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What Wh ti is P Petroleum t l Reservoirs?

Asep p K. Permadi, , Ph.D.

Bandung, Bandung August 2006

The Quest for Oil Modern civilization in fact involves: Transportation Energy requirements Other energy generation Run and build things on hydrocarbon Oil drives the economy of the world .

and history .The Challenge in Petroleum Industry Finding reservoirs containing oil: Hide far away below the Earth surface Cannot be seen and touched Reservoir geometry is very complex Variety of rocks. properties.

Elements of Oil Business Characters High Risk High Cost High Tech Producing Oil Safe Clean Efficient Business Targets Max Recovery Min Risk Min Cost .

beaches.What is Petroleum Reservoirs? An oil reservoir is basically: A body of rock Millions of years ago. rivers As time goes by it gets buried and compressed d – it gets t pressurized i d Thousands of ft to miles underneath the ocean or land surface . deserts. coral reefs. . . it originally settled as sand dunes.

Finding g Petroleum Reservoirs Means finding ways to Visualize underground formation Evaluate the potential Steer drill bit to the pay zone .

What is Oil? Oil is originated as living organisms in the seas such as plankton and algae about hundreds of million of years ago As they die the remains fall to the bottom of the sea They become the source of oil as they are buried with the accumulating g settlement and reached high temperature It start to “cook” and change to oil that then migrates to where h it is found f d today. d .

it produces organic matters that would later became oil. and then swamp.The Birth of Reservoirs Began with the movement of continents over millions of years Push P h and d pull ll of f land: l d valley ll became b a shallow sea. later desert. Organisms living in the sea today may eventually become oil over the next millions illi of f years . and then back to a sea again When water flooded the area.

etc . p • • • Strustural Stratigraphic Salt dome.A Reservoir is a Trap There Th are many different diff t kinds ki d of f reservoirs depending on the types of trap.

g . gravity. density.Detecting Oil Finding clues at the Earth surfaces Remote sensing g by y studying y g magnetic. seismic properties) Sensing through wells while drilling Different depths and scales from inches to miles .

Evaluation of Oil Existence How much oil is there? Where exactly y is it? How easily will it flow? .

Evaluation of Oil Existence Information obtained by sensors during drilling will determine angle angle. depth. how easily it will flow when rock and oil properties are known . the fluid distribution within the reservoir and accordingly the oil volume contained. depth and thickness of oil bearing layer and accordingly the exact location of oil.

800 Mton. • Cadangan minyak Indonesia = 5 milyar barrel.000 Mton) terkandung hanya di 33 lapangan (0.1% jumlah lapangan).000 dengan cadangan 140. 0. bbl SG = 33 API) . jumlah j lapangan. 26% berikutnya terkandung di 0. • Lapangan minyak terbesar di dunia: Ghawar dengan cadangan 11.400 11 400 Mton.Facts and Figures • Jumlah lapangan minyak (in terms of reservoir) di dunia = 30. Kon e si ke Mton? (1 ton minyak Konversi min ak ~ 7.000 Mton.3 7 3 bbl. Mton kedua Burgan dengan 9. p g .91% lapangan p g minyak y mengandung 76% total cadangan minyak dunia. (million ton) • Lebih dari 50% cadangan minyak dunia (71.8% .

000 Mton 30.850 Mton 11.400 Mton 36.700 Res. 51% 23% Cadangan Minyak Dunia: 140.000 Mton 239 Res.000 Reservoirs .000 Mton 29. Bolivar Safaniya 26% 71.Facts and Figures Ghawar Burgan 9.000 Mton 33 Res. 33.

Facts and Figures Laju Penemuan Cadangan Minyak 1930-1983 .