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Abstract: The one of main aim of my research works are going on to save or protect the environment from different risky or poisonous gases, chemicals and other damaging things. Different construction materials (both renewable & non-renewable) which are used at constructing any structure, building, road, tunnel, bridge etc. But all Engineers have to know the idea of sustainable expansion and the particular request of construction in its related areas without causing the green environment. To satisfy the needs, huge rush, demands, time saving etc., of publics in roadways, Traffic flow or Road Tunnels are constructed. In this searching the rank of ventilation in construction of Tunnels is find out because different harmful or poisonous gases or chemicals are produced by the vehicles transient through it. The aim of this part of this searching is to bring the consciousness about the tunnel environment whereas constructing Tunnels and to reduce the risky damage inside the tunnel and also to the environment location One of a definition or Keywords: Tunnels, Determinations of tunnelling, Road or Traffic Tunnels, defence of environment, harmful or deadly gases, Tunnel Ventilation.
INTRODUCTION Everything around us are called environment. The surrounding
circumstances, impacts, or forces that effect or modify as: 1- The whole complex of climatic, edaphic and biotic factors that act upon an organism or an ecological system and ultimately determine its form and survival. 2- The aggregate of social and cultural conditions as customs, laws, language, religion, economic and political organization that influence the life of an individual or community.
Tunnel construction afflictive Environment usually Engineer would uncaring a set of values and references that he have to comply with and threshold the values that must not be surpassed. His practical keys would be established
Tunnel Any of The horizontal or can be curve underground passageway open at both the ends to the ground surface is known as “Tunnel”. This is mainly experiential in city sites.keeping in attention that the inevitable productions as noise irritation. controlling the release of contaminants through chimneys or use openings in the ceiling is also very an important subject. 2 . In This part it will covers the bas introduction of the following: A. environment would also uncaring that he must pay consideration on protection the Natural resources by using and try best way to huge amount as much as possible of the renewable energy sources and recycled materials. creation cuts and then laying roof slabs. OBJECTIVE The objective of this part of this searching to focus on the tunnels. and struggle to reach a lifelong expansion which mostly focuses the “Green & Sustainable Environment”.e. Public Utility Tunnels In that searching try get fully deals with the “Traffic or Road tunnels” and its proper ventilation from any damaging or dangerous outcome. Hydro-Power Tunnels 3. There are mainly three different types of tunnels. But. Ventilation is exactly designed as well as worked to make or deliver a user responsive atmosphere inside the tunnel i. the ventilation of which straight concerns the environmental problems. safe. clean. Furthermore. Tunnel of the construction mostly takes place under the town. canal and through mountains by the removal of overload. rivers. Traffic or Road Tunnels 2. waste or effluents do not hamper or affect the living and working conditions inside and outside the process that he is designing or operating. They are: 1. cities. healthy and pleasant for everyone who use it and make sure that the surround dings of the tunnel should not be ignored and the environmental circumstances nearby the tunnel entries have to preserve.
In consequence. the first uses of concrete were for tunnels in good rock and it was only with the introduction of steel supports that the use of concrete became the norm for a tunnel lining material. It could be a real threat because fair hazards and smoke progress E. Health. Reason for that it Reduced visibility higher Environment. it makes Air pollution with regular health risks. D. and Safety The process of placing concrete in situ was incompatible with timber supports. for example A. Traffic or Road Tunnels: Tunnel can sort out many problems but also it come out with new problems worried include. For example 1) They are excavated across the hills and highlands. cutting hole to make new roads or new railways 2) Tunnels decrease the distance crossways natural difficulties like hills or mountains and sea which save the time and also offer suitability 3) Compression tunnels which help power. An early use of concrete in tunnel lining was for the “East Boston Tunnel of 1892” 3 . Fire hazards and subsequent smoke progress which could be a real threat C. 4) For supply of drinking water public utility tunnels are drawn water to pass with force and produce c.B. it cause higher accident. B. Absence of escape lanes which constitutes a severe risk for people who have to stop their cars.Main reason of tunnelling: There are many purposes of tunnelling.
Chemical stability and their adverse damage on environment and human being. damage our natural beauty in the world . developing data broadcast networks and building direction centres. both traffic flow and one of its first irritations. particularly in large capitals cities .e. In spite of of all the efforts and all kinds of recommendations to decrease. national tradition. petrol. LPG. in future soon. This is directly responsible for the “greenhouse effect” but is in directly responsible for health damage. CNG. NO. N2O. diesel etc. and engines produces a lot of toxic matters which direct or indirect affects the environment a lot in every way. Which it does not only have a damaging influence on health but also in different way affect the quality of life by troubling the eco-system.. OH. The burning of fuels in vehicles like petrol. For that reason there are many planes and lot of money has been spent in connecting the monitoring equipment. i. CHO. the pollutant emissions. There a lot of gasses more which only in this search give name (NO2.) 4 . there are many exhaust gases which related development in use tunnels for example CO2: This is one the main product of the burning of a fossil fuel. O3.DIFFERENT SOURCES OF POLLUTION Traffic is certainly one of the significant bases of environmental and air pollution. when through a tunnel SO2: it is one of gas which is production during use a tunnel especially in the in the busy traffic CO: also it one of them (gasses) which it is produced in a reducing atmosphere. and many more. Depending on their attention. which may be predictable for the next few decades that traffic will continue an significant source of pollution.
2) Transverse and 3) Semi-transverse ventilation. for a constant traffic flow it may be assumed to be approximately constant. i. the air is blown in the same direction in which the traffic goes. 5 . That system especially suitable for one way traffic. 2) Untrue (not natural) ventilation. The growing rate of course is a function of the amount of emitted pollutants which. into three basic Longitudinal ventilation in Tunnels: The natural plan by acting in such a method that the mean air flow velocity has a sufficient value which is the principle of the longitudinal ventilation. their maximum values are to be expected at the tunnel exit. That process for providing a enjoyable atmosphere inside is known as “Ventilation”.VENTILATION Passing or through a fresh air into any closed area like rooms.e. Types of ventilation 1) Natural ventilation. if several sections are present. With regard to pollutant concentrations. at the end of each section. That systems (Tunnel ventilation) can be separated ventilation arrangements. tunnels etc. Tunnel ventilation: it is being provided in the tunnels for providing enjoyable air inside is known as Tunnel ventilation. 1) Longitudinal. or. For this purpose One or more jet-fans close to the walls or the ceiling are connected that provide the required driving force.
The fresh air is supplied through openings in the walls or the ceiling. Would create a longitudinal velocity module If there is not driving force available. 6 . and the vitiated air flows along the tunnel and leaves it through one of the gateways according to the joint action of the pressure difference between them and the piston outcome. All air is sucked off which through by the opposite wall also through similarly spaced openings and let into a collecting channel.Transverse ventilation in Tunnels: this principle as well as outlet air is ducted along the tunnel. In this method the air will flow perpendicular to the alliance of the tun traffic and also to the tunnel This method mainly suitable for all types long tunnels. the flow in the tunnel would be zero in the central and maximum at both the portals. Semi-transverse ventilation in Tunnels: This system is considered as the mixture of both the transverse and longitudinal ventilation system. For this purpose: It is blown into the tunnel through more or less similarly spaced openings (slots) beside one of the walls.
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