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NUTRITION- The series of processes by which an organism takes in and assimilates food for promoting growth and replacing

damaged or injured tissues NUTRIENTS- Any feed constituent, or a group of feed constituents that aids in the support of life DIGESTION- Process of breaking down food particles to smaller particles for absorption ABSORPTION- Transfer of substance from gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) to the circulatory (blood or lymph) system METABOLISM- Combination of anabolic and catabolic reactions occurring in the body with the liberation of energy ANABOLISM- also called constructive metabolism; is all about building and storing. Supports the growth of new cells, the maintenance of body tissues, and the storage of energy for use in the future. small molecules are changed into larger, more complex molecules of carbohydrate, protein and fat. CAATABOLISM- also known as destructive metabolism; and is the process that produces the energy required for all activity in the cells cells break down large molecules (mostly carbohydrates and fats) to release energy ENZYMES- A complex protein which is also called “organic catalyst” which aid in reducing the nutrients to their basic units PROXI MATE COMPOSITION Nutrient Animal Composition Water 60% Proteins 16% Minerals 4% Carbohydrates <1% Fats <20%

Plant Composition almost the same “ “ “ “ >20% <1%

CLASSES OF NUTRIENTS 1. WATER- Cheapest and most abundant nutrient. Percentage of body water varies depending on age SOURCES: A. Drinking water B. Water contained in feeds (8-30%) C. Metabolic water (may account for 5-10% of total water intake) MAIN FUNCTIONS: A. Transport of nutrients and excretion B. Chemical reactions and solvent properties C. Body temperature regulation 2. CARBOHYDRATES- made up of C,H & O include sugar, starch, cellulose & gums produced during photosynthesis limited storage in animal’s body make-up approximately ¾ of plant dry weight

CLASSIFICATIONS: A. MONOSACCHARIDES

one sugar molecule, produced during digestion of more complex carbohydrate Examples: 1. HEXOSES – glucose, fructose, galactose, mannose 2. PENTOSES – arabinose, xylose, ribose* * Ribose – found in nucleic acids  GLUCOSE  FRUCTOSE → moderately sweet → sweetest of all → primary form of monosaccharide → found in fruits and honey circulating in the body → ex. Grape sugar  GALACTOSE  MANNOSE → came from hydrolysis of lactose (milk → has bitter taste sugar) → found in pineapple and coconut (copra meal) → found in mannans (a kind of polysaccharide)

B. DISACCHARIDES two sugar molecules Example: • sucrose, lactose, maltose, cellobiose  SUCROSE → known as “table sugar” →composed of one glucose unit and one fructose unit →found in sugar cane  LACTOSE →known as “milk sugar” →1 galactose + 1 glucose unit C. POLYSACCHARIDES many sugar molecules Example: Starch, glycogen, cellulose, lignin  STARCH →glucose units linked by α-linkage →composed of amylose (unbranched) and amylopectin (branched) →principal carbohydrate reserve of plants

 MALTOSE →known as “malt sugar” → 2 glucose units linked by α-linkage  CELLOBIOSE →2 glucose units linked by β-units

 CELLULOSE →most abundant carbohydrate →glucose units linked by β-linkage →principal cell wall constituent of plants  LIGNIN → NOT a carbohydrate →influences feed digestibility (indigestible)

 GLYCOGEN →major carbohydrate reserves in animals →stored in liver and muscles FUNCTIONS AND DEFICIENCIES

 Functions in the Animal Body • major source of energy • source of heat

 Deficiencies • ketosis – accumulation of ketone bodies e.g. acetate, acetoacetate, βhydroxybutyrate • diabetes mellitus

3. FATS- insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvent yield 2.25 times more energy than carbohydrates or proteins CLASSIFICATION: A. Simple Lipids- only made-up of fatty acids and glycerol (basic units of lipids) B. Compound Lipids- ex. phospholipids, glycolipids, lipoproteins STRUCTURE OF FATS A. Saturated fats- no double bond B. Unsaturated fats- contain double bonds FUNCTIONS AND DEFICIENCIES  Functions  Deficiencies • acts as stored energy • source of heat, insulation and protection • Ketosis – catabolism of fat of animal body • Fatty Liver (steatosis)– abnormal • source of essential fatty acids metabolism the liver → Linolenic acid → Arachidonic acid → Linoleic acid 4. PROTEIN- nutrient which contains nitrogen (N) some proteins also have sulfur and phosphorus act as enzymes, hormones & structural components STRUCTURE OF PROTEINS- All proteins have one common property, their basic structure is made-up of single unit, amino acids PROTEIN TERMINOLOGIES A. Essential Amino Acids- must be supplied in the diet animals cannot synthesize them fast enough to meet its requirement (PVT MAT HILL) Phenylalanine Methionine Histidine Lysine Valine Arginine Isoleucine Threonine Tryptophan Leucine B. Non-essential amino acids- need not be supplemented essential to the animal but are normally synthesized or sufficient in the diet Alanine Cysteine Glutamine Proline Asparagine Cystine Glycine Serine Aspartic Acid Glutamic Acid Hydroxyproline Tyrosine DEFICIENCY: Kwashiorkor- sufferers show signs of thinning hair, edema, inadequate growth, and weight loss. 5. MINERALS- inorganic crystalline solid also called ash 5% of animal body weight on dry matter basis CLASSIFICATION:

A. Macrominerals- also called major minerals needed in relatively large amounts in the diet e.g. Mg, S, Ca, Na, Cl, K, P Sodium (Na) and Chlorine (Cl) – Salt  Major Functions  Deficiency Symptoms • normal appetite • reduced growth and efficiency of feed • regulation of body fluids utilization in growing animals • nerve transmission and muscle action • reduced production and weight loss in adults • chicks on Cl-deficient diet exhibit nervous symptoms induced by sudden noise

Calcium  Major Functions • bone & teeth formation • blood coagulation • muscle contraction  Deficiency Symptoms • rickets in young • bowed legs in chicks • osteomalacia in adults

• nerve function • cell permeability • egg shell formation

milk fever

Phosphorus  Major Function play a major role in biological molecules such as DNA and RNA where it forms part of the structural framework needed to transport cellular energy via adenosine triphosphate (ATP) main structural components of all cellular membranes assist in bone formation Magnesium  Major Functions  Deficiency Symptoms • is a component of bone, enzymes • “grass tetany” and intracellular fluids • slipped tendons • has influence on neuromuscular transmission Potassium  Major Functions • influencing osmotic balance between cells and the interstitial fluid, by the so-called Na+/K+-ATPase pump. • important in allowing muscle contraction •necessary on sending of all the nerve impulses in animals through action potentials  Deficiency Symptoms • retarded growth • unsteady gait - general muscle weakness

• abnormal heart beat Sulfur  Major Functions • component of sufur-containing amino acids, cysteine and methionine • important in energy metabolism as a component of coenzyme A, biotin and thiamine (Vit B1) B. Microminerals- also called trace minerals needed in very small amount in the diet toxic in large quantities e.g. Zn, Cu, I, F, Se, Co, Mn, Fe Iodine  Major Functions • first converted to iodide in the gut • most iodide is actively trapped by the thyroid gland, as I2, it forms an essential component of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine  Deficiency Symptoms • Dead in shell • Delayed hatch • Incomplete abdominal closure Iron  Major Functions • A constituent of hemoglobin, the iron-containing compound that transports oxygen • Cellular oxidations • Metabolism of bone marrow, spleen and liver  Deficiency Symptoms • Iron-deficiency anemia • Retarded growth • Incorrect feather pigmentation Manganese  Major Functions • Essential for normal bone growth and reproduction • Activator of enzyme systems involved in oxidative phosphorylation, amino acid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, fatty acid synthesis and cholesterol metabolism  Deficiency Symptoms • Retarded growth • Lameness, shortening & bowing of legs • Enlarged joints • Testicle degeneration of males • Defective ovulation of females • Slipped tendons • Peak death prior to hatch • Edema • Malformations ad abnormal feathering

Chromium Molybdenum  Major Function Major Function • Insulin-like effect on glucose metabolism Uric acid formation Cobalt  Major Function • A component of Vitamin B12 Copper  Major Functions • Required for hemoglobin formation • Essential in enzyme systems • Feather development and pigmentation • Bone development • Reproduction • Shell quality

 • • • • •

Deficiency Symptoms Nervous symptoms (Ataxia) Early Embryo Death (EED) Lameness and swelling of joints Weak blood vessels (aortic ruptures) Incorrect feather pigmentation

Selenium  Major Functions • Metabolism of liver, kidneys and muscles • Interacts with Vitamin E absorption and retention • Prevents degeneration and fibrosis of the pancreas in chicks  Deficiency Symptoms • • • • • Nutritional Muscular Dystrophy in Lambs and Calves White Muscle Disease • Reduction in egg production & Exudative diathesis in poultry hatchability Liver Necrosis in pigs • High incidence of early embryonic death Mulberry Heart • Common deformities, including lack of eyes and deformed wings & feet  Major Interrelationships and Toxicities • Related to Vitamin E absorption Silicon  Major Function ● Mineralization process in bones Zinc  Major Functions ● Bone and feather development ● Component of several enzymes including carbonic anhydrase ● Required for normal protein synthesis and metabolism

 Deficiency Symptoms ● Hock enlargement ● Slipped tendons ● Shortening and thickening of leg bones ● “Parakeratosis”

6. VITAMINS- Organic components of natural food but distinct from carbohydrates, fats, protein and water

Present in minute amounts but effective Not source of energy CLASSIFICATION A. Fat Soluble Vitamins ● Vitamin A ● Vitamin D ● Vitamin E ● Vitamin K Vitamin A  Major functions Maintains health of specialized tissues such as the retina Aids in growth and health of skin and mucous membranes Promotes normal development of teeth, soft and skeletal tissues  Deficiency Symptoms ● Lesions around the eyes ● Keratinization ● Nervous incoordination ● Weak chicks Vitamin D  Major Functions Promotes the body’s absorption of calcium, essential to development of healthy bones and teeth.  Deficiency Symptoms ● Rickets in young ● Leg deformities ● Osteomalacia in adults ● Poor egg shell quality ● Defective or soft beak in chicks Vitamin E  Major Functions ● Protects cell membranes and tissues from damage by oxidation ● Aids in the formation of red blood cells and use of vitamin K ● Promotes function of a healthy circulatory system  Deficiency Symptoms ● Muscular Dystrophy ● White Muscle Disease ● Encephalomalacia (Crazy Chick Disease) ● Exudative Diathesis

 Comments ● Utilization of Vitamin E is dependent on adequate selenium

Vitamin K For blood clotting  Deficiency Symptoms ●Prolonged blood clotting B. Water Soluble Vitamins ●Thiamine (Vit B1) ● Riboflavin (Vit B2) ● Pyridoxine (Vit B6) ● Cyanocobalamin (Vit B12) ● Niacin Thiamine (B1)  Major Functions ● Coenzyme in energy metabolism ● Promotes appetite and growth ● Aids hatchability ● Aids reproduction ● Generalized hemorrhages

● ● ● ●

Panthothenic Acid Biotin Choline Folic Acid

● Required for normal carbohydrate metabolism -Helps the body convert food into energy, and aids the function of the heart and cardiovascular system and the brain and nervous system

 Deficiency Symptoms ●Cardiovascular disturbances head) ● Lowered body temperature ● Polyneuritis in chicks (retraction of the ● Cerebrocortical necrosis

Riboflavin (B2) ●Works with other vitamin B vitamins to promote healthy growth and tissue repair, and helps release energy from carbohydrates ●Healthy red blood cell production  Deficiency Symptoms ● Retarded Growth ● Curled Toes Paralysis ● Low Food Conversion Rate ● Poor Chick Quality

● Spradled leg paralysis ● Low Hatchability rd th ● High Embryonic Mortality during 3 & 4 Week of Incubation

Pyridoxine (B6) Important for maintaining healthy brain function, the formation of red blood cells, the breakdown of protein and synthesis of antibodies in support of the immune system  Deficiency Symptoms ● Convulsions ● Retarded Growth ● Reduced egg laying and hatchability ● Abnormal feathering

Cyanocobalamin (B12) Important for metabolism, formation of red blood cells, and maintenance of the central nervous system, which includes the brain and the spinal cord

 Deficiency Symptoms ● Retarded growth ● Fail to hatch eggs ● Slipped tendon in chicks ● Pernicious anemia

Niacin (B3) Works with other B vitamins to help release energy from carbohydrates

 Deficiency symptoms ● Retarded growth ● Reduced appetite ● Spectacled eye ● Fatty liver ● Bowed legs ● Curled toes

● Hock enlargement

● Scaliness on feet ● Frizzled and rough feathering

Pantothenic Acid  Major Functions ● Component of coenzyme A ● Required for energy metabolism ● Plumage quality ● Viability of offspring ● Egg production ● Hatchability

 Deficiency Symptoms ● Crusting and scab formation around eyes & beak ● “Goose-stepping” in swine

● Bottoms of feet rough with hemorrhagic cracks (hyperkeratosis)

Biotin  Major Functions ● Component of several enzyme systems ● Protein synthesis ● Fatty acid synthesis

 Deficiency Symptoms ● Crusting and scab formation around the eyes and beak Lesions ● Bottoms of feet rough with hemorrhagic cracks ● Curled Toes ● Low Hatchability ● Foot

Choline  Major Functions ●Involved in nerve impulses ● A component of phospholipids ● Mobilization of body fat through the liver ● Donor of methyl groups

 Deficiency Symptoms ● Fatty liver ● Slipped tendon ● Kidney hemorrhaging

Folate (B9)  Major Functions ● Aids in the production of red blood cells, synthesis of DNA ●Works with B12 and vitamin C to help the body digest and utilize proteins

● Poor growth ● Macrocytic anemia

● Slipped tendon

● Incorrect pigmentation

● Frizzled and rough feathering ● Beak deformities

● Late embryonic death

Ascorbic Acid (Vit. C)

● Collagen Formation

● Increases resistance to infection

● Formation of the intercellular substances of the teeth, bones and soft tissue ● Aids in the absorption of iron DIGESTION Process of breaking down food particles to smaller particles for absorption ● Frank scurvy

TYPES OF DIGESTION A. Mechanical - includes prehension, mastication, swallowing, and mixing, and peristalsis B. Chemical Stomach – secretes Small Intestine – bicarbonates were secreted C. Enzymatic Salivary amylase – contained in the saliva Pancreatic amylase, lipase and proteases - secreted by the pancreas in the small intestine D. Bacterial – major type of digestion in the ruminants The main product of fermentation → Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA) → CO2 → CH4

TYPES OF ANIMALS ACCORDING TO STRUCTURE OF THEIR STOMACH A. MONOGASTRICS also called “simple-stomach” animals animals with one-compartment stomach e.g. pigs and horses

Mouth The mouth is composed of 3 accessory organs • Tongue – grasping food • Teeth – mastication of food • Salivary glands – produce saliva that contains: *water to moisten food *mucin to lubricate food for easy swallowing *bicarbonate salts to buffer (regulate pH) *salivary amylase to start carbohydrate digestion Esophagus a muscular tube; allows passage of food from mouth to stomach

Stomach Is a muscular digestive organ that has 3 major functions: - storage of ingested feed - mechanical breakdown - production of HCl, enzymes and mucus

The stomach has three major regions: • Cardiac region - cells produce mucus that protects the stomach lining • Peptic gland region - cells produce HCl, pepsin (proteolytic enzyme), and mucus • Pyloric region - primarily mucus producing cells

Small Intestine The small intestine has 3 divisions:

• Duodenum - an active site of digestion that receives secretions from the pancreas, liver and intestinal walls • Jejunum - middle section that is involved in nutrient absorption •Ileum - last section (also involved in nutrient absorption)

Large Intestine The large intestine also has 3 sections: • Cecum - first section which is relatively large in the horse and rabbit Note: when well developed as in the horse contains many bacteria which produced enzymes that digest fiber (i.e. cellulase) • Colon - middle section which is involved in reabsorption of water - length is related to amount of water reabsorption. - i.e. the colon is very long in the desert rat • Rectum - last section

B. MODIFIED SIMPLE STOMACHS Has crop (for storage of feed), proventriculus (secretion of gastric enzymes for digestion), and gizzard (for mixing and grinding feed)

Mouth • does not contain teeth • bird’s beak is used to collect particles of feed and to break some large particles into smaller pieces • a tongue and salivary glands are present and the saliva does contain salivary amylase

Esophagus The esophagus of most birds include an enlarged area called crop Functions of the crop include: - temporary storage and moistening of food - place for salivary amylase to work - microbial fermentation in some species

Proventriculus -The proventriculus corresponds to the true stomach as described for the non-ruminant and the abomasums for the ruminant -The site of HCl and pepsin production in the bird -“It is very interesting to note that ingesta passes through the proventriculus very rapidly – 14 sec”

Gizzard (Ventriculus) A muscular area which contains grit The muscular contractions which are involuntary aid in the mechanical breakdown of food - similar to the mastication by the teeth in the non-ruminant and ruminant

Small intestine The small intestine of the bird is similar to the small intestine of the non-ruminant and ruminant

Large intestine -The large intestine of the bird contains 2 areas which are very similar in form and function to the cecum of non-ruminants and ruminants -In the bird these areas are called ceca

C. RUMINANTS also called “compound stomach animals” have a “four-compartment stomach”

Rumen -The rumen is a large muscular compartment which fills the left side of the body cavity -The muscular walls secrete no enzymes and are covered by projections called papillae which are required for absorption of nutrients -Provide favorable environment for protozoa and bacteria -A milliliter of rumen fluid contains 25-50 billion bacteria  Ruminal bacteria are responsible for a significant pregastric fermentation which produces: ● Enzymes that breakdown fiber as well as, starch and protein. The digestion which occurs produces volatile fatty acid (propionic, butyric, acetic) which are absorbed via the papillae and used as a source of energy for the animal ● Water soluble vitamins and vitamin K ● Bacterial synthesis of amino acids and protein. ● The bacteria will pass out of the rumen and become a source of amino acids for the host animal. ● Thus, low quality dietary protein (protein which is low in the dietary essential amino acids) may become high quality protein which is high in the dietary essential amino acids during rumen digestion

Favorable conditions which are provided in the rumen include:  anaerobic environment  constant warm temperature  moisture  constant food supply  mixing removal of toxic end-products

Additional functions of the rumen include:  Storage  Soaking  Physical mixing and breakdown

Reticulum The reticulum and the rumen are not completely seperated; they are not 2 distinctly separate compartments. But, they do have different functions

Functions of Reticulum To move food into the rumen or omasum Collection of dense particles of food and in regurgitation of food and in regurgitation of ingesta during rumination* *Rumination is the process of movement of ingesta back-up the esophagus to the mouth for additional mechanical breakdown – “chewing the cud”

Omasum  The omasum is a round muscular organ which contains many muscular laminae (sometimes called manyplies)  Possible functions included: - controlling passage of ingesta to lower tract i.e. acts as a pump - reduce particle size of ingesta and, - absorption

Abomasum  Considered to be very similar to the true gastric stomach which was described for nonruminants  i.e. gland regions of the abomasums correspond to gland regions of the non-ruminant stomach

Additional unique features of the ruminant include:  Esophageal groove - begins at the base of the esophagus - when stimulated by sucking, forms a tube which empties into the abomasums - function to direct milk obtained from sucking to escape microbial digestion in the rumen

 Rumination - described as controlled vomiting - in this process, a controlled set of contractions of the esophagus, reticulum, and rumen allow ingesta to be regurgitated back up to the esophagus where fluids are swallowed again and additional remastication and reswallowing of solids occur

 Eructication - The process of belching of gas - Allows for removal of large volume of gas produced in the rumen - Contractions of the upper part rumen force the gas up the esophagus and from there; the gas penetrates into the trachea and lungs

ENZYMES

 Following mechanical breakdown, the action of enzymes is required to break nutrients down to their basic units  Organic catalysts which produce changes in the structure of nutrients which result in the reduction to basic units  Saliva *Salivary amylase – starch to maltose  Rumen *Microbial cellulase – cellulose to volatile fatty acid *Microbial amylase – starch to volatile fatty acids & lactic acid *Microbial proteases – protein to amino acids and NH3 *Microbial urease – urea to CO2 and NH3  Stomach, Abomasum and Proventriculus *Pepsin – protein to polypeptides  Pancreas (enzymes produced by pancreas are secreted into the duodenum) *Trypsin – protein to peptides and amino acids *Chymotrypsin – protein to peptides and amino acids *Carboxypeptidase – protein to peptides and amino acids

ABSORPTION  Occurs primarily in the small intestine and large intestine  The villi (very small projections which line the small intestine) are essential for absorption  Large amount of absorption of volatile fatty acids occurs in the rumen and depends greatly on many healthy papillae (projections which line the rumen)  In general, absorption occurs as the result of diffusion or active transport  Diffusion involves the movement of the basic units from areas of high concentration (the GI tract) to area of lower concentration (the blood)

NUTRIENT DIGESTION Nutrients • • Protein Starch Basic Unit amino acid glucose (non-ruminant) VFA and lactic acid (ruminant) • • • • • • Cellulose Sucrose Lactose Lipids Minerals Vitamins VFA (Volatile Fatty Acids glucose and fructose glucose and galactose fatty acids and glycerol any soluble form any soluble form

DIFFERENT CLASSIFICATIONS OF FEED STUFF  Roughages  Feed materials containing more than 18% crude fiber and are generally low in energy  Ex. Grasses & legumes

 Concentrates

 Feeds that are high in energy (NFE and TDN) and low in crude fiber (less than 18%)  Two Types of Concentrates: ● Basal or Energy Feeds ● Protein Feeds

Basal or Energy Feeds / Bulk Feeds ● generally characterized by high in energy (TDN,ME) ● low in fiber (less than 18%) ● low in protein (less than 20%) – protein quality is variable and generally quite low ● ex. Cereal grains (corn, sorghum, feed wheat) Mill by-products (rice bran, wheat pollard, corn bran, corn gluten feed, dried whey, molasses) Fats/oils (vegetable oils & animal fats)  Protein Feeds ● contain more than 20% protein ● have two origins: → Animal/Marine Origin → Plant Origin

Animal/ Marine Origin Protein Feeds  Generally high-quality protein feeds  Derived from meat packing or rendering plants, from surplus milk or milk products, and from marine sources  This group of feeds are usually employed to improve the total protein of basal feeds Plant Origin Protein Feeds  Includes the common oil seed by-products  Vary in protein content and feeding value depending on the seed from which they are produced, the amount of hull and/or seed coat included, and the method of oil extraction used  Ex. Soybean oil meal, peanut meal, corn gluten meal, brewer’s dried grain, copra meal, etc.

 Supplements  Feedstuff that is mixed with a primary grain and/or roughage to provide all the nutrients required to support the form of production for which it is intended  Ex. Mineral Supplements Vitamin Supplements Amino Acid Supplements Feed Additives Mineral Supplements  Rich sources of one or more of the inorganic elements needed to perform certain essential body function  Ex. Limestone – source of calcium Oyster Shell – source of calcium Salt (table salt) – source of Na & Cl Tricalcium Phosphate – source of calcium & phosphorus Vitamin Supplements  Rich synthetic or natural feed sources of one or more of the complex organic compounds, called vitamins  Ex. Fat Soluble Vitamins B-Complex Vitamins Vitamin C Feed Additives  Substances of non-nutritive nature which when added to feed will improve feed efficiency and/or production of animals  Ex. Antibiotics, drugs, antioxidants, enzymes, flavoring agents, hormones, mold inhibitors, toxin binders, probiotics