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nd

year, 2011: CRYSTALLOGRAPHY

Classwork 2: Directions and planes

Important: remember to use right handed axes

1. For the following structures state:

a. The crystal system

b. The Miller indices of the directions 1-10

a) b) c)

d) e) f)

g) h)

i) j)

Answers 1.

a) Cubic , |1u1]

b) Cubic , |21u]

c) Cubic , |11

1]

d) Tetragonal , |22

1]

e) Tetragonal , |u1

u]

f) Tetragonal , |112]

g) Orthorhombic , |1

1

1

]

h) Orthorhombic , |2

u1]

i) Orthorhombic , |1

1

u]

j) Orthorhombic , |1

2

1]

2. Draw cells showing the [121] direction in each of the following latticies:

i) cubic

ii) tetragonal where a =l, c =Z

iii) orthorhombic where a =1, b =2. c =3

Answers 2.

i) ii) iii)

3. For the following, state

a. the Bravais lattice

b. the Miller Indices of the shaded plane

a) b)

c) d)

e) f)

Answers 3.

a) Cubic , (111)

b) Cubic , (102)

c) Tetragonal , (110)

d) Triclinic , (100)

e) Orthorhombic , (001)

f) Orthorhombic , (102)

4. Draw unit cells showing the planes given Draw a total of 10 unit cells, one for each plane:

cubic

(111)

(013)

(11

1)

(101)

Orthorhombic

(001)

(123)

(010)

Tetragonal

(011)

(122)

(112)

Answers 4.

Cubic (111) Cubic (013) Cubic (11

1)

or

Cubic (101) Orthorhombic (001) Orthorhombic (123)

Orthorhombic (010) Tetragonal (011) Tetragonal (122)

Tetragonal (112)

5. For the cubic system, write out all the families (sets) of planes included in each of the following:

112

110

121

400

321

Answers 5.

a) 24 sets of planes in total or 12 if two sides of same planes regarded as the same.

(112), (1

1

2

); (1

12), (11

2

); (11

2), (1

12

), (112

), (1

1

2);

(121), (1

2

1

); (1

21), (12

1

); (12

1), (1

21

); (121

), (1

2

1);

(211), (2

1

1

); (2

11), (21

1

); (21

1), (2

11

); (211

), (2

1

1).

b) 12 sets of planes in total (or 6).

(110), (1

1

u); (1

1u), (11

u),

(101), (1

u1

); (1

u1), (1u1

),

(011), (u1

1

); (u1

1), (u11

).

c) 121 Identical to part a)

d) 6 sets of planes in total.

(4uu), (4

uu), (u4u), (04

u), (uu4), (uu4

)

e) 48 sets of planes in total.

(S21), (S

2

1

); (S

21), (S2

1

); (S2

1), (S

21

); (S21

), (S

2

1),

(21S), (2

1

S

), (2

1S), (21

S

), (21

S), (2

1S

), (21S

), (2

1

S),

(1S2), (1

S

2

), (1

S2), (1S

2

), (1S

2), (1

S2

), (1S2

), (1

S

2),

(S12), (S

1

2

), (S

12), (S1

2

), (S1

2), (S

12

), (S12

), (S

1

2),

(2S1), (2

S

1

), (2

S1), (2S

1

), (2S

1), (2

S1

), (2S1

), (2

S

1),

(12S), (1

2

S

), (1

2S), (12

S

), (12

S), (1

2S

), (12S

), (1

2

S),

6. Answer the following showing working:

a. Does [321] lie parallel to (111) ?

b. Does [110] lie parallel to (010) ?

c. Does [210] lie parallel to (110) ?

d. Does [111] lie parallel to (011) ?

e. Does [311] lie parallel to (112) ?

Answers 6.

Check if hu +kv +lw =0

a) -S × 1 + 2 × 1 + 1 × 1 = u ; yes

b) 1 × u + 1 × -1 + u × u = -1 ; no

c) 2 × 1 + 1 × 1 + u × 1 = S ; no

d) 1 × u + 1 × 1 + 1 × -1 = u ; yes

e) -S × 1 + 1 × -1 + 1 × 2 = -2 ; no

7. What are the directions of intersections for the following pairs of planes?

a. (110) and (111)

b. (010) and (010)

c. (111) and (122)

d. (010) and (011)

e. (012) and (001)

Answers 7.

Need to find uvw; such that h

1

u +k

1

v +l

1

w =0 and h

2

u +k

2

v +l

2

w =0

a) The system to solve is u +v =0 and u – v +w =0. So we have the direction [1

12]

b) The system to solve is v =0 and – v =0. (they are two sides of the same plane) so there are many

solutions – any direction [u0w], for example [101], [100], [001], etc

c) The system to solve is u +v +w =0 and u – 2v +2w =0. So we have the direction [4

1S]

d) The system to solve is –v =0 and v – w =0. So we have the direction [100], [1

uu]

e) The system to solve is v +2w =0 and w =0. So we have the direction, [100], [1

uu]

8. Find the planes in which the following pairs of directions lie.

a. 211 and 111

b. 100 and 111

c. 201 and 120

d. 102 and 311

e. 010 and 411

Answers 8.

Need to find hkl; such that hu

1

+kv

1

+lw

1

=0 and hu

2

+kv

2

+lw

2

=0

a) [21

1] x [11

1] =(2

1

1

) =(211)

b) |1uu] x |11

1

] =(u11

)

c) [2u1

] x [12

u] =(214)

d) [1u2] x [S1

1] =(2S1

)

e) [u1u] x [41

1] =(1u4

)

mATERIAL sC

mATERIAL sC

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