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2.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 2 explores different genres of childrens literature which are modern fantasy, realistic fiction, non-fiction, biography/autobiography and folktales (folklore/mythology), fables, legends, parables. 2.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this session, you will be able to: Classify the different types / genres of children stories based on features and functions.


Exploration of types of stories

Modern fantasy

Realistic Fiction


Biography/ Autobiography

Folktales (folklore/mythology) fables, lagends, parables

LGA3103 STORIES FOR YOUNG LEARNERS 2.3 Exploration Of Types Of Stories Different stories bring different impacts on young learners. Having the exposure to different types of stories would benefit young learners in many ways - as they will gain different experiences of lives. As a school teacher, you should use your creativity to ensure that your learners will get an optimum input from all types of stories. 2.3.1 Modern Fantasy Modern fantasy refers to the body of literature in which the events, the setting, or the characters are outside the realm of possibility. Among the types of modern fantasy are modern folktales, animal fantasy, personified toys and object, unusual characters strange situations and world of little people. Features and functions of modern fantasy i. ii. iii. It is a story that cannot happen in the real world; it has a known author; It was created mainly for entertainment purposes, though they might have a lesson. Examples 1. Harry Potter by JK Rowling 2. Alice in Wonderland by Lewis Caroll 2.3.2 Realistic fiction Realistic fiction refers to stories that could really happen to people and animals; that is, it is within the realm of possibility that such events could occur or could have occurred. Family stories, adventure and survival stories, and mystery of detective stories are among the types of realistic fiction. Features and functions of realistic fiction i. ii. iii. It portrays the world as it is. It does not contain fantasy nor supernatural elements. Everything is realistic: including plot, characters and setting- is consistent with the lives of real people in our world. iv. The plots in these stories deal with familiar everyday problems, pleasures and personal relationships. and


LGA3103 STORIES FOR YOUNG LEARNERS Examples i. Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen ii. The Return by KS Maniam 2.3.3 Non-fiction Non-fiction is prose writing that presents and explains ideas or that tells about real people, places, objects, or events. It is an account or representation of a subject which is presented as fact. This presentation may be accurate or it can give either a true or a false account of the subject in question. However, it is generally assumed that the authors of such accounts believe them to be truthful at the time of their composition. Features and functions of Non-fiction i. The people, events, places, and ideas presented in nonfiction are real, not invented; ii. iii. iv. v. It is narrated by an author who is a real person; It presents facts, describes true-life experiences, or discusses ideas; It is written for a specific audience, or group of readers; It addresses a clear purpose, or reason for writing.

Examples i. Volcano: The Eruption and Healing of Mount St Helens by Patricia Lauber ii. Glossary of Literary Terms by MH Abrams 2.3.4 Biography/Autobiography a) Biography is the story of someones life as told by someone else Features and functions of a biography i. It is about a persons life, character, temperament, his social situation, his experiences and things he did. ii. iii. It is about famous people. It written by someone else to give information about those famous people. Examples i. Life of Samuel Johnson by James Boswell. ii. Steve Jobs by Walter Isaacson 11


b) Autobiography is the story of ones life as told by oneself. Features and function of an autobiography i. ii. iii. iv. It emphasises on the subjects development; It is about well known people; It is written by the person himself; It is to get other people to know writers life

Examples i. The Diary of A Young Girl by Anne Frank ii. The Doctor in the House by Mahathir Mohamed 2.3.5 Folk tales (folklore/mythology), fables, legends, parables a) Folk tales These are prose narratives which are regarded as fiction which usually tell the adventures of animal or human characteristics. Folklore Sayings, verbal compositions, and social rituals that have been handed down orally rather than in written form. Features and functions of folklore: i. ii. iii. It is in a form of oral jokes, stories and varieties of wordplay It is about weather, plants, animals and social activities It reinforces moral values and builds wit.

Examples i. The Legend of Mahsuri ii. The Arabian Nights Myths Myths are stories of gods, goddesses and heroes of a given culture. They explain the origins of customs and social beliefs Greek myths, Norse, Native American, African, and Asian. Features and functions of myth i. It is a traditional story;


LGA3103 STORIES FOR YOUNG LEARNERS ii. iii. It may describe the origins of the world or a people; It attempts to explain mysteries, supernatural events, and cultural traditions; iv. v. It can involve gods or other creatures; It represents reality in dramatic ways.

Examples i. Hercules ii. Medusas Head b) Fables Fables are brief tales in which animal characters that talk and act like humans indicate a moral lesson or satirize human conduct. Features and functions of fables i. ii. All animal characters in this story talk and act like humans; It indicate a moral lesson clearly or satirize human conduct.

Examples i. The Hare and the Tortoise ii. The Crow and the Jar c) Legends A legend is a story purported to be historical in nature, but without substantiation. Where evidence of the existence of actual historical figures exists, figures like King Richard are legends due in large part to the many stories that have been created about them. Features and functions of legend i. It refers to anything that inspires a body of stories, or anything of lasting importance or fame; ii. It is handed down from earlier times, but will continue to evolve with time.

Examples i. King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table ii. Hang Tuah.


LGA3103 STORIES FOR YOUNG LEARNERS d) Parable A parable is a short and simple story about human beings. It has a moral and religious lesson. It is usually about familiar and ordinary things. Features and function of parable i. ii. iii. It teaches readers about the truly important things in life; It teaches moral and religious lessons; It encourages good deeds.

Examples i. The Pearl by John Steinbeck ii. The Parable of the Goog Samaritan by Jan Wijnants

Task 1 In your folio, record what you understand by modern fantasy, realistic \ fiction, non-fiction, biography/autobiography, folktales (folklore/mythodology), fables, legends and parables.

For further reading for this task: 1. Chapters 5, 6, 7 and 9, Lynch, C.(1993) Essentials of Childrens Literature. 2. Chapters 6, 7, 9, and 11, Norton, D.E. (2007). Through the eyes of a child. An introduction to Childrens Literature

Task 2 In groups: 1. Compare and contrast the similarities and differences across types/genres 2. Discuss features and functions or each type/genre.


LGA3103 STORIES FOR YOUNG LEARNERS REFERENCES Brown, C.L. & Tomlinson, C.M. (1993) Essentials of Childrens Literature. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Norton, D.E. (2007) Through the eyes of a child. An introduction to Childrens Literature. (7th Ed.). New Jersey: Merrill Prentice Hall. Sawyer, W. E. (2004) Growing up with Literature. (4th Ed). NY: Thomson. Wood, M. (1994) Essentials of Classroom teaching. Elementary Language Arts. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Prepared by: Juwati Binti Abdul Ghafar IPG Kampus Kota Bharu.