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‫أنواع المضخات‬

Centrifugal Pumps

Positive displacement pumps

Rotational speed


Size Maintenance
Flow rate

Small No valves Less maintenance
Depend on Pressure and the rotational Speed

Huge Valves More maintenance
The same flow rate at the same rotational speed regardless pressure value


No need for safety valve
Priming is necessary

Safety valve is necessary
No need for priming

 Pumps

enable a liquid to:

1. Flow from a region or low pressure to one of high pressure. 2. Flow from a low level to a higher level. 3. Flow at a faster rate.

These pumps may be further subdivided into several varieties of centrifugal and other special-effect pumps. pumps:  This type is generally used for low-pressure.1. Negative displacement.20 bar (250-300 psi). hydrodynamic.   . highvolume flow applications. This type of pump is primarily used for transporting fluids from one location to another.  Normally their maximum pressure capacity is limited to 17.

000 psi) or higher. gear.    High volumetric efficiency. hydrostatic. .) These pumps have the following advantages over negative displacement pumps:  High-pressure capability up to 680 bar (10. Positive displacement. There are three main types of positive displacement pumps namely. vane and piston.2. pumps (cont. Great flexibility of performance (can operate over a wide range of pressure requirements and speed ranges). Small and compact size. Small changes in efficiency throughout the design pressure range.

Centrifugal pumps .

Advantages of centrifugal pumps  Cheap  Simple design  Quite operation  Continuous flow without pulsation  Low maintenance cost .



Working Mechanism of Centrifugal Pump .

Working Mechanism of a Centrifugal Pump .

 Centrifugal pump components 1)Stationary elements :   Casing Shaft Seal 2) Rotating elements :   Impellers Shaft .




Circular casing (for low head) Volute casing (for high head) . II. Casing The Casing generally are two types: I.

. Casing I. Volute casing A volute is a curved funnel increasing in area that converting the kinetic energy from the liquid discharged from the impeller to a pressure energy.

 Casing

Circular casing
have stationary diffusion vanes surrounding the impeller periphery that convert kinetic energy to pressure energy.

 Casing
The Casing also can be divided into:

Solid casing : is one casting or fabricated

Split casing : consists of two or more parts are
fastened together.

 Casing
Horizontally split or axially split casing.

Vertically split or radially split casing.

Suction and Discharge Nozzles
End suction/top discharge nozzles
Top suction Top discharge nozzles Side suction / Side discharge nozzles

Suction and Discharge Nozzles I.Top suction/Top discharge .

Suction and Discharge Nozzles II.End suction/Top discharge .

Side suction/Side discharge .Suction and Discharge Nozzles III.

 Shaft seals There are two basic kinds of shaft seals:  Compression packing.  mechanical seals. .  Pump manufacturers use various design techniques to reduce the pressure of the product trying to escape such the addition of balance holes through the impeller to permit most of the pressure to escape into the suction side of the impeller.

Why do we need a seal? 27 .

Old Style Sealing Using Packing 28 .

Shaft seals 1. Packing .







Advantages of Gland Packing  Inexpensive sealing medium  Many different types available  Established sealing medium (familiarity)  Ease of temporary repair  Considered easy to use / install .

is this such a good solution? .Disadvantages of Gland Packing • Must leak to work effectively • Runs on shaft/sleeve causing – – – Wear Friction Parasitic power loss • Requires regular adjustment With today’s emission regulations and productivity goals.

Mechanical seals .


Three Sealing Concerns .

Basic Parts  Rotating Sealface (1) Stationary sealface (3) Secondary sealing elements (2+4) 6 5 2 1 3   4  Spring element (5) Torque transmission (6)  .


Rotating faces  Solid faces  Inserted faces .

 Laying a straight edge on a tangent to the inside circumference of the face.  Take notice of the light bands that are visible on the reflection of the face. how many light bands are crossed? .FACE FLATNESS  This illustration shows a face being inspected on an Optical Flat.

0-rings: location and compression  Dynamic 0-ring  Stationary 0-ring Dynamic 0-ring Stationary 0-ring .

Springs  helical springs wave springs metal bellows   .

Single spring / Multiple spring designs Springs The seal has one big spring to push the face against the stationary seat Multiple spring seals have a number of springs to push the face .

 acceptable minimal Leakage Shaft Leakage .


Pressure Drop & Vaporization
Liquid + Vapor Vapor + Liquid Vapor

100 psi
50 psi 25 psi

0 psi

•The sealing gap
high temperature media

Frictional heat

Boiling point

The stationary seat must be inserted into the seal gland.

.The seal assembly is slipped onto the pump shaft and the set screws tightened in the correct position to insure proper “installed length” of the assembly.

.The gland is tightened evenly so that the seal is compressed to it’s recommended length.



Hard Stationary Face Closing forces exerted on the seal faces .Rotating face and dynamic O-ring.

. the rotating face must move to maintain face closure.As the softer carbon face wears down.

Minute particles of carbon and solids from the process liquid that migrate across the seal faces build up on the shaft. .

failure will occur well before the seal is actually “worn out”. .This build up will ultimately cause the seal to “hang up” and in most cases.


. This series of convolutions is referred to as the “Bellows Core”. Now take a look at how a bellows seal compensates for face wear.METAL BELLOWS   Metal bellows are constructed by welding “leaflets” into a series of “convolutions”.

Hard stationary face Carbon rotating face Metal bellows .


.The bellows core expands to compensate for face wear.


. This feature is probably the most notable selling point when comparing a bellows seal to a pusher type seal.Debris can build up without causing hang up.

Mechanical Seal Arrangement •Basic multiple seal arrangements A-Unpressurised arrangement  Low pressure buffer fluid between the two seals  High integrity secondary containment  Inboard seal is lubricated by the process fluid B-Pressurized double arrangement  Pressurized barrier fluid between the two seals  Inboard seal is lubricated by the barrier fluid Note: the mechanical seals can be in four orientations     Face-to-back Back-to-back Face-to-face Concentric .

and the outboard seal is lubricated by the buffer fluid. This arrangement uses API Piping Plan 52 .Mechanical Seal Arrangement •Unpressurised Arrangements Fluid is circulated between the seals from an external supply at a pressure less than the pressure in the seal chamber. forming a high integrity secondary containment seal. The inboard seal is lubricated by the process fluid using API Piping Plan 11 (or a fluid injected into the seal chamber and into the pump from an external source as a flush using API Piping Plan32).

Mechanical Seal Arrangement .

Mechanical Seal Arrangement .

Mechanical Seal Arrangement .

Mechanical Seal Arrangement .

•Unpressurized Tandem Seal .

This seal arrangement is not dependent on the process fluid to lubricate the inboard seal faces because the positive barrier fluid pressure ensures that the faces are lubricated by the barrier fluid . C or D) or Plan 54. B. This arrangement uses API Piping Plan 53 (A.Mechanical Seal Arrangement •Pressurized Arrangements:  Fluid is circulated between the seals from an external supply at a pressure higher than the pressure in the seal chamber. Both seals are lubricated by the barrier fluid.  The pressure between the seals should be maintained at a minimum of 1 bar or 10% (whichever is higher) above the maximum process fluid pressure at the inboard seal.

Mechanical Seal Arrangement .

Mechanical Seal Arrangement .

Mechanical Seal Arrangement .

Mechanical Seal Arrangement .

Mechanical Seal Arrangement .

Rotating Mechanical Seal .

Mechanical seal Stationary Mechanical Seal .

 Impellers 1) Based on major direction of flow Axial flow Radial flow Mixed flow .

Central hub shroud Van . they must be strengthened by ribs or a partial shroud. Impellers 2) Based on mechanical construction  Open impeller Advantage: It is capable of handling suspended matter with a minimum of clogging. Disadvantage: Structural weakness – if the vanes are long.

 Impellers 2) Based on mechanical construction  Semi-Open impeller incorporates a single shroud at the back of the impeller. shroud or back wall Van .

 Impellers 2) Based on mechanical construction  Enclosed impeller Advantage: This design prevents the liquid recirculation that occurs between an open or semi-open impeller as it incorporates side walls that totally enclose the impeller water ways from the suction eye .

 Impellers 3) Based on Suction type  Single suction Liquid inlet on one side.  Double suction Liquid inlet to the impeller symmetrically from both sides. Single Suction Impeller Double Suction Impeller .

 Shaft Shaft sleeve .

 Wear Impeller wear ring ring .

 Wear Casing wear ring ring .

Hydraulic loads: 1) Radial thrust: it is developed when the pump operates at capacities other than the design one. . Thus radial reaction is created on the impeller.

. Hydraulic loads: 1) Radial thrust: many solutions can be applied to overcome this radial thrust a) The double volute casing: this design depends on neutralizing radial reaction forces at reduced capacities.

 Hydraulic loads: 1) Radial thrust: b) Staggered volutes for multi-stage pump : this design make the resultant radial force is balanced out as shown. .

. Hydraulic loads: 2) Axial thrust: a) in a single stage pump: in overhung single suction pump the imbalance will occur when the suction pressure is either more or less than the atm.Pressure.

. Hydraulic loads: 2) Axial thrust: a) in a single stage pump: in a convential single suction design the impeller creates thrust force on itself. This is due to the discharge pressure acting behind the back and the front shroud.

 Hydraulic loads: 1) Axial thrust: a) in a single stage pump: Solutions: I. using back radial rips (in smaller pumps) .

Back wear rings and balancing holes . Hydraulic loads: 1) Axial thrust: a) in a single stage pump: Solutions: II.

the imbalance is caused by: 1. the variance of the pressure distribution on front and back sides of the impeller 2. the interstage leakage . Hydraulic loads: 1) Axial thrust: b) in a multi stage pump: balancing the axial thrust is more complex.

Conventional arrangement and using hydraulic balancing device. Hydraulic loads: 1) Axial thrust: b) in a multi stage pump: Solutions: I. II. . back to back arrangement.

 Hydraulic loads: 1) Axial thrust: b) in a multi stage pump: Solutions: I. back to back arrangement .

Using hydraulic devices (balancing drum) . Hydraulic loads: 1) Axial thrust: b) in a multi stage pump: Solutions: II.

Simple balancing disk .

Combination balancing disk and drum .

Centrifugal Pumps operation .


.Operation of centrifugal pumps at reduced flows .shape of the brake horsepower curve. .internal recirculation. . There are certain minimum operating flows that must be imposed on centrifugal pumps for either hydraulic or mechanical reasons. . Four limiting factors must be considered: .temperature rise.radial thrust.

Centrifugal pumps Priming Single Chamber tank : .

Fig. air from the suction piping is drawn into this vacuum and is entrained in the liquid drawn from the priming chamber (Fig. A) When the pump starts. the rotating impeller creates a partial vacuum . C). B).  Fig. B Fig. A  This cycle is repeated until all of the air from the suction piping has been expelled and replaced by pumpage and the prime has been established (Fig. C . a charge of liquid sufficient to prime the pump must be retained in the casing (Fig. then the priming cycle starts.


Centrifugal pumps Lubrication .

Bearing lubrication Oil Lubrication methods Oil bath Oil pick-up ring Circulating oil Oil jet Oil mist Oil-spot .

Bearing lubrication Oil bath .

Bearing lubrication Oil pick-up ring .

Bearing lubrication Circulating Oil .

Bearing lubrication Oil jet .

Bearing lubrication Oil spot .

like the petroleum industry.Bearing lubrication Oil Mist Oil mist lubrication has not been recommended for some time due to possible negative environmental effects. . the environmental effects are even further reduced. In case synthetic non-toxic oil is used. New designs of special seals also limit the amount of stray mist to a minimum. A new generation of oil mist generators permits to produce oil mist with 5 ppm oil. Oil mist lubrication today is used in very specific applications.

Centrifugal pumps Maintenance .

1. Run-to-breakdown maintenance
A machine is repaired after a failure has occurred. This is a very expensive, since it requires high cost of spare parts inventory, long machine downtime, high overtime labour costs and low production availability.

2. Preventive maintenance
It is performed on a periodic time basis. It is a planned strategy, which is based on previous experience and mean-time between failures. It is not based on the condition of the machine, but on the time elapsed since the previous maintenance occurred. Thus, a failure may occur before the second maintenance is performed, as in run-to-breakdown maintenance.

3. Predictive maintenance
It is performed on the basis of the machine condition. This is done using monitoring and recording the machine condition. Any change in condition is detected and the time to failure is estimated. This is also accompanied by diagnosing the cause of the fault to actually pin point the defective components. There are several predictive maintenance tools. The most effective is by monitoring machinery using vibration data. This is because many processes generate appreciable vibration response even if they involve only minute energies. Vibration measurement in a nondestructive test is performed by reliable off-theshelf instrumentation. Thus it can be used under normal operating conditions to acquire information about inaccessible vibration and the structural path through which it propagates. It results in lower maintenance costs. The number of machine breakdowns and faults are reduced. A successful predictive maintenance program will incorporate monitoring and diagnositics.

Pumps Bearing arrangement

Anti-friction bearing mounting methods Heating Oil Injection Hydraulic methods Mechanical Methods .

(cylindrical seating) Tapered shaft Adapter sleeve Adapter sleeve Withdrawal sleeve .

Mechanical Methods .

Bearing fitting tool kit .



Hook spanners .

Impact spanners .


Hydraulic Methods .

Hydraulic nut .

Oil injection .

Heating .

Oil bath heating method:  Oil used in oil bath heating should have a high flash point and should not be contaminated  Metallic screen to carry the bearing should not be installed adjacent to bath bottom surface to avoid direct heating  The bearing should be heated gradually to avoid thermal stresses  Oil bath heating should not be used with bearing with shields  Bearing with Polyamide cages should not be heated to more than 85 C  Bearing with metallic cages should not heated to more than 110 C .

Induction heaters .

Electrical hot plate

Anti-friction bearing Dismounting methods


Oil injection

Hydraulic Methods

Mechanical Methods

Mechanical methods





Hydraulic methods(Hydraulic nut) .

Oil injection .

Heating .

Centrifugal pumps Trouble-shooting .

‫األسباب الميكانيكية‬ ‫األسباب الهيدروليكية‬ ‫المشكلة‬ ‫•إعوجاج عامود المضخة‬ ‫•تلف الرولمان بلي‬ ‫•عدم ضبط المحاذاة‬ ‫•تثبيت المضخة غير جيد‬ ‫•سطح أي من حلقات التاّكل أو‬ ‫الرولمان بلي أو جلبة العامود ليس‬ ‫عمودي علي محور الدوران‬ ‫•العامود به عدم إتزان‬ ‫•التكهف‬ ‫•دخول هواء بفتحة السحب‬ ‫•وجود جسم غريب بالمروحة‬ ‫•تشغيل المضخة عند معدل سريان‬ ‫أقل من المعدل الطبيعي‬ ‫ارتفاع مستوي الضوضاء و‬ ‫اإلهتزازات بالمضخة‬ .

‫األسباب الميكانيكية‬ ‫•إعوجاج عامود المضخة‬ ‫•عدم ضبط المحاذاة‬ ‫•العامود به عدم إتزان‬ ‫•تركيب وصالت التمدد بخطوط‬ ‫السحب أو الطرد بشكل غير سليم‬ ‫•عدم إستخدام الزيت أو الشحم‬ ‫المناسب‬ ‫•زيادة كمية الشحم عن الحد‬ ‫المطلوب‬ ‫•نقص التزييت‬ ‫•التركيب غير السليم للرولمان بلي‬ ‫•دخول أجسام غريبة للرولمان بلي‬ ‫•وجود رطوبة بزيت التزييت‬ ‫األسباب الهيدروليكية‬ ‫المشكلة‬ ‫•اتشغيل المضخة عند معدل سريان‬ ‫أقل من المعدل الطبيعي‬ ‫•زيادة معدل تاّكل األجزاء الداخلية‬ ‫للمضخة‬ ‫تلف الرولمان بلي‬ .

‫األسباب الميكانيكية‬ ‫األسباب الهيدروليكية‬ ‫المشكلة‬ ‫•إعوجاج عامود المضخة‬ ‫•تلف الرولمان بلي‬ ‫•عدم ضبط المحاذاة‬ ‫•سطح أي من حلقات التاّكل أو‬ ‫الرولمان بلي أو جلبة العامود ليس‬ ‫عمودي علي محور الدوران‬ ‫•العامود به عدم إتزان‬ ‫•تشغيل المضخة لفترة كبيرة و بلف‬ ‫الطرد مغلق‬ ‫•تشغيل المضخة عند معدل سريان‬ ‫أقل من الطبيعي‬ ‫•دخول مواد غريبة بين خلوصات‬ ‫األجزاء المتحركة‬ ‫زيادة معدل تاّكل األجزاء الداخلية‬ ‫للمضخة‬ .

‫األسباب الميكانيكية‬ ‫األسباب الهيدروليكية‬ ‫المشكلة‬ ‫•تلف الرولمان بلي‬ ‫•عدم ضبط المحاذاة‬ ‫•العامود به عدم إتزان‬ ‫•تاّكل جلبة العامود‬ ‫•إستخدام نوع حشو غير مناسب‬ ‫•تركيب الحشو غير سليم‬ ‫•خط تبريد الحشو مسدود‬ ‫•وجود مواد غريبة مع سائل تبريد‬ ‫الحشو‬ ‫زيادة معدل تاّكل الحشو‬ .

‫األسباب الميكانيكية‬ ‫األسباب الهيدروليكية‬ ‫المشكلة‬ ‫•تلف الرولمان بلي‬ ‫•عدم ضبط المحاذاة‬ ‫•العامود به عدم إتزان‬ ‫•إعوجاج العامود‬ ‫•تركيب مانع التسريب غير سليم‬ ‫•خط تبريد مانع التسريب مسدود‬ ‫•وجود مواد غريبة مع سائل تبريد‬ ‫مانع التسريب‬ ‫تلف مانع التسريب الميكانيكي‬ .

‫األسباب الميكانيكية‬ ‫•تلف الرولمان بلي‬ ‫•عدم ضبط المحاذاة‬ ‫•إعوجاج العامود‬ ‫•تركيب وصالت التمدد بخطوط‬ ‫السحب أو الطرد بشكل غير سليم‬ ‫المشكلة‬ ‫تلف الكابلنج‬ .

‫األسباب الميكانيكية‬ ‫•تاّكل بالمروحة‬ ‫•سدد بخط السحب أو المروحة‬ ‫•تاّكل بحلقات التاّكل‬ ‫األسباب الهيدروليكية‬ ‫•ضغط الطرد عالي بوجود مقاومة‬ ‫للسريان‬ ‫•دخول هواء لفتحة السحب‬ ‫•التكهف‬ ‫المشكلة‬ ‫معدل السريان الخارج ضعيف‬ .

‫األسباب الميكانيكية‬ ‫األسباب الهيدروليكية‬ ‫المشكلة‬ ‫إتجاه الدوران غير صحيح‬ ‫•التحضير غير سليم‬ ‫•دخول هواء بخط السحب‬ ‫عدم وجود سريان علي اإلطالق‬ .

‫األسباب الميكانيكية‬ ‫•قطر المروحة صغير‬ ‫•وجود تاّكل و تلف بالمروحة‬ ‫•إتجاه الدوران غير صحيح‬ ‫األسباب الهيدروليكية‬ ‫•سرعة المحرك بطيئة‬ ‫•دخول هواء خط السحب‬ ‫•التكهف‬ ‫المشكلة‬ ‫ضغط المضخة ضعيف‬ .

‫األسباب الميكانيكية‬ ‫•إعوجاج عامود المضخة‬ ‫•إتجاه الدوران غير صحيح‬ ‫•سرعة دوران المروحة عالية‬ ‫•قطر المروحة أكبر من المطلوب‬ ‫•وجود عدم محاذاة‬ ‫•نوع الحشو غير مناسب‬ ‫•تركيب الحشو غير سليم‬ ‫األسباب الهيدروليكية‬ ‫المشكلة‬ ‫•معدل سريان السائل كبير‬ ‫•سائل ذو كثافة أو لزوجة عالية‬ ‫الطاقة الكهربية المستهلكة كبيرة‬ .

‫األسباب الهيدروليكية‬ ‫•وجود جيب هواء بخط السحب‬ ‫•دخول هواء للمضخة عن طريق صندوق‬ ‫الحشو أو الحابك الميكانيكي‬ ‫•وجود دوامات بخط السحب‬ ‫المشكلة‬ ‫المضخة تفقد تحضيرها بعد بداية التشغيل‬ .

Centrifugal pumps alignment .

Sometimes coupling halves are not true circles or are not of identical diameter because of manufacturing tolerances   .Alignment  When a complete unit is assembled at the factory. using shims under the driver mounting surfaces where necessary. even surface. the base-plate is placed on a flat. The pump and driver are mounted on the base-plate and the coupling halves are accurately aligned.

 Damaged and broken internal parts.EFFECTS OF MISALIGNMENT  Early bearing and seal failure  Flexible and rigid coupling failure. .  Excessive vibration.

TYPES OF MISALIGNMENT  Parallel  Angular  Horizontal  Vertical .


when machine feet are not equally supporting the weight of the machine .SOFT FOOT  "Soft foot" is a name used for the condition.


 Remove horizontal angular (face) misalignment.  Remove horizontal parallel (side to side) misalignment.ALIGNMENT STEPS  Remove vertical angular (face) misalignment. .  Remove vertical parallel (height) misalignment.

.Rim and face method  The rim and face method uses two dial indicators. The other dial reads off the rim of the coupling or clamp post. One is mounted to read off the front or face of a coupling hub or clamp post.


length to the rear holding down bolt. total indicator reading. length to the first holding-down bolt.Rim and face method       D S1 S2 TIR L1 L2 = = = = = = diameter of the path the face dial will travel. shim packing for the back legs. . shim packing for the front legs.

Rim and face method  D=5” L1=20“ L2=40“ Example: Here we have: 1. 4. 2. Vertical angular misalignment on the face dial Vertical parallel misalignment on the rim dial Horizontal angular misalignment on the face dial Horizontal parallel misalignment on the rim dial . 3.

the rim reading will alter while correcting the face reading. it is essential that the front and rear legs are moved exactly the same amount .  When correcting the horizontal offset.Rim and face method   Angular misalignment can be removed by slightly adjusting the jacking bolts.

Laser alignment .

If this pressure falls too low. forming bubbles entrained in the liquid. . These bubbles collapse violently as they move to areas of higher pressure.Cavitation When a liquid enters a pump. The formation and sudden collapse of these bubbles is called Cavitation. its velocity increases causing a reduction in pressure within the pumping unit. some of liquid will vaporize.





Problems Caused By Cavitation  Erosion of impeller  loss of pump efficiency and out-of-balance problems with the impeller  vibration which lead to bearing and mechanical seal failures  cavities will impede the flow of liquid through the impeller  reduced capacity plus reduced and/or unstable developed head .

NPSHA must always be greater than NPSHR at the design flow. .To avoid cavitation.

How to avoid cavitation? • minimize the number of valves and bends in the suction line • use eccentric reducers. not concentric • ensure the straight side of the eccentric reducer is installed along the top of the suction line • Suction length should be as short as possible • Suction pipe should be at least the same diameter as the pump inlet connection • use long radius bends • increase the size of valves and pipe work • do not allow air into the suction line .

Jet Pumps .

Theory of Operation  The theory is developed from the Bernoulli equation static pressure at the entrance to the nozzle is converted to kinetic energy by permitting the fluid to flow freely through a converging. it starts to collect the surrounding fluid and by the time it has entered the mixing chamber . As soon as the jet leaves the nozzle. resulting in a flow of mixed fluid at an intermediate velocity. The diffuser section then converts the velocity pressure back to static pressure at the discharge .   . The resulting high velocity entrains the suction fluid in the suction chamber.type nozzle .

And the suction fluid becomes entrained with the high velocity jet . the pressure at the exit of the nozzle becomes lower than the pressure in the suction passage way. Finally. .

Pump out sumps. Strainer on suction line Discharge line sealing (U-bend or submerged discharge pipe) Precautions:   .Jet pumps applications Lifting Eductors are used to:   Empty Tanks.

Maintains discharge line pressure and allows for economical eductor size .Jet pumps applications Pumping additives to liquids   A percentage of the liquid flowing from the pump is bypassed into the eductor acting as a motive fluid.

Jet pumps applications Mixing  Mixing liquids for spraying such as chemicals & fertilizers  Non-clogging nozzles can handle solids .

Jet pumps applications Entrain detergent .

Positive Displacement Pumps .

Positive displacement pumps   This type is universally used for fluid power systems.  . These are two features that are desired of fluid power pumps. A positive displacement pump ejects a fixed amount of fluid into the hydraulic system per revolution of pump shaft rotation. Such a pump is capable of overcoming the pressure resulting from the mechanical loads on the system as well as the resistance to flow due to friction.

High volumetric efficiency. Great flexibility of performance (can operate over a wide range of pressure requirements and speed ranges). Small and compact size.000 psi) or higher.     . Small changes in efficiency throughout the design pressure range.Positive pumps have the following advantages over negative displacement pumps: High-pressure capability up to 680 bar (10.


External Gear Pumps .



Internal Gear Pumps .


Vane Pump .

Lobe Pump .

4. 6. Cover Wear plate Rotary lobe Casing Shaft Gear box Sealing monitor . 7. 5.Lobe or Roots Pump 1. 2. 3.










Diaphragm Pump .



• Sometimes the diaphragm is used to power a reciprocating pump with air or natural gas • When gas pressure is applied against either diaphragm it forces liquid out. .Diaphragm pump • These pumps are a special type of reciprocating pump that utilizes the action of a diaphragm moving. When the gas is relieved the diaphragm flexes under the pressure in the suction line and allows liquid to enter.

They generally cannot handle very high flow rates.They are reciprocating pumps the diaphragm has a tendency to fatigue with time. diaphragm pumps require frequent maintenance because . . . . However. .It is inexpensive to repair.The advantages of a diaphragm pump are that .It can handle low flow rates inexpensively. .It can handle large amounts of suspended solids.It can run periodically without any liquid. or discharge pressures.

Diaphragm pump .

‫األسباب الميكانيكية‬ ‫األسباب الهيدروليكية‬ ‫المشكلة‬ ‫•وجود كسر بأحد البلوف‬ ‫•ضغط السحب منخفض‬ ‫•إنغالق كلي أو جزئي لخط الطرد‬ ‫•دخول هواء مع السائل‬ ‫•تشغيل المضخة بسرعة عالية‬ ‫صوت ناحية ‪Liquid end‬‬ .

‫األسباب الميكانيكية‬ ‫•وعدم إحكام تركيب ال ‪bearing‬‬ ‫•عدم إحكام تركيب المكبس‬ ‫•تاّكل في ‪Main bearing‬‬ ‫•إنخفاض مستوي الزيت‬ ‫المشكلة‬ ‫صوت ناحية ‪power end‬‬ .

‫األسباب الميكانيكية‬ ‫•تشغيل المضخة بسرعة أو ضغط عالي‬ ‫•تهوية ال ‪crank case‬ليست جيدة‬ ‫•وجود عدم محاذاة‬ ‫•زيادة رباط تشغيل ‪Main bearing‬‬ ‫•إنخفاض مستوي الزيت‬ ‫المشكلة‬ ‫إرتفاع درجة حرارة ‪power end‬‬ .

‫األسباب الميكانيكية‬ ‫•السائل به مواد غريبة‬ ‫•الجو المحيط به مواد غريبة‬ ‫•خطأ في تركيب الحشو‬ ‫المشكلة‬ ‫زيادة معدل تاّكل الحشو و المكبس‬ .