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The tourist syndrome

An interview with Zygmunt Bauman
Adrian Franklin
London,

University of Bristol
www.sagepublications.com

This interview with one of the world s leading sociologists, Zygmunt Bauman, e!plores how his work on li"uid modernity, consumerism, space, hospitality, the #full planet and e!tra territoriality impact on tourism theory. This interview launches perhaps a new concept, that of #the tourist syndrome and e!amines the importance of tourism in providing a platform for the e!ploration of difference and otherness. As with all of his work Bauman is keen to identify the ethical nature of social activities such as tourism. keywords difference and otherness extra-territoriality globalization hospitality liquid modernity the tourist syndrome tourism and ethics tourism and space tourism theory

The interview took place in Zygmunt Bauman s home in Leeds, $%, on &' August ())*. +t is perhaps a measure of a person s impact on the world when a ta!i driver, randomly hailed from a provincial railway station, knows who you are intending to visit simply from the address you give. But when on the return ,ourney, another, e"ually randomly booked ta!i driver asks straight out- #.ow was Zygmunt today/ one begins to catch a whiff of celebrity in the air. $nlike so many celebrities today, Bauman s fame is not based on a lucky break or the thinnest achievement, but on solid achievement over a lifetime. .is books, too numerous to mention in an introductory paragraph, have come at us in rapid 0re over the years with a series of da11ling, sparkling works over the past () years or so. .e is certainly one of the most important and in2uential sociologists of our times but he also has the distinction of being one of our best public intellectuals. Fortunately for us he is also an e!tremely generous man and he made room for this interview in an otherwise packed diary of lectures all around the world. 3y main ob,ective in seeking an interview with Zygmunt Bauman for Tourist Studies was to introduce him to scholars of tourism who have not read him, or read him widely, in order to inspire a more re2e!ive Tourist Studies, one based on a better grasp of how tourism con0gures with contemporary societies, especially in the touristic heartlands of the 4est. Bauman is the so called ()5 #prophet of postmodernity and more latterly of li"uid modernity but, more signi0cantly, he is one of the best analysts of the contemporary human condition. Tourist studies need to address and be inspired by such analyses for many of the reasons + outlined in the essay + co6wrote with 3ike 7rang in the 0rst issue of Tourist Studies 8 which Zygmunt read as part of his preparation for the interview. The ma,ority of tourist writers + read still cleave centrally to certain of the rather outdated ideas of $rry s Tourist Gaze 9&::); and 3ac7annell s The Tourist 9&:<=;.This is a problem, not least because these books were set in two types of #solid modernity 8 the &:=)s and &:<)s8>)s, and because their notion of tourism was based on distinctions 9home?away@ everyday?holiday@ real?fake@ work?leisure; that no longer apply in the way they once did@ and also on the centrality of production 8 which has now given way to consumerism and on a transformation of space that makes the notion of tourism as they had it seriously problematic. Bauman has written e!tensively on these transformations but there is a poor grasp of them in the tourism literature. +t is surely ironic that Bauman s li"uid modernity, which gives rise to the sorts of mobilities, 2e!ibilities and freedoms that fuel the dramatic growth of tourism, if not the touristi0cation of everyday life, has not been drawn on or made much use of by recent writers in tourist studies. Li"uid modernity differs from traditional society which was an in2e!ible, hierarchical social order and

elaborate certain ways of living together. it took her two hours to arrive .The assumption that #we will meet again 8 tomorrow. the day after tomorrow. to search out and impose a newer. from that characteristic.+ would like to separate tourism as a metaphor for contemporary living from the tourism as a body of speci0c persons and a sum total of certain activities. year by year. and those places they are prevented from seeing. 3uch follows. it was not long before a new term was coined. ())(. de0ne a world where the anthropology of frontier6lands takes over from the safe hinterlands of secure nation states. and what sort of impact it has on the natives living in the destination/ This is what tourist studies are about. . of course. Bauman tends to use tourism as a metaphor for contemporary life in 4estern societies. 4hen speaking of the #tourists or #tourism as metaphors of contemporary life. we have slowly but surely undermined and undone all forms of in2e!ibility and restraint. + think. Zygmunt Bauman. poverty6stricken streets she probably knew nothing about. better solid form of social order. most dramatically perhaps with nation state borders and the freedom to travel 8 whether the cargo is trade goods.Transformation and states of becom ing are the social realities we have to deal with and Bauman has characteri1ed our central roles as consumers in li"uid modernity as rather like tourists. .e has also written interestingly about the post6Aeptember && world as the symbolic end of the era of space but clearly those essays in his Society under Siege 9Bauman. slum6like. And other important "uestions 8 above all why they go. all of them . Bur everyday worlds are similarly divided 8 an effect of tourism or the realities tourism re2ects/ + remember being met at an +talian airport by a young academic from a local af2uent family@ she apologi1ed for a long. . +f people know?believe that they are going to meet again and again and again. by which. yet. what sort of impact it has on their lives. and all along their way. geographic. who drove me back to the airport needed but ten minutes to pass through the dilapidated. not belonging to the place. because of the impact on the structure of living in the places where the tourists start.-There is no 0rm commitment.This is very different from one very important e!pectation which was so typical of solid modernity and the foremost feature of a #Fordist factory or more generally of panoptical power. . tourism might 0gure in this new and challenging world. all year round. . are very important politically and economically 8 above all. winding. social. and perhaps the most important. ne!t decade perhaps . +t is precisely this world that we need to grasp. +n thinking about this. economically. Cresumption of temporariness is built into the way of being and behaving. There are "uestions such as why large numbers of people are shuttled about on speci0c days to speci0c places with speci0c itineraries. . +nstead. and if so how. but in the long run also socially. is the looseness of ties with the place 9physical. and tourists never visited .#the tourist syndrome .That condition is shared with the modality of ordinary daily life. First of all. Ao + began by asking him for his views on contemporary tourism in relation to his understanding of contemporary society. ne!t year. but seven days a week. like all li"uids it does not hold its shape for long. compose rules 9norms. +mportantly. growing phenomena. information or human travellers. The world is divided up into those places where tourists are carefully ushered into and through.4hat characteri1es li"uid modernity by contrast is the abandonment of the search for a blueprint. + have in mind certain aspects of the tourist condition and?or e!perience 8 like being in a place temporarily and knowing it. not locked into the local life #for better or worse . A ta!i driver. with the way we are all #inserted in the company of others everywhere 8 in places where we live or work@ not only during the summer holidays. . no 0!ed date of staying@ it s all #until further notice . the places they arrive.solid modernity which cast aside traditional society in favour of what it imagined could be a better egalitarian blueprint for human society. as they assume. though.4e have entered a darker world and a full planet and it will be interesting to know his views on whether or not.These phenomena. +ndeed. they strive to work out a certain modus co6vivendi. +t is that characteristic of contemporary life to which + primarily refer when speaking of the tourist syndrome.Tourists only 2ow into certain places. traf0c6clogged route she took to the conference where + was speaking.

in the 0rst place. the very perceptive clever economist from the Aorbonne. Auch looseness of attachment 8 being in but not of the place 8 makes tourism a well6aimed and pertinent metaphor for contemporary life. . +f it is not durable nor assumed to be you . . far6reaching conse"uences of what you are doing at the moment.. Another feature of the tourist syndrome is #gra1ing behaviour . . Eon t take here the metaphor literally 8 the tourists don t eat up everything they 0nd in the place and empty the shop shelves 8 but as they eat what they came for they 0nd the supply of tasty titbits fast running dry.Ies. where the signi0cance of every stage is derived fully from the diminishing distance separating the traveller from the previously selected destination 8 you can see clearly how different the contemporary life is. Eaniel 7ohen.The world of pure relationships is a huge collection of gra1ing grounds. no #whole life skills that can be ac"uired once and for all and won t re"uire revision 8 or forgetting . is a crucial trait of the #tourist syndrome . 4hat for/ Atriking is important to elaborate the rules. drian !ran"lin. no #training for life . always ad hoc. . to study the #tourist e!perience . hopefully as #pure as the last one. or are moved.oins Bill Gates s 3icrosoft or another Ailicon Halley company has no idea what will happen to him in a few months time 9Fichard Aennett calculated that the average length of employment in Ailicon Halley is eight months.ect and know that they will be kicked out ne!t year if not before. we have no idea how long we 9tourists. . Living from one moment to another.There is no lifelong identity that could be selected at the beginning of life and pursued from then on. Bn the way to such an agreement and even after the deal has been struck there is a lot of con2ict.. whatever 0eld of human life s?he focuses on. workers. people who are hired for a particular 0!ed6term pro. there are e!plosive skirmishes and protracted battles 8 but people.u!tapose the #tourist syndrome with a #pilgrim syndrome 8 with the modality of the pilgrim s travels. pointed out that a young person who . the struggle would be hardly worth the sweat and the painD Bn the other hand. But sensations are un6e!perienced and tastes are untried only once. And then let us not forget the frailty of relationships which tourists enter into wherever they go. un6 e!perienced sensations. forever a Ford s employee. you also compare the tourist to the vagabond. you can cut out all the worries about the long term.ust like during a tourist trip. 4hat they were seeking were.will abide by. 4e don t trust the relationships to last. +n all probability. living for the moment. A 2ock of sheep gra1e on one meadow.4hen you . the effort to construct a hard and tough frame of mutual rights and obligations and mutually binding rules of conduct is completely redundant 8 a waste of time and energy. there will be no such conse"uences 8 not for you at any rate. have no reason to strike. it wilts and fades as well 8 and so you move to another relationship. to another.This is a valid reason for a sociologist. sensations. and when the grass is all eaten up they have no reason to stay and move. But rules are necessary only when the relation is durable. another travelling .Tourists have by de0nition #pure relationship to the place they visit 8 #pure meaning that it has no other purpose than the consumption of pleasurable sensation and that once the satisfaction wanes. 0ght because they know that happen what might they are bound to live together and in each other s company for a long time to come@ otherwise.oined the staff of Fenault or Ford could be pretty sure that he will retire from the same place at the end of his working life 8 but the young person who . unlike everything else they knew@ untried tastes. partners. or people who work on a day6to6day basis. local rules with but a butter2y life 8 like the tourists do . And so. like the workers of a #Fordist factory 9once a Ford s employee.This feature of the #tourist syndrome is intimately connected to what we ve discussed before.ust stumble from one episode to another and you make the rules as you go. and living in such a world is shaped after the pattern of wandering from one succulent and fragrant meadow to another. will stay there.As they are a priori temporary and reduced to the consumption of 9limited and fast shrinking. to be always ready for another run 8 this is the name of the game.To be on the move before the ground moves under feet. e!periences 8 unlike the e!periences they lived through before.+t grasps in a puri0ed form what in ordinary life is mi!ed and obscured.

. the rules of the game have changed without notice. the partner of life 9though emphatically not for life. the caricatured lookalike of tourist ventures-Hagabondage. say. #on impulse .Hagabonds do not travel by choice 9they may only dream of tourist s #+ pay.Basically + think the difference between desire and wish 9+ owe that e!tremely pertinent distinction to . +n your writings on consumerism you talk about the transition from need through desire to wish. . And you know. is that desire needs to be planted and cultivated. !. . 7onsumers are overwhelmed by the allure and act. The company you worked for disappeared. There are permanent tourists. even if it did not happen to you yet and you suppress the awareness of its possibility as keenly as you can.Bn )& August each year almost the whole population of Caris . but + m not "uite sure about how desire in tourism differs from wish. 3a. though. .Iou ve to decide 9and to pay.oy . Eo you suppose that we can trace changes in tourism along those lines/ Ao for instance in the old days people used to say you needed to get away from your toils in a society of producers.7on.uring up wishes and prompting to act on impulse. First there is. people who are in general on the move. . wish descends from the here and now. ZB. but the place is no longer what it was . At the same time. At a certain time of year bodies should be transported from here to there . they stay in the place only as long as they are #anted. rather than its presence. there is this alter ego of the tourist. vagabonds can t and don t stay in a place as long as they #ant.ust as well as it does with what you have to say about work. has moved out and away. consumer failure and undesirability. The 0gures of #tourist and #vagabond mark the two poles of a continuum along which our life and our e!pectations are plotted.Iou meet them in any airport 8 seasoned travellers who in the #nowherevilles of which the airports are the most conspicuous e!amples feel fully and truly #at home and behave accordingly. people for whom travelling is a way of life. the cult of certain places as harbours of particularly en. more ef0cient and in total account cheaper technology of triggering consumer e!penditure. groomed@ it takes time and effort to tune and hone it . . so to speak.arvie Ferguson. Bne more essential peculiarity needs to be mentioned. workplace politics and so on. Iou are still in the same place. .The power of the tourism metaphor works with consumerism . This is desire at work 8 carefully and lovingly cultivated over many years until its absence. +t would not be correct. tended to. they have to move.oyable tourist e!periences and a ritual of attending such places at speci0c points of the annual cycle. Acting on wish does not re"uire such a costly groundwork. + demand freedom.ump into cars and head for the 7Jotes d A1ure . but in our li"uid6modern world you need not move an inch to turn into a vagabond.They don t break relationships because the company of their partners no longer satis0es them. Alas. . 7osta Brava. As a rule.@ most of them would probably like very much to stay put in the place where they are rather than move on. this dark side to the otherwise . feeling a bit lost and certainly unsure of every step they take. the Algarve or wherever 8 visibly tired.phenomenon of recent years.Ies. +t is their relationships that keep being broken because their own company is no longer desired. your point being that although we are all now in a mobile world these two groups travel in vastly different ways-The former celebrating their success and desirability as consumers. Eark premonitions blight each moment of . . elaborated and conducted over a long period of time. looks like norm6breaking. But there are clearly also crowds waiting for charter planes to.oyful escapades full of adventure and seeing new sights@ the broken6mirror re2ection.Tenerife. that happen to you it may 8 and at any moment. . . to view the opposition between such two categories of tourists and that between #acting on desire and #on wish as overlapping. Aeduction is instantaneous. there is a relatively new.orca. France is probably an e!treme case. ZB. since they are either e!pelled from there or cannot make a living. This has been . the latter admitting their condition of desperation. 9&::=. . to seek the wonders and the bliss that the tourist s life may offer.

Kever before you worried and lost sleep at night.The technology of branding.Iou are alerted and right away seduced whenever you see the logo .ob well. you asked a very interesting "uestion-4hy did people suddenly get interested in the old bread ovens in Lancashire/ 4ell. 4ell. at least carry a brand of #tourist attraction 9are not the brown boards near the motorway e!its a sort of #logo for the tourist industry/. the6state6of6art shopping malls are aimed at #accidental buyers 8 people who go there . That s a growing business. promising an e!perience you ve not had yet. unlike6any6other attraction on every crossing and corner. . a lot of money can be made out of it with little further prompting. perhaps you were not aware that it e!isted.ourney and drive those () e!tra miles/ This is what you #ish. ())*. because you had not seen old bread6baking ovens. gaping windows without glass. . Iou didn t plan to visit this particular #you must see place.acutely spotted and described by Kaomi %lein 9())). you had not been overwhelmed by it 8 no compulsion. worth making a . you haveD At least you may. the sand of the beach may be branded. diffused desire for attractions. now you know 8 and you turn your car and go.. . +f you drive through Bradford. wouldn t make good business. collecting evidence . 4ell.4hy not stop for a moment. the very opposite of the idea of a tourist haunt.Iou may breath a sigh of relief when you see a familiar logo. Leaving things were they are. and being branded means to be made into an interesting e!perience. . trying. counting on well6groomed desires alone. to be sure. you d be informed of another unheard6of.Ao wish is replacing desire/ ZB. the city elders managed to rebrand Bradford itself. But now. every neighbour along the street went at least once. crave for con0dence and security of choice. nothing to put it on the map. every family of Moneses.Iou did not develop that sort of desire.Iou have to take some snapshots or a few videotapes to show that you have been there. . researching information. deploying such technology in one form or another. something you haven t seen before. + believe that tourism may be promoted. and be created daily. with due imagination. no addiction . and once the initial investment has been made. nothing to admire.ust for a spot of entertainment without the intention to buy anything speci0c 8 pushed not by a need clamouring to be satis0ed but pulled by a diffuse longing for recreation. . And the sky is the limit once wish takes over. Air can be branded. Brands are catching because people. abandoned factories. and most will. . interrupt the . 0ve minutes ago.Kot replacing. As you know. if advertising has done its .ects carrying a famous logo known and coveted by many. !. Erinking water has been already branded. bewildered and confused amidst the 2ood of contradictory peddling calls. +t is too limited.ourney for . 3any places try hard to 0nd something that would make them into a #must see tourist attraction. on whichever ob. $ntil recently Bradford was a very ugly and dull city 8 old. +n your book 9Franklin. whatever your current purposes and preoccupations may be and however the ob. everything can in principle be branded and become thereby effective bait. Aomething unusual. offers such a con0dence and certainty without the awkward need of testing.. . and will be increasingly promoted. Aideways of wishes branch from the beaten tracks of desires . Kew business must be created. and an unheard6of habit to carry a bottle with you whenever you go and take a few gulps every once in a while immediately followed. . anything could be branded.ect or place it has been stamped.Iou had no idea that you #needed to see the Lancashire bread ovens an hour ago. complementing. . but suddenly you see those strange names on the brown billboards. There are plenty of people saying #+ must go to the Algarve or #to 7orfu or #to 3arbella 8 places to which every decent person. . 0nd that something. Ceople who stroll through the shopping mall with that sweet music in the background. But the tourist industry can t settle for that. Lverything can be made a wish6 prompting ob. Aelecting a branded ob.ect.ect in "uestion is related to them. this enchanting and . .Alongside ordinary signposts showing directions brown billboards 9you already know what the brown colour means. are dug in at the motorway e!its which beckon to your generali1ed. it leaves no room for e!pansion.

into!icating array of colours and smells 8 are not seeking ob. they covet to be seduced 8 they are waiting for a wish to arrive like the scribes suffering of #writer s block wait for the moment of inspiration. the guest.ects. . an audience as #e!traterritorial as myself. made the case that innovators like Thomas 7ook were as important as . facilities. &::'. + meet each time. .oliday +nns or Aheratons are there not to bring the far away life closer. in their timeless cultural lore . +taly. . Br you watch the natives as a spectacle 8 selling their #otherness to tourists. in the restaurants bringing dishes from the kitchen. in all sorts of countries. but sensations-They are pining for an adventure. Auccess or failure of the tourist industry hangs on that balance. for e!ample. This is hardly a ful0lment of the nineteenth century ambition to travel to learn. could add a few German6language advertisements to the Fimini streets 8 but it hardly affects German8+talian #connections . Atandardi1ation stamps uniformity where connections would be. travel to understand.Travelling businessmen and globetrotting academics proved to be diligent pupils and trainees.ust of people travelling but a kind of global organi1ation or ordering. comfortably secure because familiar. source of pleasurable e!perience of novelty. By design or by default. . + suppose. + happen to travel a lot. uniformity over e!change. But wherever + go. and reassuring familiarity. Clanet6wide chains of . idiosyncrasy as is un6intimidating. source of the security feeling. And the wish would surely oblige 8 courtesy of shopping mall designers and managers. it created a world that could be known in advance before you travelled. Lspecially. +t created the demand to travel widely and freely 8 for women alone and safely for the 0rst time for e!ample. Father. + don t feel like really being in a different country . making their living by selling their culture as spectacle. for e!ample. comfortable. Bne meets the natives in the shops at the other side of the counter. Apart from Albania + have been to universities in all the Luropean countries. trying to strike the right balance between security of the familiar and adventure of the strange. Bbviously one is the way in which it has transformed localities but + would be interested in your thoughts on its wider structuring or ordering effects. sameness over differences. +t is the sort of model.And + believe that the feeling is reciprocated.ardly a #contact between civili1ations . hotel rooms. but to supply an e!traterritorial enclave. gadgets wherever they go. with a few #local touches sprinkled over it to . +n your book on globali1ation 9Bauman.The annual 2ood of German tourists to Fimini. .+ want to go back to your point about the social rami0cations of tourism. Cowerful minds are working on that. challenge and adventure. on globali1ation. &::>. Aurely the world became more systematically and routinely connected and perhaps establishing norms of connectivity/ ZB. Iou may go hundreds and thousands of miles. !. travel to get in touch with alien people and to embrace and imbibe and assimilate the untold riches stored in their heads. Mohn $rry and Acott Lash 9Lash and $rry. not . immune to the local idiosyncrasies or allowing its strictly measured volume 8 only as much of 9tamed.That s what + suspect most of the FNE money in the tourist establishment is invested in. in order to 0nd yourself in cosily familiar surroundings.Thomas 7ook taught and trained his clients to e!pect the same kind of service. + guess that people who ask the "uestions probably 0nd it .enry Ford as key authors of modernity. and everything else on top in a thoroughly saniti1ed and #deto!icated form. the opposite. the reassuring sameness amidst variety 8 impermeable and invulnerable. really. lecturing in all sorts of universities. 3yself. you include an intriguing chapter on tourists and vagabonds and clearly tourism and vagabondism are social aspects of globali1ation and also your notion of a #full planet . but + wonder to what e!tent the pioneers of #standardi1ed tourism may be charged of the advent of e!traterritoriality 8 but particularly of promoting intra6 planetary connections. But do you think tourism was a necessary ordering of globali1ation/ Ao. Getting the world moving was a pro found thing to do in many ways because it created markets where there were none. you could get the money arranged. whenever + give a lecture. 4ith Thomas 7ook you could get the guidebook before you travelled. that s the name of the tourist game these days.Ko doubt the point is valid and grave.ustify the e!penditure. let alone an e!change between cultures. the "uestions are always the same. the tickets arranged. The right proportion of genuine or pretended #otherness . eager to take the waiting out of wanting.

They want the real stuff.4hen + was reading your essay on tourism + got the feeling that you saw it as a rather dismal or disappointing leisure. a substitute satisfaction of a genuine need 8 that could otherwise prove creative and deeply ethical-The need to top up the pro!imity of otherness with recognition of shared humanity and enrichment of its contents. 4e tend to be afraid of the strange and unfamiliar while being attracted to it 8 a very ambiguous and ambivalent feeling. ())(. around a paedophile freshly released from prison 8 any #event with a short attention6life e!pectation will do. ethically. you contrast the consumerist world of tourists in their e!traterritorial spaces with the unwanted and shunted6about shadow lands of global vagabonds 8 refugees. +n my little book about community 9Bauman. +n our times particularly. Colitically. or #peg communities. Tourism is such a substitute. you begin to talk of the need for a global political order in which modes of travel and hospitality may become recon0gured. misdirect and mis6channel the potentially creative impulses into a sideway or downright blind alley. as the energy which could be chan nelled into therapy is diverted.. But in your later book Society Under Siege 9Bauman. all go to the cloakroom. 4e all. to use one of %ant s e!pressions is #sublime 8 facing the other is a sublime e!perience. the suffering caused by the absence of the real stuff. socially it s a very. +s there a better world than the world of tourism and vagabonds/ ZB. + call them that because they remind one of the kind of two6hour community that is cre6 ated in cloakrooms of. each one hereafter going in his?her own direction.There are #substitute communities which + call #cloakroom . what + am wary of and of which + am suspicious. to the best of their abilities and the resources at their disposal 9however meagre. and when the performance is over they pick up their coats. ())&. fragile. the style of e!pression. to live with dignity. say.. There are such #cloakroom communities wrapped around celebrities or celebrity events. + think this applies also to travelling businessmen in no small measure.. &::>. !. to make a decent living. . but then there are translators.The need they answer is genuine. +f bread is missing. you would chew grass to calm the pangs of hunger . but loosely tied to our respective physical environments. . +n Globalisation 9Bauman. Aubstitutes mitigate. connections. And + don t hold a grudge against people wanting to satisfy their curiosity of the world. but real stuff being unavailable. and so on. They would probably never come together again. + discuss the dangerous phenomenon of fraudulent substitutes for the absent real thing 9substitutes that in fact make the real thing yet more absent. . in tourismD 4hat + am afraid of. Languages may be different. They do not treat. 0ssiparous formations that would fall apart tomorrow once new headlines appear in the newspapers and everybody is ca. that mislead. a combination of mixophobia and mixophilia which + described in the book mentioned earlier 9Bauman. Ceople are doing their best. crowded together on a full . And today you ve contrasted the traveller as being a more heroic character. the fashion of narrating the world. constitute a world in its own right.+ wouldn t personally use the term #dismal . a mi!ture of fear and awe. all hang their overcoats or anoraks on pegs. the topics we debate. illegal immigrants and so on with their heavy ties to territory. a bit more widely. complete with the language we use. to be inclined in some sense to get to know something you didn t know before. trying to make contacts. are the substitutes. . ())&. very important e!perience 8 to be attracted by otherness. The other. they settle for substitutes 8 frail. + don t think the way people live today is dismal . go to performance. for e!ample. forced to forget yesterday s passions to make room for new ones. formulating problems. Ceople do long for communities they miss. Aubstitutes are instant cures. learn.easier to communicate with me than with their ne!t6door neighbour. to go where you were not before. theatres@ people come to the theatre. attenuate the pain. but e!acerbate the disease and make it more dif0cult to cure. 4herever they go they discuss e!actly the same problems in similar terms 9banks that want to show themselves to be indispensable to travelling businessmen because of their knowledge of #local speci0city can 0nd little to emphasi1e in their commercials e!cept the different depth of bowing practised in different lands.oled. dissidents.

obtrusiveness of alien cus6toms. And so.ust statistically. or we will live unhappily ever after. a giant leap as a matter of fact 8 to rise to the level of humanity as such$ Atrangers. beyond the limits they set. . diverted sideways 8 capitali1ed upon in the service of commercial goals and used up. but socially. we have to make another step. how do you suppose people s curiosity would be satis0ed/ ZB% & #onder #hether the 'humanity building( cause could be promoted bet ter by staying in your own urban environment . they get to know each other and respect each other s otherness. #foreigners . A couple of hundred years ago we had reason to rise from the level of local community to the then not6yet6imagined community of the state. in the same discothe"ue 8 at work and at leisure. and mi!ed in a genuine way 8 not . if we stay alive. religions. e!change views. imperative purposes is frittered and e!hausted. diverted. conservative and middle class or lower6middle class area where people take care to observe the norm and be seen as observing it. +t is. + mean what would travel. . Carado!ically. channelled away s"uandered by the commerciali1ed pseudo6multiculturalism which boils down to the wait6er s different skin colour and different spices in the food 8 in lieu of genuine conversation or a real attempt to get an insight into the other s life and thought. The areas where the university students live are thoroughly mi!ed. + happen to live in a sedate. Aubstitutes create an illusion that certain impulses are satis0ed while they are being wasted. But in other places of Leeds people. as always in such situations. Kow. Lither we all teach each other and learn from each other. They beware the alien ways .Ao if we were to produce a global politics. in the same cinemas. ethnics. that is. the chance of meeting the other 9+ . in the public realm and privately. There is mi!ophobia 8 the fear of the rough areas. as + would say 8 + would risk this old6fashioned word 8 the #need . we face the need to rise to that challenge more than ever before. aliens. or undermine it by distracting us. 4e are #transcending beings which constantly look forward beyond the border they have drawn. the odds are that you ll land in that e!traterritorial #nowhereville . 7uriosity of the #otherness could be a very helpful motive. though. e!hausted in the process.Ceople meet in the same shops. . are driven on the right 9that means wrong. and providing the tourist industry couldn t stop it. you know.They talk to each other. Ao the impulse is genuine and so is. There is something you can write home about 8 cars. what they think. !. to know and to see at close "uarters how other people live. you know the global will. and hospitality in the world of human beings and humanity. As far as really getting to know the other is concerned you gain little or nothing at all and your time and money are wasted. where you drink the same beer you drink at home 9and even meet the same neighbours because you probably travelled on a charter plane.And there is mi!ophilia 8 sincere curiosity of the fascinating secrets which all otherness holds and the desire to learn them. Let me repeat 8 the city environment continuously generates a curious blend of mi!ophilia and mi!ophobia. ne!t year and as far in the future as our fantasy may reach. on the same street. Bn the other hand 8 if you venture to Leeds city centre . people of different forms of life. are nowadays the one case in which you can say that we are going to meet tomorrow. life styles mi! daily and happily and do it matter6of6factly. But it keeps being used up. 7uriosity of the other and the impulse to transcend our reciprocal otherness comes handy under those circumstances. and we need this propensity of transcending today because we are facing a truly life and death challenge. or arising from the way in which humanity made itself. Iou spend the whole supply of curiosity in the trip to Algarve. the day after tomorrow. of no go areas. .4henever you travel tourist6mode today. + think there is a genuine need inscribed in the evolution of the human species evolved.. +t doesn t matter any more. of pro!imity of alien characters. side of the road. Aoon they stop noticing the colour of skin. . for instance.The impulse which could be used for other. as part of their daily routine. of the nation. an e!cellent springboard to gather momentum in that long and arduous venture. .The impulse however is pro0table enough for the tourist industry to be up in arms to prevent us from using these impulses for non6tourist purposes 8 which from the point of view of that industry would be a real waste. we have to work out the ways of reconciling natural attraction with natural repulsion 8 the mode of coe!isting.planet.

ZB.odernity.4hat s your drink/ Iou are not in a car/ !. %lein.mean genuinely meeting. Kot in places like Leeds at any rate. $rry. + think that by design and more yet by default our cities.Colity. 1ygmunt bauman is Lmeritus Crofessor of Aociology at the $niversity of Leeds and the $niversity of 4arsaw. Z.Gin and tonic/ !.ispanics. E. as a matter of fact. 3ac7annell. $rry 9&::'. !. . Tourist Studies &9&. whenever a group of people is shown there are bound to be one or two blacks. Atrangers that you routinely meet and mi! with stop being samples of civili1ations at war and turn into individual human beings with their individual charms. *ommunity . 9())(.oliday +nn. 7ambridge. Franklin. perhaps a sample of #native nations thrown into the bargain 8 depending on the current balance of forces. Kew IorkAchocken Books. + derive more hope in this #globali1ation coming home to roost . 9())). + see very many groups of young people which are of mi!ed race 8 mi!ed everything. 9())&. +iquid . Zygmunt.. #The Trouble with Tourism and Travel Theory/ . Fubbing each other s elbows inside the city crowd seems to be a most promising way to #achieving humanity . The #really e!isting street looks different. ZB. . 9&::=. London. K. A. vices or oddities.Bh yeah. may be greater when you stay at home in the big cities than when you go a thousand miles away in order to land up in a . 9&::). Tourism% n &ntroduction. The Tourist Gaze. Lash. Ferguson. Bauman. The +ure of /reams% Sigmund !reud and the *onstruction of .. it s very seldom that you 0nd a group of young people which is uniform. London. 9())). 9())*. London. A. they re the ones who will dare to go and dare to transgress. not mis6meeting.odernity 9())). Bauman. are schools or training grounds of living with strangers 8 living with difference. . The Tourist% 0e# Theory of the +eisure *lass. and +iquid +ove 9())*. 7ambridge.Aage.e is the author of many books including &ntimations of 2ostmodernity 9&::(. 7rang 9())&. All these American 0lms which are politically correct you always see .Ao it s the young who will pioneer it/ They re the ones who will make the change. . 7ambridge.Aage. however. Bauman... .58((.or"3 *onsumerism and the 0e# 2oor 9&::>.There s a challenging thought to bring us to a close. Z. 1conomies of Signs and Spaces.. Bn the other hand. London. 9&:<=. Society Under Siege.+ d love a drink. ZB. 4hen + ponder the prospects of humanity. and M. 9&::>.Foutledge. . Society Under Siege 9())(.Colity.. Globalisation%The )uman *onsequences. +iquid . . particularly our big cities. A.Colity.Flamingo. and 3.. 7ambridge. A. Z. M. London.odernity. A.FantasticD references Bauman.Colity. . And they behave differently when they walk the streets. !. 0o +ogo. Franklin. The &ndividualized Society 9())&. But + seldom see groups of older people of the same mi!ture. you don t 0nd it. thank you very much. a couple of .See"ing Safety in an &nsecure .orld.Aage. Z.

Achool of Colicy Atudies. ddress. .ukQ .. Bristol BA> &TZ. Oemail. > Criory Foad. $niversity of Bristol.odern *ultures 9&:::. 0ature and Social Theory 9())&.. 7lifton..ac. Society Under Siege 9())(.adrian franklin is Crofessor of $rban Atudies at the $niversity of Bristol.adrian. $%. and +iquid +ove 9())*.is books include nimals and .franklinPbristol.

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