MODULE 2 Mechanisms o !"as#ic $e o%ma#ion in me#a"s
Plastic deformation, as explained in earlier section, involves motion of dislocations. There are two prominent mechanisms of plastic deformation, namely s"i! and #&in' nin(. Slip is the prominent mechanism of plastic deformation in metals. It involves sliding of blocks of crystal over one other along definite crystallographic planes, called slip planes. In physical words it is analogous to a deck of cards when it is pushed from one end. Slip occurs when shear stress applied exceeds a critical value. uring slip each atom usually moves same integral number of atomic distances along the slip plane producing a step, but the orientation of the crystal remains the same. Steps observable under microscope as straight lines are called slip lines. Slip occurs most readily in specific directions !slip directions" on certain crystallographic planes. This is due to limitations imposed by the fact that single crystal remains homogeneous after deformation. #enerally slip plane is the plane of greatest atomic density, and the slip direction is the close packed direction within the slip plane. It turns out that the planes of the highest atomic density are the most widely spaced planes, while the close packed directions have the smallest translation distance. $easible combination of a slip plane together with a slip direction is considered as a slip system. The common slip systems are given in table

Prepared by Sa%eev &, ept.of 'echanical (ngg.,S)#*(

In a single crystal, plastic deformation is accomplished by the process called slip, and sometimes by twinning. The extent of slip depends on many factors including external load and the corresponding value of shear stress produced by it, the geometry of crystal structure, and the orientation of active slip planes with the direction of shearing stresses generated. Schmid first recogni+ed that single crystals at different orientations but of same material re,uire different stresses to produce slip. The dependence of various factors has been summari+ed using a parameter - critical resolved shear stress, ./, given as

where P - external load applied, & - cross-sectional area over which the load applied, 0 angle between slip direction and tensile axis, 1 - angle between normal to the slip plane and the tensile axis and m - Schmid factor. Shear stress is maximum for the condition where 0 2 1 2 34 5. If either of the angles are e,ual to 67 5, resolved shear stress will be +ero, and thus no slip occurs. If the conditions are such that either of the angles is close to 67 5, crystal will tend to fracture rather than

Prepared by Sa%eev &, ept.of 'echanical (ngg.,S)#*(

slip. Single crystal metals and alloys are used mainly for research purpose and only in a few cases of engineering applications. &lmost all engineering alloys are polycrystalline. #ross plastic deformation of a polycrystalline specimen corresponds to the comparable distortion of the individual grains by means of slip. &lthough some grains may be oriented favorably for slip, yielding cannot occur unless the unfavorably oriented neighboring grains can also slip. Thus in a polycrystalline aggregate, individual grains provide a mutual geometrical constraint on one other, and this precludes plastic deformation at low applied stresses. That is to initiate plastic deformation, polycrystalline metals re,uire higher stresses than for e,uivalent single crystals, where stress depends on orientation of the crystal. 'uch of this increase is attributed to geometrical reasons. Slip in polycrystalline material involves generation, movement and !re-"arrangement of dislocations. 8ecause of dislocation motion on different planes in various directions, they may interact as well. This interaction can cause dislocation immobile or mobile at higher stresses. uring deformation, mechanical integrity and coherency are maintained along the grain boundaries9 that is, the grain boundaries are constrained, to some degree, in the shape it may assume by its neighboring grains. :nce the yielding has occurred, continued plastic deformation is possible only if enough slip systems are simultaneously operative so as to accommodate grain shape changes while maintaining grain boundary integrity. &ccording to von 'ises criterion, a minimum of five independent slip systems must be operative for a polycrystalline solid to exhibit ductility and maintain grain boundary integrity. This arises from the fact that an arbitrary deformation is specified by the six components of strain tensor, but because of re,uirement of constant volume, there are only independent strain components. *rystals which do not possess five independent slip systems are never ductile in polycrystalline form, although small plastic elongation may be noticeable because of twinning or a favorable preferred orientation. The second important mechanism of plastic deformation is twinning. It results when a portion of crystal takes up an orientation that is related to the orientation of the rest of the untwined lattice in a definite, symmetrical way. The twinned portion of the crystal is a mirror image of the parent crystal. The plane of symmetry is called twinning plane. (ach Prepared by Sa%eev &, ept.of 'echanical (ngg.,S)#*(

thus resulting in very small gross plastic deformation. Thus. the twin would be still visible after etching because it possesses a different orientation from the untwined region. &lso. usually in order of fraction of inter-atomic distance. :f course. ept. This is in contrast with slip. twinning and slip may occur se. it is not known if there exists resolved shear stress for twinning. Twinning systems for some metals are given in table Prepared by Sa%eev &. some . If the surface is polished. .*P metals with limited number of slip systems may preferably twin. The important role of twinning in plastic deformation is that it causes changes in plane orientation so that further slip can occur.owever. The lattice strains involved in twinning are small.atom in the twinned region moves by a homogeneous shear a distance proportional to its distance from the twin plane. where slip lines can be removed by polishing the specimen.. Twinning generally occurs when slip is restricted. 8** metals twin at low temperatures because slip is difficult. because the stress necessary for twinning is usually higher than that for slip.uentially or even concurrently in some cases.S)#*( . Twinning also occurs in a definite direction on a specific plane for each crystal structure.of 'echanical (ngg.

Increasing temperature lowers the rate of strain hardening. and thus the treatment is given..$igure presents schematic movement of atoms during plastic deformation in slip and during twinning. Strain hardening is used for hardening=strengthening materials that are not responsive to heat treatment. defined by the parameter strain hardening exponent. Thus the treatment is also known as cold working. 'ost metals strain hardens at Prepared by Sa%eev &. In table.S)#*( . COLD )OR*ING (STRAIN +ARDENING) Two most important industrial processes used to harden metals or alloys are< strain hardening and heat treatment. The phenomenon where ductile metals become stronger and harder when they are deformed plastically is called strain hardening or work hardening. Com!a%ison o mechanism o !"as#ic $e o%ma#ion. both the mechanisms of plastic deformations are compared with respect to their characteristics. It is measure of the ability of a metal to strain harden. greater is the strain hardening. higher the value of n. at temperatures well below the melting point of the material. n. usually.of 'echanical (ngg. Intensity of strain hardening can be gaged from the slope of the flow curve. ept. $or a given amount of plastic strain.

Cith increase in temperature state becomes more unstable. The conse. Thus lightly cold worked material may have a dislocation density in order of ?7?@ m-@. (mpirically shear stress !." to move a dislocation that increases with increase in dislocation density !B" is given as< It is convenient to express the degree of plastic deformation as percent cold work. There is usually a small decrease in density. In general rate of strain hardening is lower for . and &d is the area after deformation. . physical properties of a material also changes during cold working.S)#*( . while a very heavily cold worked material may have ?7?A m-@ against ?7?7 m-@ for annealed temperature. ept.. In addition to mechanical properties. with plastic deformation dislocation density increases because under applied stress dislocation sources. small increase in thermal coefficient of expansion and increased chemical reactivity !decrease in corrosion resistance". it is not thermodynamically stable.*P metals than for cubic metals where higher number of slip systems is active at an instant of time. &lthough cold worked dislocation cell structure is mechanically stable. becomes active.igh density of dislocations and thus increased interaction under applied loads during cold working is the cause for increase in strength of a material. The cold worked state is a condition of higher internal energy than the un-deformed metal. like $rank-/eed source. an appreciable decrease in electrical conductivity.uence of strain hardening a material is improved strength and hardness but material>s ductility will be reduced.of 'echanical (ngg. Strain hardening is used commercially to enhance the mechanical properties of metals during fabrication procedures. definedas< where &7 is the original cross sectional area that experiences deformation. &s mentioned in earlier chapters. Prepared by Sa%eev &.

on heating the deformed material to higher temperatures and holding. There is some reduction. uring recovery. &nnealing process can be divided into three distinct processes< recovery. This process of heating to attain strain-free condition is called annealing heat treatment where effects of strain hardening may be removed. Reco/e%0 This is the first stage of restoration after cold working where physical properties of the cold-worked material are restored without any observable change in microstructure.ATION AND GRAIN GRO)T+ &s mentioned in earlier sections. 8etween ?-?7D of the energy of plastic deformation is stored in material in the form of strain energy associated with point defects and dislocations. :n annealing i. &ll these steps of the heat treatment process are explained in next section. while material strain hardens because of increase in dislocation density. RECO. which takes place at low temperatures of annealing. for example . in dislocation density as well apart from formation of dislocation configurations with low strain energies.S)#*( .of 'echanical (ngg. though not substantial. recrystalli+ation and grain growth.thermal and electrical conductivities. material tends to lose the extra strain energy and revert to the original condition before deformation by the processes of recovery and recrystalli+ation. annealing is an important industrial process to relieve the stresses from cold working.e. uring cold working grain shape changes. ept. (xcess point defects that are created during deformation are annihilated either by absorption at grain boundaries or Prepared by Sa%eev &. It is usual industrial practice to use alternate cycles of strain hardening and annealing to deform most metals to a very great extent. #rain growth may follow these in some instances.eventually reverts to strain-free condition.RECRYSTALLI.ERY. some of the stored internal energy is relieved by virtue of dislocation motion as a result of enhanced atomic diffusion.. The properties that are mostly affected by recovery ate those sensitive to point defects.

E-7.uivalent recrystalli+ation temperature.Smaller the degree of deformation. higher will be the recrystalli+ation temperature. time.F Tm. it is the process of nucleation and growth of new.The recrystalli+ation rate increases exponentially with temperature. which is above the recovery stage. the less is the strain energy stored and thus recrystalli+ation temperature is correspondingly higher. Rec%0s#a""i1a#ion This stage of annealing follows after recovery stage. There are many variables that influence recrystalli+ation behavior.. It starts on heating to temperatures in the range of 7. Stored energy of cold work is the driving force for recovery. involves replacement of cold-worked structure by a new set of strain-free.E Tm. . . There is no crystal structure change during recrystalli+ation. The recrystalli+ation temperature is strongly dependent on the purity of a material. approximately e. composition and amount of recovery prior to the start of the recrystalli+ation. strain-free crystals to replace all the deformed crystals. Pure materials may recrystalli+es around 7.e.uired to produce an e. initial grain si+e.4-7.The finer is the initial grain si+e9 lower will be the recrystalli+ation temperature. while impure materials may recrystalli+es around 7.& minimum amount of deformation is needed to cause recrystalli+ation. namely amount of prior deformation. thus. ept. the smaller will be the recrystalli+ed grain si+e. This dependence leads to following empirical laws< . .S)#*( .ere also driving force is stored energy of cold work. temperature. This stage. .The higher is the temperature of cold working.of 'echanical (ngg.4 Tm. This process is characteri+ed by recrystalli+ation temperature which is defined as the temperature at which 47D of material recrystalli+es in one hour time. Prepared by Sa%eev &.ui-axed grains i. the grains are still in relatively high strain energy state. (ven after complete recovery.#reater the degree of deformation and lower the annealing temperature. .dislocation climbing process. the greater degree of deformation is re. .The larger the initial grain si+e. .

. grain growth is strongly temperature dependent. grain growth does not need to be preceded by recovery and recrystalli+ation9 it may occur in all polycrystalline materials. 2+ASE DIAGRAMS 'any of the engineering materials possess mixtures of phases. . ept. the mechanical properties that were changes during deformation are restored to their pre-cold-work values. Thus material becomes softer. This solute drag effect can be used to retain cold worked strength at higher service temperatures. In practical applications. decreasing in free energy of the material. grain growth is not desirable.owever. and retard their motion and obstruct the processes of nucleation and growth. G%ain (%o&#h This stage follows complete crystalli+ation if the material is left at elevated temperatures.g. weaker and ductile. .e.pinning action of the particles. and composites. the curvature of the boundaries becomes less. This grain growth occurs by the migration riving force for this process is reduction in grain boundary energy i. e. grain growth occurs slowly at a temperature where recrystalli+ation occurs at substantially high speeds. The mixture of two or more phases may permit interaction between different phases. uring this stage newly formed strain-free grains tend to grow in si+e. paints. This results in a tendency for larger grains to grow at the expense of smaller grains.uring recrystalli+ation. Presence of second phase particles causes slowing down of recrystalli+ation . &s the grains grow larger. Incorporation of impurity atoms and insoluble second phase particles are effective in retarding grain growth.S)#*( . and results in properties usually are different from the properties of indiPrepared by Sa%eev &. of grain boundaries.owever. steel.of 'echanical (ngg. uring this stage of annealing impurity atoms tend to segregate at grain boundaries. 8ecause the driving force for grain growth is lower than the driving force for recrystalli+ation.

even as a li. under e. & solid solution has atoms mixed at atomic level thus it represents a single phase. In addition. 'ost of the alloy systems and composites are heterogeneous. crystalli+ation. In mixtures. however there may be more than one solid phase because of differences in crystal structure. $or pure substance there is only one li. Chen two phases are present in a system. In the solid state.uid phase.. There is only one vapor phase no matter how many constituents make it up. It is possible to have a mixture of two different solutionsG & pure substance. and other phenomena. Prepared by Sa%eev &. & li. there are different phases. ept.e. It is important to understand the existence of phases under various practical conditions which may dictate the microstructure of an alloy. Solute does not change the structural pattern of the solvent.uid mixture !e. it is not necessary that there be a difference in both physical and chemical properties9 a disparity in one or the other set of properties is sufficient. different chemical compositions and=or crystal structures are possible so a solid may consist of several phases. $or the same composition.of 'echanical (ngg. oil and water" forms two phases as there is no mixing at the molecular level. In other words. and systems composed of two or more phases are termed as mixtures or heterogeneous. thus the mechanical properties and usefulness of it. ifferent components can be combined into a single material by means of solutions or mixtures. may exist as either of a phase namely vapor. each with its own atomic arrangement.uid or solid. phase diagrams provide valuable information about melting.vidual phases. li. & solution !li. & phase can be defined as a homogeneous portion of a system that has uniform physical and chemical characteristics i. different crystal structures represent different phases.S)#*( .uid solution is also a single phase.g. & single-phase system is termed as homogeneous. Phase diagrams provide a convenient way of representing which state of aggregation !phase or phases" is stable for a particular set of conditions. and the composition of any solution can be varied. casting. depending upon the conditions of temperature and pressure. chemically homogeneous and mechanically separable portion of a system. a phase is a structurally homogeneous portion of matter.uilibrium conditions.uid or solid" is phase with more than one component9 a mixture is a material with more than one phase. it is a physically distinct from other phases.

uilibrium or meta-stable state. Phase e.Use 3" #e%mino"o(0<*omponent . ions or compounds. )umber of independent variables among these gives the degrees of freedom !$" or variance.uilibrium .uilibrium state of solid system can be reflected in terms of characteristics of the microstructure. This leads to non-e. The limit is known as solubility limit. They refer to the independent chemical species that comprise the system.S)#*( . relative phase amounts and their spatial arrangement or distribution.of 'echanical (ngg. phase e.these include two external variables namely temperature and pressure along with internal variable such as composition !*" and number of phases !P".is either pure metal and=or compounds of which an alloy is composed.for almost all alloy systems. either a solid solution or refers to the set of conditions where more than one phase may exist. has more practical significance than e. In general. It can be reflected by constancy with time in the phase characteristics of a system.uilibrium is never completely achieved because of very slow rate of approach of consists of atoms of at least two different types where solute atoms occupy either substitutional or interstitial positions in the solvent lattice and the crystal structure of the solvent is maintained.uilibrium phases. Hariables of a system .owever the state of e.uilibrium in solid systems. which may persist indefinitely and of course. Solubility limit . The components of a system may be elements. phases present and their compositions. &ll these are related for a chosen system as follows< Prepared by Sa%eev &. System . .it can either refer to a specific body of material under consideration or it may relate to the series of possible alloys consisting of the same components but without regard to alloy composition. &n e. ept. If solute available is more than the solubility limit that may lead to formation of different phase. solubility limit changes with temperature.. In most metallurgical and materials systems. a maximum of solute atoms can dissolve in solvent phase to form a solid solution. at a specific temperature. Solid solution .uilibrium involves %ust solid phases.

.uilibrium or constitutional diagram. . and thus the condensed phase rule is given as follows< E4UILI5RIUM 2+ASE DIAGRAMS & diagram that depicts existence of different phases of a system under e.owever. $or practical purpose.which is known as #ibbs Phase rule. obtainable from a phase diagram can be summari+ed as follows< . Prepared by Sa%eev &.To show phases are present at different compositions and temperatures under slow cooling !e.uilibrium solid solubility of one element=compound in another. useful for the scientists and engineers who are involved with materials development.uilibrium" conditions. . it depicts information related to microstructure and phase structure of a particular system in a convenient and concise manner.uilibrium is termed as phase diagram. (. ept.of 'echanical (ngg.uilibrium phase diagrams represent the relationships between temperature and the compositions and the . and application in product design. in metallurgical and materials field.To indicate temperature at which an alloy starts to solidify and the range of solidification.uilibrium. pressure can be considered as a constant. . It is also known as e.uid phases.uantities of phases at e. thus pressure is assumed to be constant !? atm." in most applications. The degrees of freedom cannot be less than +ero so that we have an upper limit to the number of phases that can exist in e. In general practice it is sufficient to consider only solid and li. These diagrams do not indicate the dynamics when one phase transforms into another. selection. Important information.S)#*( .To indicate e.uilibrium for a given system.

. two-component systems have binary diagrams. . $or a pure component. and an intervening free+ing range. Set of solubility curves that represents locus of temperatures above which all compositions are li. (very phase diagram for two or more components must show a li. (ach invariant point represents an invariant reaction that can occur only under a particular set of conditions between particular phases. while solidus represents set of solubility curves that denotes the locus of temperatures below which all compositions are solid. Prepared by Sa%eev &. $igure depicts phase diagram for water. Single component systems have unary diagrams. Chether the components are metals or nonmetals. & phase diagram is actually a collection of solubility limit curves. This chapter deals mostly with binary phase diagrams.uidus and solidus also meet at the other invariant positions on the diagram. Thus in region of single phase two variables !temperature and pressure" can be varied independently.uilibrium i. &t these points.of 'echanical (ngg. three phases can coexist at a particular set of temperature and pressure.&mount of each phase in a two-phase mixture can be obtained. The phase fields in e.e. Una%0 $ia(%ams6 In these systems there is no composition change !*2?".To indicate the temperature at which different phases start to melt.uilibrium diagrams depend on the particular systems being depicted. one of the phases may disappear.uidus and solidus meet. as melting of a phase occurs over a range of temperature. except for pure system.S)#*( . If two phases coexist then. according to Phase rule. either temperature or pressure can be varied independently. neither temperature nor the pressure can be changed without disrupting the e. three-component systems are represented by ternary diagrams. there are certain locations on the phase diagram where the li. Chen more than two components are present. thus only variables are temperature and pressure.uid are called li. ept. phase diagrams become extremely complicated and difficult to represent. The li. and so on. but not both. a contact point lies at the edge of the diagram. &t triple points.uidus and a solidus. so is the name for itG Phase diagrams are classified based on the number of components in the system.uidus..

Thus binary diagrams are usually drawn showing variations in temperature and composition only.< two metals !*u and )i". #e-Si. &l@:E-*r@:E. as mentioned before. the system is called isomorphous system. a component is completely soluble in the other component when both are in li. binary systems are classified according to their solid solubility.g. It is also to be noted that all binary systems consist only one li. . thus the presentation of binary diagrams becomes less complicated.ence. &g-&u..< *u-)i. ept. It is assumed that the same is applicable for all binary diagrams. or a metal and a compound !$e and $eE*". or two compounds !&l@:E and Si@:E".e.S)#*( . etc. e. If both the components are completely soluble in each other.of 'echanical (ngg.uid phase i. condensed phase rule is applicable. In most engineering applications.uid state.5ina%0 $ia(%ams< These diagrams constitutes two components.g. (. (xtent solid solubility for a system of Prepared by Sa%eev &.

Isomorphous system Isomorphous system< depicts a typical phase diagram for an isomorphous system made of two metallic elements A and 5. (lements should not form compounds with each other i.uid and the solid phases.*rystal structure of each element of solid solution must be the same..t a two-phase solid region is called a solvus line. the li.(lements should have the same valence.two metallic components can be predicted based on . If the alloy composition and temperature specified. &s cited earlier. These single-phases regions are separated by a two-phase Prepared by Sa%eev &. there exist solid state miscibility gaps9 number of invariant reactions can take place9 intermediate phases may exist over a range of composition !intermediate solid solutions" or only at relatively fixed composition !compound".uilibrium conditions. & solid solution based on a pure component and extending to certain finite compositions into a binary phase diagram is called a terminal solid solution.a temperature and a composition .of 'echanical (ngg. . &ll the .e.ume-/othery rules are not always applicable for all pairs of elements which show complete solid solubility. in which one phase changes to another of the same composition at definite temperature". Si+e of atoms of each two elements must not differ by more than ?4D. There are only two phases in the phase diagram.e. and some may melt at a fixed temperature !congruent transformations. summari+ed in the following< .S)#*( . These intermediate phases may undergo polymorphic transformations. there should be no appreciable difference in the electro-negativities of the two associated with each point in the diagram. ept. & set of coordinates . then the phase diagram allows determination of the phase or phases that will present under e. any phase diagram can be considered as a map. and the line representing the solubility limit of a terminal solid solution w. In systems other than isomorphous systems i. in case of limited solid solubility.ume-/uthery conditions.r.

The point a on the line ae signifies that for that particular Prepared by Sa%eev &.uid and solid co-exist.S)#*( .uid phase.uilibrium cooling. The area in the figure above the line marked li. ept.region where both li. - $or the interpretation of the phase diagram.uidus !A7857" corresponds to the region of stability of the li.of 'echanical (ngg.. let>s consider the vertical line ae drawn corresponding to composition of 47DA I47D5 and assume that the system is undergoing e. and the area below the solidus line !A7$57" represents the stable region for the solid phase.

uid phase.uid phase exists. Point c lies in the two-phase region made of both li. system consist both solid crystals spread in li. Point e corresponds to singlephase solid region up to the room temperature. :.uid and solid phases. This is true up to the point 8 which lies on the li.S)#*( . 8etween these two lines.of 'echanical (ngg. cooling curves for different alloys are shown in figure-E as a function of time and temperature.uidus line. *orresponding micro-structural changes are also shown in figure-@. above li. . U7. *ompletion of solidification of the alloy is represented by the point." for representing solid phases.temperature and composition.. It is customary to use L to represent li. &n experimental procedure where repeated cooling=heating of an alloy at different compositions. <. &s shown in figure-@. $. *ooling curves shown in figure-E represent A. In fact these changes in slope are nothing but points on either solidus or li. 8etween two extremes of the hori+ontal axis of the diagram.7 and 5 correspondingly in figure-@.uidus of a phase diagram. representing the starting of solidification.uid phase is stable. and corresponding changes in slope of cooling curves will be used to construct the phase diagram.uid phase!s" and #reek alphabets !9. and below the solidus single solid phase exists as completely solidified grains. ept. *hange in slope of the cooling curve is caused by heat of fusion. Prepared by Sa%eev &.uidus only a li. only li. .

of 'echanical (ngg.7 in figure-@. meets solidus line.uilibrium concentrations of phases< .S)#*( . represented by U7 and .Perpendiculars are dropped from these intersections to the composition axis.7 represents composition of solid phase as intersection U meets li.uid phase and .uidus line and .uilibrium relative amounts of phases !lever rule"< Prepared by Sa%eev &.. ept. . Procedure to find e. U7 represents composition of li." is drawn across two-phase region to intersect the boundaries of the region.&nother important aspect of interpreting phase diagrams along with phases present is finding the relative amount of phases present and their individual composition.& tie-line or isotherm !U. from which each of each phase is read. Le/e% %3"e Procedure to find e.

and dividing by the total tie-line length. The regions of limited solid solubility at each end of a phase diagram are called terminal solid solutions as they appear at ends of the diagram.uilibrium conditions is known as eutectic temperature. which consists of specific alloy composition known as eutectic composition that solidifies at a lower temperature than all other compositions. ept.. $rom figure-@. . The corresponding point on the phase diagram is called eutectic point. Chen the li.. 'any of the binary systems with limited solubility are of eutectic type. relative amounts of li. Pb-Sn.g.uid and solid phases is given respectively by (utectic system< 'any binary systems have components which have limited solid solubility.The relative amount of a phase is computed by taking the length of tie line from overall composition to the phase boundary for the other phase. This low temperature which corresponds to the lowest temperature at which the li.uid of eutectic composition is cooled. represented by 9 and :".uid transforms simultaneously into two solid phases !two terminal solid solutions.S)#*( .< *u-&g.& tie-line is constructed across the two phase region at the temperature of the alloy to intersect the region boundaries.uid can exist when cooled under e.of 'echanical (ngg. e. This transformation is known as eutectic reaction and is written symbolically as< Prepared by Sa%eev &. at or below eutectic temperature this li.

this reaction is represented by a thermal hori+ontal arrest in the cooling curve of an alloy of eutectic composition.of 'echanical (ngg. there exist three single phase regions. the material is fully solid for all compositions.uid !L". L=: and 9I:. 8elow the eutectic temperature. 9 and : phases. These three two phase regions are separated by hori+ontal line corresponding to the eutectic temperature. There also exist three two phase regions< LI9. ept. Thus. Prepared by Sa%eev &. &s shown in figure . & typical eutectic type phase diagram is shown in figure along with a cooling curve.uilibrium conditions at a specific temperature and specific composition which can not be varied.This eutectic reaction is called invariant reaction as it occurs under e. evelopment of micro-structure and respective cooling curves for eutectic alloys are shown in next four figures for different compositions. *ompositions and relative amount of the phases can be determined using tie-lines and lever rule. *ompositions that are on left-hand-side of the eutectic composition are known as hypo-eutectic compositions while compositions on right-handside of the eutectic composition are called hyper-eutectic compositions..S)#*( . namely li. The phase that forms during cooling but before reaching eutectic temperature is called pro-eutectic phase.

of 'echanical (ngg.S)#*( . The composition of the li. even at very slow cooling rates.In many systems. new layers that solidify on top of the grains have the e. ept. This is as a result of very slow or no-diffusion in solid state compared with very high diffusion rates in li.uid region may lead to formation of layered !cored" grains.uids. solidification in the solid I li.uilibrium composition at that temperature but once they are solid their composition does not change. ..owever.uid phase evolves by diffusion. following the e.uilibrium values that can be derived from the tie-line method. Prepared by Sa%eev &.

of 'echanical (ngg.S)#*( .. ept.Prepared by Sa%eev &.

.S)#*( . ept.Prepared by Sa%eev &.of 'echanical (ngg.

S)#*( ..of 'echanical (ngg. ept.In/a%ian# %eac#ions6 Prepared by Sa%eev &.

S)#*( . transforms into two different solids phases !9 and :" upon cooling during the eutectic reaction. Schema#ic o e3#ec#ic in/a%ian# %eac#ion> Prepared by Sa%eev &. is %ust one of the possible three-phase invariant reactions that can occur in binary systems those are not isomorphous..The eutectic reaction. It represents that a li. ept.uid phase.of 'echanical (ngg. L. in which a li.uid transforms into two solid phases. Schematically it can be shown as in figure-6.

)umber of phase transformations may takes place for each system. as would be found with compounds in certain metal-nonmetal or ceramic systems..S)#*( . whereas in others. except they appear not as a wide region but as a vertical line. 'g: and 'g@Si. 'any phase diagrams contain intermediate phases whose occurrence cannot be readily predicted from the nature of the pure components. Intermediate phases< &n intermediate phase may occur over a composition range !intermediate solid solution" or at a relatively fixed composition !compound" inside the phase diagram and are separated from other two phases in a binary diagram by two phase regions. Intermediate compounds form relatively at a fixed composition when there exists a stoichiometric relationship between the components. Some metal-nonmetal compounds. Phase transformations in which there are no compositional alternations are said to be congruent transformations. Chen using the lever rules.of 'echanical (ngg. These are called inter-metallic compounds. ept. intermetallic compounds are treated like any other phase. Intermediate solid solutions often have higher electrical resistivities and hardnesses than either of the two components. $eE*. Prepared by Sa%eev &. bonding is mainly covalent.Summary of invariant reactions in binary systems. for example< 'g@)i and 'g)i@ in 'g-)i system. and differ from other chemical compounds in that the bonding is primarily metallic rather than ionic or covalent. are metallic in nature.

for example.and during incongruent transformations at least one of the phases will experience a change in composition.uilibrium phase. ept. In addition. with solubility limits forms. and melting of pure materials !@" incongruent transformations< all invariant reactions. cementite !$eE*". in ordinary steels decomposition of cementite into graphite never observed because nucleation of cementite Prepared by Sa%eev &.S)#*( . phase diagram is not true e.owever.2+ASE TRANS@ORMATIONS & study of iron-carbon system is useful and important in many respects.AF wtD * is ignored as it has little commercial significance. . Intermediate phases are sometimes classified on the basis of whether they melt congruently or incongruently. Part of the diagram after A. (xamples for !?" congruent transformations< allotropic transformations..uilibrium diagram because cementite is not an e. The A. 'g)i@. melts congruently whereas 'g@)i melts incongruently since it undergoes peritectic decomposition. and also melting of alloy that belongs to an isomorphous system. This is because !?" steels constitute greatest amount of metallic materials used by man !@" solid state transformations that occur in steels are varied and interesting. T+E IRON ? CAR5ON SYSTEM.AFD* represents the composition where an inter-metallic compound.of 'echanical (ngg. I ron-carbon phase diagram shown in figure-?A is not a complete diagram. These are similar to those occur in many other systems and helps explain the properties.

Thus cementite can be treated as an e. Prepared by Sa%eev &. eutectic. &t ?377 5*. $eE* !iron carbide" or cementite .uilibrium phase for practical purposes. K-austenite !$**" $e-* solid solution. pure iron upon heating exhibits two allotropic changes. &s depicted by left inter-metallic compound and li. K-iron.uid $e-* solution. @i(3%e' The $e-$eE* is characteri+ed by five individual phases and four invariant reactions. which finally melts at ?4EA 5*.. at 6?7*. austenite changes to 8** phase known as much easier than that of graphite. L-ferrite !8**" $e-* solid solution.S)#*( .of 'echanical (ngg. $our invariant reactions that cause transformations in the system are namely eutectoid. $ive phases that exist in the diagram are< J-ferrite !8**" $e-* solid solution. ept. :ne involves J-ferrite of 8** crystal structure transforming to $** austenite. monotectic and peritectic.

A-ferrite I L N . .??9 while cast irons have carbon in the range of @. :ut of these four solid phases.S)#*( .??D-A. Thus cast irons may contain carbon in form of both graphite and cementite. This limited solubility is attributed to shape and si+e of interstitial position in 8** Jferrite. $or technological convenience. 'ost of the steels and cast irons contain both 9-ferrite and cementite. K and L. it is of no commercial importance. . J-ferrite can be used as magnetic material below FAM 5*.of 'echanical (ngg.77MD*9 steels having D* between 7.77M-@. *ementite. is softest and act as matrix of a composite material. . commercial cast irons are not simple alloys of iron and carbon as they contain large .owever.igher solubility of carbon in austenite is attributed to $** structure and corresponding interstitial sites. 8y combining these two phases in a solution. $e-* system constitutes four invariant reactions< . $eE* an inter-metallic compound forms when amount of carbon present exceeds its solubility limit at respective temperatures. based on D* dissolved in it. 9-ferrite.*arbon present in solid iron as interstitial impurity.AFD. ept. &s shown in figure-?A. *arbon solubility in L-ferrite is maximum !7. Solubility of carbon in K-iron reaches its maximum. &s this ferrite exists only at elevated temperatures. a $e-* solution is classified as< commercial pure irons with less than 7.?AD*.-iron !austenite" Prepared by Sa%eev &.?D" at ?364 5*. at a temperature of ??3F 5*. *arbon dissolves least in J-ferrite in which maximum amount of carbon soluble is 7. on the other hand.7@D at F@E 5*.uantities of other elements such as silicon.??D. a material>s properties can be varied over a large range. and mentioned earlier. while steels will have carbon only in combined from as cementite. The presence of Si promotes the formation of graphite instead of cementite. thus better consider them as ternary alloys. and forms solid solution with ferrites = austenite as depicted by three single fields represented by J. @. &ustenite itself is non-magnetic. cementite is hardest and brittle that is used in different forms to increase the strength of steels. carbon present greatly influences the mechanical properties of J-ferrite. Thus commercial pure iron is composed of exclusively 9-ferrite at room temperature.peritectic reaction at ?364 5* and 7.owever. Phase transformations involving austenite plays very significant role in heat treatment of different steels..

L N L I .uilibrium cooling. nucleation of pearlite occurs both at grain boundaries and in the grains of austenite. Cith further cooling below the eutectoid temperature. )ucleation. ledeburite transforms into pearlite and cementite..monotectic reaction ?364 5* and 7.-iron !austenite" . Phase transformations involving austenite i. while product from eutectoid reaction is called pearlite.of 'echanical (ngg. cementite !Q?@D". nevertheless. Though pearlite is not a phase. $or a given colony of pearlite. medium carbon steels with * between 7. Pearlite is actually not a single phase. all cementite plates have a common orientation in space.e.e..S)#*( . Pearlite growth also involves the nucleation of new colonies at the interfaces between Prepared by Sa%eev &. &t room temperature.MD*.e. and it is also true for the ferrite plates. remaining austenite decomposes to eutectoid product called pearlite. steels are almost always cooled from the austenitic region to room temperature. processes those involve eutectoid reaction are of great importance in heat treatment of steels. The decomposition of austenite to form pearlite occurs by nucleation and growth.-iron.MD* !mild steels up to 7. consists pro-eutectoid 9-ferrite in addition to pearlite. ept.MD i. a constituent because it has a definite appearance under the microscope and can be clearly identified in a structure composed of several constituents.eutectoid reaction at F@E 5* and 7. mixture of thin layers of 9-ferrite and cementite. #rowth of pearlite colonies occurs not only by the nucleation of additional lamellae but also through an advance at the ends of the lamellae. Chen it is not homogeneous. thus after e. hypo-eutectoid $e-* alloys" i. uring the cooling upon crossing the boundary of the single phase . usually. the spacing between ad%acent lamellae of cementite is very nearly constant. $e-* diagram consists of either 9-ferrite.eutectic reaction at ??3F 5* and 3. while steels with carbon higher than 7. L N . pearlite and=or cementite. Steels with less than 7.MD !high-carbon steels i. hyper-eutectoid $e-* alloys" consists of pearlite and pro-eutectoid cementite. .ED-7.e. occurs heterogeneously and rarely homogeneously at grain boundaries. In practice.ED*. first pro-eutectoid phase !either 9-ferrite or cementite" forms up to eutectoid temperature.-iron I $eE* !cementite" OledeburiteP .E D*.4?D*. but a micro-constituent having alternate thin layers of 9ferrite !QMMD" and $eE*. Chen austenite forms pearlite at a constant temperature.-iron N 9-ferrite I $eE* !cementite" OpearliteP Product phase of eutectic reaction is called ledeburite. uring cooling to room temperature.

product is called white cast iron. The spacing of the pearlite lamellae has a practical significance because the hardness of the resulting structure depends upon it9 the smaller the spacing. austenite decomposes to pearlite. .. reaching a maximum at A77 5*. &t temperatures %ust below the eutectoid. #ray cast iron contains graphite in form of flakes.owever. :n further cooling through eutectoid temperature. The growth rate of pearlite is also a strong function of temperature.< Ti. uring the further cooling. carbon in cast iron may be present as graphite or cementite. ept. the smaller will be interlamellar spacing. &lmost all alloying elements causes the eutectoid concentration to decrease.uid of eutectic composition decomposes in to mixture of austenite and cementite.< )i. These flakes are sharp and act as stress risers. 8rittleness arising because of flake shape can be avoided by producing graphite in spherical nodules. The thickness ratio of the ferrite and cementite layers in pearlite is approximately M to ?. C. The lower the reaction temperature. the growth rate increases rapidly with decreasing temperature. 'n" reduces the eutectoid temperature. The room temperature microstructure of cast irons thus consists of pearlite and cementite. 8ecause of presence of cementite. depending on cooling rate and other alloying elements. Prepared by Sa%eev &. the absolute layer thickness depends on the temperature at which the isothermal transformation is allowed to occur. &dditions of alloying elements to $e-* system bring changes !alternations to positions of phase boundaries and shapes of fields" depends on that particular element and its concentration.of 'echanical (ngg.S)#*( . The temperature at which austenite is transformed has a strong effect on the interlamellar spacing of pearlite. pearlite spacing is in order of ?7-E mm when it formed at F77 5*. li. .g.uidus. the harder the metal. and then decreases again at lower temperatures.owever. Phase transformations in cast irons involve formation of pro-eutectic phase on crossing the li. Si. brittle and white in color. *r" causes the eutectoid temperature to increase while some other !e. known as ledeburite. $e-* alloys with more than @.established colonies and the parent austenite. $or example. and most of the alloying elements !e. 'o. Thus alloying additions alters the relative amount of pearlite and proeutectoid phase that form. while spacing is in order of ?7-3 mm when formed at A77 5*. which is hard.??D * are called cast irons. as in malleable cast iron and S# !spheroidal graphite" cast iron.g.

:ne such set of diagram for reaction of austenite to pearlite in steel is shown in figure.uent heat treatment is re. AND 2RO2ERTY C+ANGES IN @E'C Prepared by Sa%eev &. The diagram is not complete in the sense that the transformations of austenite that occur at temperatures below about 447 5* are not shown. measures the rate of transformation at a constant temperature i. which are very important in steels. are known to be dependent on time at a particular temperature.uired to complete the transformation can be obtained from set of TTT diagrams.uired.4D.'alleable cast iron is produced by heat treating white cast iron !Si R ?D" for prolonged periods at about 677 5* and then cooling it very slowly. and no subse. Information regarding the time to start the transformation and the time re. also known as TTT diagram. TRANS@ORMATION RATE E@@ECTS AND TTT DIAGRAMS. it shows time relationships for the phases during isothermal transformation. as shown in figure Isothermal transformation diagram. MICROSTRUCTURE ALLOYS Solid state transformations. S# iron is produced by adding inoculants to molten iron.e. ept. In these Si content must be about @. The cementite decomposes and temper carbon appears approximately as spherical particles..of 'echanical (ngg.S)#*( .

Thus with decreasing transformation temperature. sluggish movement of carbon results in thinner layers 9-ferrite and cementite i. thickness of layers in pearlite depends on the temperature at which the transformation occurred.e. If the transformation took place at a temperature that is %ust below the eutectoid temperature.of 'echanical (ngg. It Prepared by Sa%eev &. &t transformation temperatures below 447 5*. 8ainite also consists of 9-ferrite and cementite phases i. 8ainite forms needles or plates.S)#*( . austenite results in different product known as bainite. relatively thick layers of 9ferrite and cementite are produced in what is called coarse pearlite. ept.e..Partial TTT diagram for a eutectoid Fe-C alloy. fine pearlite is produced. transformation is again diffusion controlled but morphologically it consists of very small particles of cementite within or between fine ferrite plates. depending on the temperature of the transformation9 the microstructural details of bainite are so fine that their resolution is only possible using electron microscope. &s mentioned in previous section. This is because of high diffusion rates of carbon atoms.

is characteri+ed by relatively coarse. The amount of bainite formed increases as the isothermal reaction temperature is Prepared by Sa%eev &. It occurs at temperatures below those at which pearlite forms i. This is in contrast to pearlite which is believed to be nucleated by formation of cementite. The time-temperature dependence of the bainite transformation can also be presented using TTT diagram.uilibrium as pearlite.uite different morphology !no alternate layers". Spper bainite. but at the same time it differs from the 'artensite as bainite formation is athermal and diffusion controlled though its microstructure is characteri+ed by acicular !needlelike" appearance. ept. If the transformation is taking place at lower temperatures !E47 5T*-@47 5*". and the transformation product is called lower bainite. Spper bainite has large rod-like cementite regions. austenite does not transform completely to bainite. it reveals properties that are typical of a nucleation and growth type of transformation such as occurs in the formation pearlite and also a mixture of 9-ferrite and cementite though of . formed at the upper end of the temperature range !447 5T*-E47 5*". &bove this temperature austenite does not form bainite except under external stresses. The most pu++ling feature of the bainite reaction is its dual nature. 8asically.ual growth rates in all directions pearlite tends to form spherical colonies. In addition. whereas lower bainite has much finer cementite particles as a result of sluggish diffusion of carbon atoms at lower temperatures. it does not form until the transformation temperature falls below a definite temperature. &t the same time carbide particles become smaller in si+e and appear as cross-striations making an angle of about 44 5Tto the axis of the 9-ferrite plate. &nother characteristic of bainite is that as it has crystallographic orientation that is similar to that found in simple ferrite nucleating from austenite. because of e.e. designated as 8s. bainite is a transformation product that is not as close to e. it is believed that bainite is nucleated by the formation of ferrite. 8elow 8s. irregular shaped cementite particles in 9-ferrite plates. Uower bainite is considerably harder than upper bainite.of 'echanical (ngg. the 9-ferrite plates assume a more regular needlelike shape.differs from pearlite in the sense that different mechanism is involved in formation ob bainite which does not have alternating layers of 9-ferrite and cementite..S)#*( . whereas bainite grows as plates and has a characteristic acicular !needlelike" appearance. In a number of respects.

ept. Thus bainite transformation is favored at a high degree of supercooling. between 347 5* and @?7 the reaction product is bainite only. In middle region.owever each of the transformations has a characteristic *-curve. The 8s and 8f temperatures are e. pearlitic and bainitic transformations are competitive with each other.uivalent to the 's and 'f temperatures for 'artensite. above approximately 447 5T*-A77 5*. it is possible to transform austenite completely to bainite.S)#*( . In simple eutectoid steels..of 'echanical (ngg. 8y reaching a lower limiting temperature. 8elow this range up to 3475*. . thus transition from the pearlite to bainite is smooth and continuous i. $inally. Prepared by Sa%eev &. and the pearlite transformation at a low degree of supercooling. both pearlite and bainite are formed. pearlite and bainite transformations overlap.lowered. austenite transforms completely to pearlite. knees of individual pearlite and bainite curves are merged together. which can be distinguishable in presence of alloying elements. 8f. &s shown in complete TTT diagram for eutectoid steel in figure.e.

ept. 'artensite forms in steels possesses a body centered tetragonal crystal structure with carbon atoms occupying one of the three interstitial sites available. Transformation of austenite to 'artensite is diffusion-less. while the completion is designated by 'f in a transformation diagram.. Prepared by Sa%eev &. time independent and the extent of transformation depends on the transformation temperature. This is the reason for characteristic structure of steel 'artensite instead of general 8**.&s explained in earlier section. &lloying additions retard the formation rate of pearlite and bainite.S)#*( . thus rendering the martensitic transformation more competitive. martensitic transformation can dominate the proceedings if steel is cooled rapid enough so that diffusion of carbon can be arrested. Start of the transformation is designated by 's.of 'echanical (ngg. 'artensite is a metastable phase and decomposes into ferrite and pearlite but this is extremely slow !and not noticeable" at room temperature.

ept. 'echanically. during the phase transformation upon .owever.4D. uring tempering. *haracteristics of steel 'artensite render it unusable for structural applications in the as-. The tempering heat treatment is also applicable to pearlitic and bainitic structures. (ventually the 'artensite loses its tetragonality and becomes 8** ferrite. decreasing its tetragonality. a structure called tempered 'artensite forms with similar microstructure as that of spheroidite except that cementite particles are much.Tetragonal distortion caused by carbon atoms increases with increasing carbon content and so is the hardness of 'artensite. much smaller. &t higher temperatures or with increasing tempering times. &ustenite is slightly denser than 'artensite.. & schematic of possible transformations involving austenite decomposition are shown in figure Prepared by Sa%eev &. they may crack as a result of internal stresses. the cementite coalesces into spheres. structure and thus the properties can be altered by tempering. . Spheroidite is the softest yet toughest structure that steel may have.3* from 'artensite. If relatively large pieces are rapidly .of 'echanical (ngg.S)#*( . 'artensite is extremely hard. This mainly results in improved machinability.uenched. heat treatment observed below eutectoid temperature to permit diffusion of carbon atoms for a reasonable period of time.uenched form.uenching. especially when carbon content is more than about 7. precipitation of cementite begins and is accompanied by dissolution of the unstable B-carbide. and therefore. The mechanism of tempering appears to be first the precipitation of fine particles of hexagonal B-carbide of composition about $e@. &t lower tempering temperature. there is a net volume increase. carbide particles attain spherical shape and are distributed in ferrite phase structure called spheroidite. thus its applicability is limited by brittleness associated with it.

**T diagrams measure the extent of transformation as a function of time for a continuously decreasing temperature.. the time re. 'o has a stabili+ing effect on carbides and is also used to minimi+e the risk of temper brittleness in low alloy steels. bainite will not form during continuous cooling because all the austenite will have transformed to pearlite by the time the bainite transformation has become possible. The effect is greatest in 'artensite structures. TTT diagrams are less of practical importance since an alloy has to be cooled rapidly and then kept at a temperature to allow for respective transformation to take place.Tempering of some steels may result in a reduction of toughness what is known as temper embrittlement.uenching to room temperature. . furnace cooled. Impurities responsible for temper brittleness are< P. It appears to be associated with the segregation of solute atoms to the grain boundaries lowering the boundary strength. respectively. . Sn.of 'echanical (ngg.uired for a reaction to begin and end is delayed. (ach is experimentally determined for an alloy of specified composition. This may be avoided by !?" compositional control. most industrial heat treatments involve continuous cooling of a specimen to room temperature. *ontinuous *ooling Transformation !**T" diagrams are generally more appropriate for engineering applications as components are cooled !air cooled. thus the isothermal curves are shifted to longer times and lower temperatures. as shown in Prepared by Sa%eev &.uenched etc.S)#*( . and=or !@" tempering above 4F4 or below EF4. . $or continuous cooling.owever. Sb and &s. ept." from a processing temperature as this is more economic than transferring to a separate furnace for an isothermal treatment. These diagrams allow prediction of the microstructure after some time period for constant temperature and continuous cooling heat treatments. TTT and **T diagrams are. )ormally. followed by . phase diagrams with added parameter in form of time. in a sense. Thus. less severe in bainitic structures and least severe in pearlite structures.ence. Si reduces the risk of embrittlement by carbide formation.

Prepared by Sa%eev &. ept.of 'echanical (ngg.figure-@7.S)#*( .. region representing austenite-pearlite transformation terminates %ust below the nose.

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