2 km/h 3.3 mph 5.8 mph 10.2 mph 15.0 mph

6.1 km/h 3.8 mph 10.9 km/h 6.8 mph 17.9 km/h 11.1 mph 27.9 km/h 17.3 mph BRIDGESTONE 29.5X29 34 PLY STMS L5S 9.2 secs 3.4 secs 3.1 secs 15.7 secs 17 200 kg 7.2 m3 3010 mm 2886 mm 10 949 mm 5936 mm 7323 mm 3383 mm 50 100 kg 67 300 kg ± 8.0° ± 42.5° 465 mm 23 000 kg 27 100 kg 51 166 kg 16 134 kg 46% 54% 76% 24% 37,919 lb 9.4 yd3 118.5 inch 113.6 inch 431.1 inch 233.7 inch 288.3 inch 133.2 inch 110,451 lb 148,371 lb 18.3 inch 50,706 lb 59,745 lb 112,802 lb 35,569 lb

6.6 km/h 4.1 mph 11.6 km/h 7.2 mph 19.2 km/h 11.9 mph 27.0 km/h 16.8 mph BRIDGESTONE 35/65 R33 ** VSDL L5 7.6 secs 2.8 secs 2.4 secs 12.8 secs 20 000 kg 8.9 m3 3200 mm 2988 mm 11083 mm 5991 mm 7511 mm 3289 mm 56000 kg 76000 kg ± 8.0° ± 42.5° 466 mm 23 000 kg 33 000 kg 55 173 kg 20 827 kg 41% 59% 73% 27% 44,092 lb 11.6 yd3 126.0 inch 117.6 inch 436.3 inch 235.9 inch 295.7 inch 129.5 inch 123,459 lb 167,551 lb 18.3 inch 50,706 lb 72,752 lb 121,635 lb 45,916 lb

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