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Italy: 1500 to 1600 The High Renaissance & Mannerism The interest in perspective, anatomy, and classical cultures that

thrived in the 15th century matured during the 16th century as well. This is the brief time that historians have named the ‘High Renaissance’ and describes the time between 1495 through the death of Leonardo da Vinci in 1519 as well as the death of Raphael in 1520. The Renaissance style, however, continued to dominate the later part of the 16th century or the Late Renaissance. A new style, Mannerism, challenged that of the Late Renaissance almost as soon as Raphael was laid to rest in the Pantheon. The 16th century of Italy has no singular style that characterizes the time, thus art of the period exhibits an astounding mastery of both technical and aesthetic art. Artists have been raised to that of a genius – partially due to that of poetry and how it spawned more of an interest in the visual arts. Central Italy has the leading art centers in Florence and Rome where it produced three of the greatest artists who have ever lived: Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo – whose work has appealed to those of many generations to come. *For the sake of the lecture notes, it is divided up into two sections: The High Renaissance and Mannerism. It will be clearly outlined for you to follow.

Born in a small town near Florence, Vinci, he trained in the studio under Andrea del Verrocchio. He had a number of interests and art was only one of many. The “Renaissance man” mapped out the routes that art and science were to take for generations. Leonardo kept numerous journals of his notes which included (but not limited to) botany, geology, geography, cartography, zoology, military engineering, animal lore, anatomy, as well as aspects of physical science including hydraulics and mechanics – all of which helped his art. He stated many times that the study of his science investigations made him a better painter and his scientific drawings are artworks themselves. Leonardo’s greatest ambition was to discover the laws underlying the processes and change of nature. Keeping that in mind, he was also very interested in that of the human body and contributed to the study of physiology (the branch of biology dealing with the functions and activities of living organisms and their parts, including all physical and chemical processes ) and psychology (the science of the mind or of mental states and processes). He considered the eyes to be the most vital organ and argued that it would be better to be deaf than blind because through sight one could grasp reality more directly.

Leonardo da Vinci. Cartoon for the Virgin and Child with St. Anne and the Infant St. John, 1498, charcoal heightened with white on brown paper
Most drawing surfaces and their lack of availability limited the production of preparatory sketches. Most artists drew on parchment (calf skin) or on vellum (skins of young animals) which were both very costly. With the development of the printing industry, a less expensive paper made of fibrous pulp allowed artist to experiment more as well as to draw with greater freedom. This led to the creation of sketches and artist executed these drawings in pen and ink, chalk, charcoal, brush, graphite or lead. The design dimension of art production became increasingly important as artists cultivated their own styles. At first, creating art was based on imitation and emulation, but now, in order for an artist to achieve recognition, they had to develop their own personal style. In this particular scene, Leonardo depicted monumental figures in a scene of tranquil grandeur and balance in a preliminary drawing for a painting. Here, the glowing light falls gently on the majestic forms. The figures are almost robust and monumental, their grace and movements very reminiscent of the Greek statues of goddesses in the pediment of the Parthenon. Although, this familiarity of the Greeks cannot be attributes to Leonardo’s specific

Leonardo da Vinci. Giorgio Vasari writes in his biography of Leonardo. That aside. She sits quietly with her hands folded across her lap. with his outstretched hand. wife of wealthy Floretine. c. Raphael was born in Umbria near Urbino and learned from his father. Leonardo da Vinci. the representation of an individual is very conceiving. that she was Lisa di Antonio Maria Gherardini.” Leonardo revealed his strong ability to apply voluminous knowledge about the observable world to the pictorial representation of a religious scene. Francesco del Giocondo. . The curved pediment above this window. Leonardo divided the 12 disciples into 4 groups of 3 – united by their gestures and postures. This is interesting because it relates to the scripture in Luke 22:21 when it states “But yet behold. The scene is one with Christ and his 12 disciples seated at a long table which is placed parallel in a simple and spacious room. This ability of his has resulted in a psychologically complex and compelling painting. it still isn’t in the greatest condition (partially because of his experiments with materials). the hand of him tha t betrayeth me is with me on the table. In the center of the fresco we see Christ who for the most part has been separated from the group and the center window in the background frames his figure. as well as influenced by Perugino. (Hence her name Mona Lisa or ‘Mona’ which is a contraction of ma donna or my lady). Giovanni Santi. Leonardo paints her with no jewelry or symbols of wealth. The painting today is darker than it was 500 years ago and the colors are less vivid. You can still see the bases of them to the left and right of her shoulders though. along with the diffused light. fresco (oil and tempera on plaster) Painted for the refectory (dining hall) in the Santa Maria delle Grazie. and many others. 1503-1505. acts as his halo. protestation. Who the subject matter is still a scholarly debate. c. RAPHAEL Raffaello Santi or Sanzio – better known as Raphael was called upon by Julius II in Rome. Leonardo. Last Supper from the refectory of Santa Maria delle Grazie (Milan). rage. Each disciple is looking around and questioning each other as well as themselves wondering who it is. and love. This is the part of the narrative in which Christ. Raphael developed his own style of art that exemplifies the ideals of the High Renaissance. but the painting still captures the artist’s fascination with chiaroscuro as well as atmospheric perspective. Why was she placed up against such a landscape with its roads and bridges that lead to nowhere? Originally.knowledge of their monuments . Each disciple has a broad range of emotion including fear. her gaze gently at the viewer. this work was painted in loggia (under a columnar gallery). This goes against proper Renaissance etiquette which stated that a woman should never look directly into a man’s eyes. has just claimed that one of them would betray him and a wave of intense excitement has passed through the group. doubt. This mysterious background is what also attracts viewers to this work. this is formally and emotionally his most impressive work. Mona Lisa. Despite whom she is. His acquaintance with the classical art extended to that of the Etruscan and Roman monuments and Roman copies of the Greek sculptures found in Italy. His head is the center point in which the lines of perspective all match up to. in the background planes.he never visited Greece. 1495-98. Judas’s face is in the shadows as he clutches a money bag in his right hand and his left hand is placed upon the table. He has also gone against traditional iconography and placed Judas on the same side of the table as the rest of them. Leonardo painted the Last Supper. but when it was trimmed – not be Leonardo – the columns were cut off. unlike earlier portraits which were icons of status. or misty haziness. oil on wood This is probably the most well known portrait as well as the world’s most famous painting. and her mouth forming a slight smile. This also shows his expertise in the use of sfumato. Although restored in 1999.

1509-1511. patron deities of the arts and of wisdom. Opposite wall: The Disputation of the Sacrament (Italian: La disputa del sacramento). The frescoes refer to the four branches of human knowledge and wisdom while pointing out the virtues and learning appropriate to a pope. Like in Leonardo’s Last Supper. Fresco approx. the men who believe that the ultimate mysteries that transcend the world stand on Plato’s side and on Aristotle’s a re the philosophers and scientist interested in nature and human affairs. we see Raphael who painted his own portrait amongst the greats. astronomers Zoroaster and Ptolemy. Euclid.” “Bramante leans on the balustrade at left. 1514. Law (Justice). They form one body. divinely ordained religious authority. In the Philosophy mural. is not a ‘school’ at all. This gives the idea that the pope was a balanced man: cultured. Philosophy (School of Athens). and Philosophy. is seated near the altar Dante is visible on the right. Most of his subjects for portraits were those surrounding Leo X. while Aristotle carries his book Nicomachean Ethics and gestures towards the earth from which his observations of reality sprang. Diogenes. Baldassare Castiglione. Stanza della Segnatura translates to the Room of Signatures. the papal library where Julius signed official documents. The setting recalls that of ancient Roman architecture and looks as if it were modeled after the new Saint Peter’s. Raphael depicted the persons of great wisdom. the young man standing near him has been identified as Francesco Maria Della Rovere. The headings of his works are: Theology. yet a large group of great philosophers and scientist of the ancient world. Plato and Aristotle serve as the central figures around which Raphael carefully arranged others. He was an author of the Book of the Courtier in which he lays out the perfect Renaissance courtier (a person who is often in attendance at the court of a king or other royal personage). or Disputa – The Theology Fresco. Given Julius II’s desire for recognition as both spiritual and temporal leader.” Raphael. the painting of the papal apartments in the Apostolic Palace of the Vatican. Pope Julius II. Italy. the source of his inspiration. Poetry. Rome. all conversing and explaining their ideas and theories. knowledgeable individual as well as a wise. honored by Renaissance humanist. the pope’s friend Count Baldassare Castiglione. Plato holds the book titled: Timaeus and point to Heaven. Raphael placed himself on the side of the mathematicians and scientist rather than the humanists. Amongst them are the names of Pythagoras and his scale. In the Stanza della Segnatura Raphael reconciled and harmonized not only Platonists and Aristotelians but also paganism and Christianity. their bodies make up the Church’s architecture. . Heraclitus. Instead. 19’X27’ Raphael was awarded the most important painting commission by Julius II. it is only appropriate that the Theology and Philosophy walls face each other. and in the very corner. Appropriately enough. distinguished by a crown of laurel. surely a major factor in his appeal to Julius II. united in an ethereal apse flanking the Trinity and the Eucharist. Colossal statues of Athena and Apollo. The theologians of the Disputation are not gathered in a vaulted temple like the philosophers of the School. The vanishing point falls upon Plato’s left hand which automatically draws attention to his book Timaeus. Stanza della Segnatura.RAPHEAL. or commonly known as the School of Athens. that when consecrated becomes the body of Christ. Here we see that Raphael “represents Christianity’s victory over and the transformation of the multiple philosophical tendencies shown in the School of Athens fresco on the opposite wall. More commonly known as the Triumph of Religion. Vatican Palace. oil on wood transferred to canvas Raphael also excelled at portraiture as you can see here with Baldassare Castiglione. oversee the interactions. School of Athens too has character that all communicate moods that reflect their beliefs and Raphael tied these moods together. who personifies Gregory the Great. On the four walls of the stanza there are paintings of the images that represented the Western learning as Renaissance society understood it. ca.

Only 40 years after the completion. Greek or Roman – this was intended as a symbol of liberty for the Palace. The swelling veins and tightening tendons also amplify the psychological energy of David’s pose. The anatomy of David tells a lot about the character and his prelude to action. it was decided that the David by Donatello would join the one by Verrocchio in the Palazzo della Signoria. marble. At any moment it seems that David will hurl the rock which destroys the giant. he too admired that of the Greco-Roman statues and style. because the hands work and the eye judges”. One of Michelangelo’s best observations about sculpture is that the artist must find the idea that is locked inside the stone. Vasari praised this piece so highly and claimed “without any doubt the figure has put in the shade every other statue. in which we see the triumphant David with the slain head of Goliath. poet. As the artist chips away the excess. sturdy limbs. Leonardo and many. MICHELANGELO Having a keen eye on artistic talent. which was made popular by Leonardo and his Mona Lisa. setting aside the ancient Roman architect Vitruvius. Both portraits mentioned exhibit the increasing attention that the High Renaissance artists paid to the subject’s personality. He also thought that the artist themselves were not the creators of the ideas they conceived. The Florence Cathedral Committee had asked him to create it using a left over block of marble from an abandoned sculpture. or Michelangelo for great works of art. David. rather that they find their ideas from the natural world and are inspired by beauty. His David. Italy After the Medici family was exiled. no landscape or columnar motif and the colors Raphael used are very muted (dull). ancient or modern. we see him looking straight at the viewer with a gentle expression. We see him in three quarter view. 1501-1504. Florence. He was quoted saying “it was necessary to have the compass in the eyes and not in the hand. Michelangelo arrived “at novel and lofty things” because he broke away from all of his pred ecessors in one important aspect: he mistrusted the application of numbers as methods of beauty in proportions. David. His work also put forth a style of expressiveness and strength conveyed through forms that loom before the viewer in tragic grandeur. Michelangelo admired their skillful and precise rendering of heroic physique. he was also an architect. and large hands all tell the viewers of the massive strength yet to come. Michelangelo Buonarroti. One. the High Renaissance style that we have seen so far and instead creates works of art that are often monumental in size. the rugged torso. we see the scene before this has occurred. Like many of his colleagues. in Raphael’s depiction of the count. many others who strived for the perfect measure and instead he went with the thought that the artist’s judgment could identify other pleasing proportions. Michelangelo fled from Florence to Bologna where he was impressed by the works of Jacopo della Quercia. he too thought that the creation from the artist’s hand must first come from that of the artist’s mind. He took to sculpting first because he felt there was a connection there to a divine power because in a sense. signifying that just as David had protected his people and governed them justly. along with Alberti. being the important civic symbol of Florence. for example. So. He returned to Florence in 1501. so whoever ruled Florence should vigorously defend the city and govern it with justice. Michelangelo created the snapshot of David turning his head towards the left to watch his approaching foe. whom people referred to as ‘the giant’ assured his reputation then and now as having an extraordinary talent. We see several references to the past with this sculptor. was once again the subject matter created by Michelangelo. seven years later. He thus separates himself from. the artist takes the idea from the stone – bringing forth the living form. The mood of the portrait is very fitting of the middle aged man. .” Going against the other sculptor’s versions. More specifically. painter.Here. Although Michelangelo was first and foremost a sculptor. Pope Julius II also commissioned Michelangelo Buonarroti. The background is very neutral. He also went with the idea that only the artist was responsible for the limitations put on their creation and was clearly an advocate for self expression. and engineer. we are instantly reminded of the Lysippan athletes as well as the insight and emotionalism of Hellenistic statuary. he too was “making man”. Parallel to Plato’s ideas. When the Medici’s palace was looked over by city officials.

We see the horns on his head. Rome). Not since Hellenistic times have we seen a sculptor who depicted a work of art with so much pent-up energy (both physical and emotional) in a seated statue. to the human world: dawn. Michelangelo Buonarroti. The first of many art works he had commissioned from Michelangelo was his own tomb. However. The spirit of the tomb can be summed up by the representation of Moses. Michelangelo reduced the size of the tomb and was finally given permission in 1542 to create only a third of the figures of his original design. We also see an owl and a hideous mask both representing nightmares. Lorenzo sits wrapped . but. and are taken from the literal translation in Exodus. shortly after he had begun. anxiety. the veins swell. doesn’t seem to be doing much of that. marble The claim to fame of Michelangelo’s David caught the eye of Julius II who too appreciated classical references and associated himself with the humanists and the Roman emperors. (Recall the Well of Moses by Claus Sluter). to be placed in Old Saint Peter’s. They both appear to be chained into this never relaxing pose. When one looks at Day. But the design of the toms still remains a mystery. the pope halted the work – more than likely it was a money problem in which he had to give more to the construction of the new Saint Peter’s. Unfortunately. Any ways. specifically. and exhaustion. The two tombs mirror each other and are the twin versions on one another. The two representations on the sarcophagi symbolize the realm of time. Rome (where he had served as cardinal). this work doesn’t match the rest of the sculpture and does not convey the impact as it was supposed to. ideal beauty. evening. one will see his body has the thickness of a tree and the anatomy of Hercules and can see his huge limbs straining against each other. day. Michelangelo was too asked to create the tomb of Giuliano and Lorenzo Medici. This idea of representing pain and anguish by twisting the body in opposite directions becomes a characteristic of Michelangelo and we see it appear on the Sistine Chapel ceiling as well as in the Bound Slave sculptures. Florence. He turned his own frustrations. the contemplative man (Lorenzo) and the active man (Giuliano). Again. after Julius’s death in 1513. and night. The final project was completed in 1545 and not placed in Old Saint Peter’s basilica but in San Pietro in Vincoli. The two men are placed above the action showing their transcending worldly existence. and doubts into the great figures he created. Michelangelo carved the massive Old Testament figure with the tablets under his arm and his other hand gathering his beard. the symbol of rest. more the passing of time. The muscles bulge. passions. we see the female representation of night and to the right. Italy. Humanity’s state in this vicious cycle of time is one of pain. San Lorenzo. and the great legs seem to slowly start to move. he decides to focus more on pent-up emotion rather than calm. Medici Chapel. To the left. c. This concentrated glare captures the expression of the awful wrath that stirs in the mighty frame as well as in his eyes. 1519-34. frustration. 1513-1515. for no mentioned reason. Night. He looks off as if sitting in council while across from him. Moses (San Pietro in Vincoli. Michelangelo Buonarroti. Had Julius been able to see the final product and where it was going to be placed. Originally intended to be placed with seven other massive forms and seen from below. We see her twisting as if unable to get comfortable in order to fall asleep. Some scholars believe that the figures are not representing the humanity’s pain. Michelangelo never finished either tomb. the cycles of life which eventually leads to death. the male representation of day. he would have been bitterly disappointed. The original two story structure that wa s designed in 1501 called for 28 statues to adorn the wall. we see the turned head as we did in David. and most scholars believe there was to be pairs of river gods at the bottom representing the Underworld. This would have given Michelangelo an astounding amount of space in which he could sculpt many forms in many positions. Tomb of Giuliano de’ Medici. Giuliano was the duke of Nemours and son of Lorenzo the Magnificent and Lorenzo was the duke of Urbino and grandson of Lorenzo the magnificent. Giuliano sits in Roman emperor garb and holds the commander’s baton.From here on. which has been a traditional way to determine who he is in a group setting. They both represent the two ideal human forms.

Tempietto (Rome). but also keeps with the ideas of the Renaissance and its ideas about the religion’s history. On the left. Like with his sculpture. and the demons with their gargoyle like masks and burning eyes awaken and begin their torture.800 sq. Together they represent the two ways an individual would find union with God. he gave the very bitter Michelangelo the commission to start painting the ceiling on the Sistine Chapel. A group of saved souls – the elect. Yet. Michelangelo didn’t care to present them with the facial features that they actually had. and on the far right appears a figure with a cross. in less than four years. This version of the end of the world and the fate of sinners is even more grotesque than that of Signorelli’s Damned Cast into Hell. Michelangelo Buonarroti. 1508-12. Michelangelo Buonarroti.crowd around Christ. to him the body was the manifestation of the soul or of a state of mind and character. 1534-41 Michelangelo also agreed to paint the Last Judgment on the chapel’s altar walls of the Sistine Chapel. ARCHITECTURE Donato D’Angelo Bramante. through meditation or through an active lifestyle fashioned after that of Christ. The body is what it was all about. The choirs of Heaven surround him pulse with anxiety and awe. fresco When Julius II suspended the work on his tomb. Michelangelo concentrated his expressive purpose on the human figure. Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (Vatican City. among others. The two representations of the men are in fact not like them physically at all. the dimensions (5. The overall conceptualization of the ceiling’s design and narrative structure not only presents a sweeping chronology of Christianity. Rebuilding the church would occupy some of the leading architects of Italy for more than a thought. Saint Bartholomew. He succeeded in weaving some 300 figures in the theme of the ceiling: the creation. . the dead wake and assume flesh. He raises his right hand with such strong force that alerts others that he will destroy the all of creation. his face in deep shadow. it also holds a glimmer of hope. and redemption of humanity. Rome). The articulation of the ceiling with its thousands of details was a superhuman achievement. in the nude or simply draped with cloth. who was skinned alive. 1502 The construction of Old Saint Peter’s which was started by Constantine was now an insufficient structure for the needs and aspirations of the Renaissance papacy. The ceiling presented a number of difficulties. Martyrs who suffered especially agonizing deaths are seen below Christ. fall. Michelangelo had finished the commission in a way that served the pope’s request and agenda. such as Saint Andrew. holds the knife and the skin (the face that appears on the skin is a self portrait of Michelangelo). The Last Judgment (Sistine Chapel. Rome). because after all. who is going to remember a thousand years from now. Although this image of the final days is meant to scare those. Below are trumpeting angels. most likely the Good Thief (crucified with Christ) or a saint martyred by crucifixion. Instead he was more concerned with the overall human form. not to mention his inexperience as a fresco painter. the figures ascending in to Heaven and the downward thrust of the damned. He painted with a sculptor’s eye and paid close attention to how light and shadow communicate volume and surface. feet). and the way to present correct perspective when the vaulted arches bend the way they do. Here we see Christ as the stern judge of the world. He insisted that sculptor was his primary work and that painting was only his secondary line of work (he did this in the hopes that he wouldn’t be tied to a project when the tomb sculpture resumed). He represented the body in its most natural form. such as the height (70 feet off the ground). These included: the conflict between good and evil. youthful energy and wisdom of age.

the dome is probably the most impressive in the world. Play on light and shadows seen around the columns and balustrade and across the deep set rectangular and arched niches. The end result of the dome is that it seems to rise from its base rather than rest firmly upon it. Bramante was the first of several architects in line to construct Saint Peter’s. as well as the walls and drum. With a few strokes of the pen. Peter’s. “For it is an established fact. each ending in an apse. he decided that architecture was in a sense the same because buildings should follow the form of the human body. His style was also consistent with the humanistic values of the day and was based on ancient Roman architecture. His plan was that of two equal arms crossing to create a cross. Peter’s grave as well as hold that of Julius II (which. The way Bramante incorporates classical parts seen in a new way was revolutionary. that the members of architecture resemble the members of man. cannot really understand architecture. Much like his predecessors (Battista. But Michelangelo placed a hemispherical dome to temper the verticality of the design of the lower stories and to establish balance. Alberti. Bramante started out as a painter and went to Milan and stayed there until the French arrived but while he was there. Brunelleschi. after Michelangelo’s death. Its nickname is a proper one for it because the round temples of Roman Italy are exactly what inspired his design. architect Giacomo della Porta restored the earlier high design of the dome and ignored Michelangelo’s reasoning. Bramante died and the construction for his plan never went past the building of the crossing piers and the lower choir walls. Peter’s pilasters extend to the drum and the dome thus uniting the structure. Michelangelo’s plan for new St. he reduced the central component from a number of interlocking crosses to a compact domed Greek cross inscribed in a square and fronted with a double columned portico. the church was facing the upmost of challenges which he reluctantly took on with no pay involved. 1546 As noted above. We see the incorporation of the two story pilasters that were first seen in Alberti’s work at Sant’ Andrea – but St. The dome’s original design was to be ogival like that of Florence’s. In later historical architecture. dome. and base). Either way.” In Michelangelo’s altered plan from Bramante’s original. . He praised the original plan and chose to retain it as the basis for his own design (a central plan church is what they both agreed on as being the perfect design for a church). Never doubting that he was a sculptor first and foremost. His plan was passed down to another architect who passed it down to another before it landed in the hands of Michelangelo. Bramante was able to achieve a very balanced relationship between parts (drum. he gave up painting and became one of his generation’s most renowned architects. as you already know – he wasn’t buried there). The reasons were probably similar to that of Brunelleschi’s and the concern with weight. Julius II’s goal was that the Rome of the popes be reminiscent of (if not more than) the Rome of the caesars – and the new Saint Peter’s was how he was going to follow through with that idea. One of his struggles was to carry on the original Bramante design as well as what the other architects had attempted to start. This style can be seen on his work known as Tempietto (“Little Temple”) which overlooks the Vatican. architects learn from Michelangelo’s design which stems from his original train of thought: that architecture is one with the organic beauty of the human form. Whoever neither has been nor is a master at figures. Unfortunately. However. By now. Michelangelo was able to modify Bramante’s snowflake design into a massive unified and cohesive design. However. and perhaps even Leonardo) he developed the High Renaissance style of the central plan church. King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella commissioned this structure to mark the presumed location of Saint Peter’s crucifixion. and especially at anatomy. The rebuilding of such a symbolic church was carried out through Pope Paul III in which he felt there was a supreme urgency to complete the reconstruction. At first glance. one may notice that the structure appears to be extremely rational – with its circular stylobate and colonnade – neither feature giving any indication of an interior altar or of the entrance. This was the church that would mark St.The first in line for the construction of the new Saint Peter’s was a man named Donato d’Angelo Bramante. This meant organizing the units symmetrically around a central and unique axis – think of it in human forms such as how the eyes relate to the nose or the arms relate to the body.

The ancient Roman equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius (which survived the Middle Ages – surprisingly) became the focal point of the entire design. Design for the Campidoglio on the Capitoline Hill. not for Michelangelo. . the symbol of the equestrian rider carried double significance. Palazzo Farnese (Farnese palace). Michelangelo placed the new building in a location so that it stood at the same angle as the other previous structures. regularity. The quoins (rusticated building corners) and the cornice firmly anchor the rectangle of the smooth front. VENETIAN STYLE Venetian style of painting depicted the soft colored light on Venice’s figures as well as landscapes. This was a challenge for Michelangelo because he had two existing building that he had to incorporate into his design: the Palazzo dei Senatori (Palace of the Senators) and the Palazzo dei Conservatori (Palace of the Conservators). This was the ideal center piece for the civic center of Rome and beautifully served the needs of a humanist pope during the Counter-Reformation. Titian studied under both Bellini and Giorgione and it is difficult to tell whose work from who’s in some of their works. The façade. Rome. two. It was the ultimate symbol of the pagan Roman Empire which Christianity had triumphed over and. matched the layout of the three structures being a trapezoid and not a square.Michelangelo Buonarroti. begun 1538 (engraving 1569) While working on the Last Judgment fresco. Either way. is the very essence of princely dignity in architecture. the Republic of Venice appointed Titian its official painter. and dignity of the High Renaissance. ANTONIO DA SANGALLO. He did this as an inspiration of the Colosseum and how every floor represents a new style of architecture. which faces the spacious paved square. Italians associated it with Constantine. In 1516. This inspired later Baroque artist who choose to use the oval above the circle. One. 1530-46 Pope Paul III requested Michelangelo take over construction of a palace for him back when he was Cardinal Alessandro Franese. the identity of the statue was mistakenly thought to be Constantine which is why it probably appealed to Pope Paul III. ca. He had originally selected Antonio da Sangallo the Younger who had completed the design but died in 1546 in which Michelangelo took over the project. The pope’s desire was to transform the site of the great temple of Jupiter to a symbol of the new papal Rome. Michelangelo placed it on an oval base inside an oval design on the pavement. Given the choice of using an oval shape instead of a circle. The two building forms an 80 degree angle which for other architects might have signaled defeat – but. simplicity. Saint Peter. The lines of the widows (notice how the central row alternates the triangular and segmental pediments) mark a majestic beat all the way across the façade. Antonio came from a long line of architects and studied under Bramante when he went to Rome in 1503. The Palazzo Farnese set the standard for Italian Renaissance palaces and fully expresses the classical order. Although through comparisons of documents. This created a trapezoidal plan rather than a rectangular one. The window frames are not flat against the building and is instead coming forth making the front three dimensional. Titian also helped paint the background on some of their unfinished paintings. To unify the structure. Venetian artist are very easy to distinguish from that of High and Late Renaissance artist of Florence and Rome. Pope Paul III had asked him to accept another challenging commission: the reorganization of Capitoline Hill in Rome. One of the biggest artists of this style of work was an artist named Titian. and the establishment of the papacy. The courtyard displays column-enframed arches on the first two levels and on the third he changed it to overlapping pilasters. This statue was moved to Capitoline Hill against Michelangelo’s wishes because he wanted to create a sculpture of his own to go in its place. He was a supreme colorist as well as the most extraordinary and prolific of the Venetian painters.

1522-1523. When looking upon them they really seem to glow and give off this illuminating Heavenly aura. Behind Pesaro we see a soldier who carries a banner of the Borgia and of Pesaro with the escutcheons (shields with coats of arms). 22’ 6” X 11’ 10” Painted in oils for the monumental altarpiece (almost 23 feet high) of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari. All of these figures are seen underneath heavenly cloud bearing angels. National Gallery. This painting tells a very elaborate story of historical events combined with Heavenly characters. Santa Maria dei Frari. Alfonso d’Este. Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari. we have Mary who is seated in what could be her Heavenly throne illuminated by a sunlit setting. Venice. Titian follows those rules as well as placing them within the confines of weighty architecture. 16’ X 9’. Oil on canvas. Italy. RECALL: Bacchus is the Roman name. He sought work after Titian. He had this piece of art commissioned in gratitude. leaving Titian to complete the remaining three walls by himself. She fell in love with Theseus and helped him in his victory over the Minotaur in the labyrinth by giving him a ball of fleece to hold onto so he could find his way back out. TITIAN. RECALL: We have learned about both of these characters. Assumption of the Virgin. Rather. In front of her we see Saint Peter who is looking down at Pesaro. the Meeting of Bacchus and Ariadne. we see Bacchus arriving with a very noisy entourage and with a leopard drawn carriage.TITIAN. Venice. Oil on canvas. but in case you are a bit rusty on your mythology. the subject matter and the other to the character in the foreground entwined . he places them on a steep diagonal. He had just led a victorious expedition over the Turks during the Venetian-Turkish war. In Titian’s version of the mythological story. In High Renaissance style of grouping figures together. Madonna of the Pesaro Family. Raphael. Bishop Jacopo Pesaro commissioned Titian to paint a piece of art which was named (rightfully so) Madonna of the Pesaro Family. Instead he drew attention to her with the perspective lines and the directional gazes and gestures of the other figures. Underneath this divine event are apostles who are witnessing the assumption. When she awoke to find her lover gone. First and foremost. the story (in a nutshell) is: Ariadne is the daughter of King Minos of Crete. and Fra Bartolommeo – unfortunately Bellini only painted one wall and Raphael and Fra Bartolommeo both died before getting any submitted. These clouds emphasize Titian’s remarkable skill with oil painting and how he could depict light by his paintings. Bellini. We see Titian’s inspiration to the classical style of art here in two ways. Italy. bishop of Paphos in Cyprus and commander of the papal fleet. But he does NOT place them within a horizontal and symmetrical arrangement such as Leonardo’s Last Supper. Theseus grew tired of her and lost interest and left her there while she slept. The entire painting has this incredible drama to it which Titian plays with the use of color. Approx. 1519-1526. The light that he radiates from God the Father gives off a glow that would have radiated throughout the entire church. Commissioned by the duke of Ferrara. Awaiting Mary’s open arms is God the Father who also is seen with outstretched arms and is seen surrounded by golden clouds. We see her being lifted by a great white cloud with putti helping it on its journey. Behind him we see a Turk with a turban on who is a prisoner of war. Titian depicts the Virgin ascending up to Heaven. He is presumably there to save Aridane from being left by Theseus. ca. One of the walls in the small room is this one. London. 5’ 9” X 6’ 3”. thus emphasizing the worldly transaction. Theseus and Ariadne eloped and to the island of Naxos. positioning Madonna – the central focus – well off of the central axis. one. 1516-1518. Bacchus was there and married her. This piece of art was later presented to the Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari. TITIAN. On the opposite side of the throne we see Saint Francis who is introducing the other Pesaro family members (all of which are male). Dionysus is the Greek name. had requested four artist to paint a bacchanalian scene for his room of alabaster. This piece of art enriched Titian’s personal style as well as his reputation with its rich surface textures and dazzling displays of color. Meeting of Bacchus and Ariadne. but unfortunately. Oil on Wood.

Oil on wood. or trickery. 7’1” X 4’4”. the delicacy of her hand resting upon her chest bone. Among the most prevalent features associated with Mannerism is artifice. Scholars have too often tried to understand what is actually happening here whether it is the. However. which again causes the viewer’s to notice unique gap. This conscious display of artifice often reveals itself as imbalanced compositions and unusual complexities. This painting represents the departure from the balanced. in this case class and elegance. were notable for elongated forms. Unique presentations of traditional themes also surface in Mannerist art. Italy. Santa Felicita. Exaggeration of limbs is not the only purpose of this painting. rather an idea or expression. leaving the viewers to decide what is happening. . Pontormo draws the attention to the placement of hands. a collapsed perspective. recalling that of the Laocoon group. It takes its subject from a simile in medieval hymns that compared the Virgin’s neck to a great ivory tower or column. approx. The uses of the two ‘styles’ is this: the first ‘style’ refers to that of the time period as well as artist. and her sensuous and elongated frame are all trademarks of the taste of later Mannerism. MANNERISM The style of Mannerism is characterized by style. such as Gothic or Leonardo da Vinci. Titian’s rich and luminous colors add greatly to the sensuous appeal of this painting. as stated earlier with the death of Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael. Here. the elongated neck. or the Decent from the Cross. This placement puts Mary in an awkward position as she falls back from the audience as she releases her dead son’s hand and causes there to be a void where usually the viewer’s eyes would comfortably rest. First of all. On her left we see a cluster of angelic form whose expressions seem to be as soft as their skin. precariously balanced poses. Known simply as Parmigianino (his full name is Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola). ca. Artist have always used this in the sense that a painting is not real. Capponi Chapel. PARMIGIANINO. The point previously made is seen by Pontormo. in the center. Mannerist went the exact opposite route and revealed the constructed nature of their work. Artists of the High Renaissance tried to conceal that artifice by using mathematical and scientific devices like perspective in their paintings. Galleria degli Uffizi. This emerged during the 1520’s. As seen with his Entombment of Christ we see all of these characteristics of Mannerist paintings. 1535. Notice the small oval head. Madonna with the Long Neck. To fill this empty space. going against the traditional ways to depict this narrative such as Rogier van der Weyden or Raphael and capture it horizontally. the scene is not a new one. Also. On her right we see a line of columns without capitals and an enigmatic figure with a scroll whose distance from the foreground is immeasurable – this is the antithesis (opposite) of the rational Renaissance portrayal of size with distance. harmoniously structured compositions of the High Renaissance. Florence. Renaissance artist tried hard to create work that appeared natural where as the Mannerist were less inclined to disguise their work. This is done with a purpose because the emptiness is symbolic of loss and grief. Entombment of Christ. 10’3” X 6’4”. we have seen time and time again this narrative in which Christ is being removed from the cross and prepared for his entombment. 1525-1528. Florence. the second use of the word derives from the characterization of the era. in which se see to the right of her.with snakes. Parmigianino emphasized her elegance by displaying her from head to toe. irrational settings. JACOPO DA PONTORMO. Oil on Wood. Pontormo displays his characters on a vertical axis. Entombment of Christ. we see beauty as well as religious meanings in Parmigianino’s artistic portrayal. what is new here is the way in which Pontormo has omitted both the cross an d the Christ’s tomb. and theatrical lighting. In other words. So. as well as other Mannerist painters. too follows the rules of Mannerism and can be seen best with his Madonna with the Long Neck.

The sisters wear matching outfits and the brother who is placed in between them holds a lapdog. The masks. Bronzino (Agnolo di Cosimo) too shows his take on the Mannerist style with his Venus. 1594. Florence. The shimmering halos give the audience a clue as to biblical nature of the scene. Abduction of the Sabine Women. GIOVANNI DA BOLOGNA.BRONZINO. with the crouching old man and the woman’s arm that is stretched up. Interpretations of the painting vary from person to person. Folly. ca. Wiltshire. For example. and Time. 1546. Portrait of the Artist’s Sisters and Brother . Italy. and glowing Venetian color schemes. represent deceit. Cupid. Anguissola had very recognized talents which allowed her to consort with other esteemed individuals of her time. they display athletic flexibility and Michelangelesque potential for action. 1555. Piazza della Signoria. The three interlock to create a vertical spiral movement. We see here references to the Laocoon group. the setting is a very dark one that is illuminated by the single light in the upper corner. Italy. and feet for the Mannerist thought that those features were the ones to carry grace. Marble approx. Venice. In comparison to Leonardo’s Last Supper. Nonetheless. which happen to be a favorite tool of the Mannerists. Time appears in the upper right corner and is drawing back a curtain to expose this incestuous act. Tintoretto contains a lot of the same devices in his work. Chancel. National Gallery London. Oil on wood. Commissioned for the King of France we see a unique depiction of Cupid who is fondling his mother Venus while Folly prepares to shower them with flower petals. Interesting thing about this work is that Giovanni had no interest in portraying any particular subject. SOFONISBA ANGUISSOLA. Folly. Her contemporaries greatly admired her use of relaxed poses and expressions of her subjects. Corsham Court. ca. His desire was to create a demonstration piece with an old man. Jacopo Robusti. One amazing painting that depicts his mastery is the Last Supper – a scene in which we have seen before. Methuen Collection. Christ is the vanishing . such as the imbalanced composition and the visual complexity. Cupid. 5’ 1” X 4’ 8 ¾”. There are other human qualities being represented here as well such as Envy. The oldest sister (left) displays dignity of the portrait while the brother looks at the artist with a very quizzical look. or simply. Oil on canvas. San Giorgio Maggiore. or engaged in activities. Last Supper. The youngest sister’s attention is clearly being drawn to something at the artist’s left. His works of art are often imbued with dramatic power. These multiple viewpoints change radically from one to the other as the viewer walks around the sculpture. Venus. approx. We see the artist depicting the members of her family. Loggia dei Lanzi. Also. Here we see Mannerist principles of figure compositions. conversing. this was meant for private use. Anguissola was the leading female artist of her time. This is the first large scale group since the classical antiquity designed to be seen from multiple view points. and a woman. Here we see a new type of portraiture of irresistible charm which is characterized by an informal intimacy and subjects that are often moving. depth of spiritual vision. heads. TINTORETTO. Much like the other Mannerist. This is perhaps why the title of this work has changed from Paris Abducting Helen to the more recent Abduction of the Sabine Women. all nude in the tradition of ancient statues of mythological figures. 12’ X 18’ 8”. since the children are members of her family. a young man. Obviously. but one take on it is that love – accompanied by envy and plagued by inconsistency – is foolish and that lovers will discover its folly (foolishness) in time. A pupil of Pontormo. This take on it is a bit different from the others. and the clever depiction of them as evidence of artistic skill. The figures take up most of the space in this work and Bronzino pays special attention to the hands. We know where Christ is and we do not have to search for him. 13’ 6” high. Tintoretto claimed to be a student of Titian and aspired to combine his color genius with the drawings skill of Michelangelo. and Time (The Exposure of Luxury). completed in 1583.

he just changed the title. approx. Gal leria dell’Accademia. (It is important to note that this is the time of the Counter –Reformation). Christ in the House of Levi. Villa Rotonda.). so. blue-green. dwarfs. Veronese usually painted for wealthy monasteries and his work would hang in the refectories which allowed him the appropriateness of painting majestic figures seated around tables. 1573. In the foreground we see the chief steward welcoming his guests in grand fashion. Veronese returned to the High Renaissance style and painted his subjects in symmetrical balance. West façade of San Giorgio Maggiore. He acquired his reputation for his designs of villas on the Venetian mainland. Exterior: Dissatisfied with integrating a high central nave and lower aisles into a unified façade design. The reason this work had to change its original title is due to the effects it had on the Catholic Church. although he did avoid solid colors and turned more to half shades (intermediate tones: red-orange. We also see a difference between the two in the fact that Tintoretto gloried in monumental drama and deep perspectives where as Veronese specialized in splendid displays painted in superb color set within majestic classical architecture. begun in 1565. Venice. ANDREA PALLADIO. Paolo Veronese we see brighter images than Tintoretto’s work. In the Christ in the House of Levi. and robed lords. The play of shadow across and the surface of the building against the sea and sky all represent a remarkable color effect. Italy. In the direct center. he wrote his own treatise called “The Four Books of Architecture”. It embodies all of the qualities of self sufficiency and formal completeness sought by most Renaissance architects. near Vicenza. No doubt by the dome on the center was clearly a Pantheon model. or simply. He built it for a retired monsignor which is a title of honor in the Roman Catholic Church. 1566-1570. Accompanying him in the foreground is a slew of clowns. Venice. 18’6” X42’ 6”. Oil on canvas. etc. With Tintoretto’s we only locate Christ because of the extra s trong orb of light that frames him. Interior: the inside represents strong roots in High Renaissance architectural style. ca. Palladio solved this problem by superimposing a tall. born by persons of ecclesiastic rank and implying a distinction bestowed by the pope. . does not really attest to his personal style. Chief architect of the Venetian Republic and after making several trips to Rome to study their architecture. originally called the Last Supper. Italy. 19 of which are still standing. Villa Rotonda (formerly Villa Capra). we see Christ who is seen with the elite patrons of Venice. Seeing the ancient building is Rome is clearly what influenced Palladi o’s designs and such is seen with this structure as well.point so everything lines up to him. PAOLO VERONESE. His shimmering color is drawn from the whole spectrum. dogs. He wanted this particular villa for social events. Each façade represents a particular Roman temple. Light floods the interior and crisply defines the contours of the rich wall decorations. ANDREA PALLADIO. The Holy Office of the Inquisition accused him of impiety (lack of reverence for God or sacred things) for painting such non holy creatures next to Christ and they ordered him to fix this at his expense. Named Paolo Cagliari of Verona. His most famous villa. we see characters in loggia and are all framed by three monumental arches. The perspective lines are in fact going in the opposite direction of where Christ is and creates an effect of limitless space. narrow classical porch on a low broad one. It is a central planned building with four equal facades and projecting porches.