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**T. Yalcinoz, Member, IEEE, H. Altun, Member, IEEE and M. Uzam, Member, IEEE
**

have presented a genetic algorithm for solving economic dispatch problem. The proposed method can take into account network losses, ramp rate limits and valve point zone. A fuzzy logic controlled genetic algorithm has been applied to environmental/economic dispatch by Song et. al. [2]. Song and Chou [3] have proposed a hybrid genetic algorithm that is combination strategy involving local search algorithms and genetic algorithm. The validity of a fuzzy logic controlled genetic algorithm [2] and a hybrid genetic algorithm [3] is illustrated on the economic dispatch problem with a six –unit system. In the above papers, the binary representation was applied to economic dispatch problems. In this paper, elitism, arithmetic crossover which defines a linear combination of two chromosome [11] and mutation are used in the genetic algorithm to generate successive sets of possible operating policies. II. ECONOMIC DISPATCH PROBLEM The economic dispatch problem is to simultaneously minimize the overall cost rate and meet the load demand of a power system. The power system model consists of n generating units already connected to the system. The economic dispatch is to determine the optimal share of load demand for each unit in the range of 3 to 5 minutes [12]. The economic dispatch problem can be expressed as

Abstract—In this paper, a new genetic approach based on arithmetic crossover for solving the economic dispatch problem is proposed. Elitism, arithmetic crossover and mutation are used in the genetic algorithm to generate successive sets of possible operating policies. The proposed technique improves the quality of the solution. The new genetic approach is compared with an improved Hopfield NN approach (IHN) [1], a fuzzy logic controlled genetic algorithm (FLCGA) [2], an advance engineered-conditioning genetic approach (AECGA) [3] and an advance Hopfield NN approach (AHNN) [4]. Index Terms--Economic dispatch, genetic algorithm, arithmetic crossover.

I. INTRODUCTION

W

ITH the development of modern power systems, economic dispatch (ED) problem has received an increasing attention. The economic dispatch aims to minimize the fuel cost while provides consumers with adequate and secure electricity. The literature of the ED problem and its solution methods are surveyed in [5] and [6]. However, it is realized that conventional techniques become very complicated when dealing with increasingly complex dispatch problems, and are further limited by their lack of robustness and efficiency in a number of practical applications. Thus developing a reliable, fast and efficient algorithm is still an active area in power systems. Recently, a global optimization technique known as genetic algorithm (GA) which is a kind of the probabilistic heuristic algorithm has been studied to solve the power optimization problems. The GA may find the several sub-optimum solutions within a realistic computation time. Even if there is no guaranty that the GA may find the globally optimal solutions in a finite time. Genetic algorithm is an attractive tool for economic dispatch problems. Sheble, et. al. [7,8] presented papers where GA solves the economic dispatch. In the papers, an example with three units was explored. Bakirtzis et al. [9] have proposed a simple genetic algorithm solution to the economic dispatch problem. The operation cost obtained from GA was 0.5 % higher than the optimum operation cost. Chang and Chen [10]

This work is supported by the Research Fund of University of Nigde under the project number of FBE 2001/04. T. Yalcinoz, H. Altun and M. Uzam are adjuncts to Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nigde University, Nigde 51100, Turkey. (e-mail: tyalcinoz@ieee.org).

Min∑ Fi ( Pi )

Pi i =1

n

(1)

Fi ( Pi ) =(ai + bi Pi + ci Pi 2 )

where ai, bi and ci are the cost coefficients of the i-th generator and n is the number of generators committed to the operating system. Pi is the power output of the i-th generator. The economic dispatch problem subjects to the following constraints:

Pmin,i ≤ Pi ≤ Pmax,i

for i = 1, . . . , n

(2) (3) (4)

∑P − D− L = 0

i i =1

n

where

L = ∑ Bi Pi 2

i =1

n

assigns a fitness value to each individual within the population. An individual is modeled as a fixed length string of symbols. The main objective of the economic dispatch is to minimize fuel costs while satisfying constraints such as the power balance equation. the fitness function. The use of real valued representation in the GA is claimed by Wright [13] to offer a number of advantages in numerical function optimization over binary encoding. The fitness function is normally used to transform the objective function value into a measure of relative fitness. For the economic dispatch problem.i and Pmax. Fit(P). less memory is required as efficient floating-point internal computer representations can be used directly. g transforms the value of the objective function to non-negative number. Pk2. Each individual represents a candidate to the optimization solution. A chromosome must represent a generation scheduling in order to solve the economic dispatch problem by using a genetic algorithm approach. The basic optimization procedure involves nothing more than processing highly fit individuals in order to produce better individuals as the search progresses. Efficiency of the GA is increased as there is no need to convert chromosomes to the binary type. may be expressed as where popsize means population size and Pki is the generation power of the i-th unit at k-th chromosome. selected randomly for crossover. Pkn] k = 1. selection. . In the economic dispatch problem. Pmin. and there is greater freedom to use different genetic operators [11]. the most fit individuals will have the lowest value of the associated objective function. recombination and creation of a new population. The search for a global optimum to an optimization problem is conducted by moving from an old population of individuals to a new population using genetics-like operators. usually taken from the binary alphabet. The objective function is used to provide a measure of how individuals have performed in the problem domain. the k-th chromosome Ck can be defined as follows: Ck = [ Pk1. A given mutation involves randomly altering each gene with a small probability. Reproduction involves creation of new offspring from the mating of two selected parents or mating pairs. C igen and C gen j may produce two offspring. and each unit’s loading range is represented by a real number. It is thought that the crossover operator is mainly responsible for the global search property of the GA. An evaluation function. . The fitness function is used to transform the cost function value into a measure of relative fitness. 2.. the unit power output is used as the main decision variable. A typical genetic algorithm cycle involves four major processes of fitness evaluation. Although the binary representation is usually applied to power optimization problems. In the case of a minimization problem. . The representation takes care of the unit minimum and maximum loading limits since the real representation is made to cover only the values between the limits. . and thereby ensuring no good solution already found can be lost in the search process. Two chromosomes. called fitness function. GENETIC ALGORITHM Genetic algorithms are search algorithms based on the process of biological evolution. B represents coefficients of transmission losses. . we use the real valued representation scheme for solution. popsize (5) C igen +1 = a ⋅ C igen + (1 − a ) ⋅ C jgen +1 C gen = (1 − a ) ⋅ C igen + a ⋅ C jgen j (6) where a is a random number in range of [0.i are minimum and maximum generation output of the i-th generator. III. We used an arithmetic crossover operator that defines a linear combination of two chromosomes [11]. . The most fit individuals will have the lowest cost of the objective function of the economic dispatch problem.where D is the load demand and L represents the transmission losses. The fitness function is defined as Fit ( x ) = g (f ( x )) (7) where f(x) is the objective function. there is no loss in precision by discretisation to binary or other values. 1]. The mutation operator is used to inject new genetic material into the population and it is applied to each new structure individually. in this paper. ECONOMIC DISPATCH USING GENETIC ALGORITHM The success of the genetic algorithm strongly depends on the problem mapping which involves the transformation of the problem solution to a chromosome representation and the design of the fitness function as assess the quality of a solution. the mechanics of natural selection and genetics are emulated artificially. which is a linear combination of their j parents i. . .e. This fitness value is measure for the quality of an individual. IV. We generate a random real value which makes a random change in the m-th element selected randomly of the chromosome. Each chromosome within the population represents a candidate solution. An elitist which GA search is used guarantees that the best solution so far obtained in the search is retained and used in the following generation. For the real valued representation. Fit ( P ) = ∑ g (ai + bi Pi + ci Pi 2 ) i =1 n (8) . +1 C igen +1 and C gen . In genetic algorithms.

0 F2= 0. It is seen that there is a negligible difference in the values between the methods.00482 P32 + 7.08 248.7 63791.0 1800.48 20465.97 P3 + 78.0 Cost ($/h) 14169. IHN. The first test system has six units and details of this test system are given as follows: F1= 0. a power system with 6 units and a 20-unit system respectively. an arithmetic crossover operator is used.60 335.74 217. The obtained operation costs by the IHN and the AHNN are about 0.00184 P52 + 7.09 Load (MW) 1200. The FLCGA produced the highest operation cost and the obtained operation cost by the PGA are smaller than the IHN [1] respectively. It can be clearly seen that the proposed genetic algorithm achieved lower operation costs for different load demands. in contrast.44 20465.33 16579.00184 P62 + 7. Table 2 presents the results of PGA.54 14169. After mutation.09 Table 3 gives a comparison of the economic dispatch results of AECGA.56 325.85 16579. all constraints are checked whether violated or not.73 217.70 587. AECGA. The proposed method is compared with an improved Hopfield NN approach (IHN) [1].09 0.20 11477.92 75.00139 P42 + 7.54 14169. IHN and AHNN when the load demand is 1800 MW. AHNN AND FLCGA Methods FLCGA IHN AHNN PGA Load (MW) 800.03 8228. Then. V. an advance engineered-conditioning genetic approach (AECGA) [3] and an advance Hopfield NN approach (AHNN) [4].49 248. The FLCGA produced a higher operation cost than other methods. the best solution so far obtained in the search is retained and used in the following generation. The genetic algorithm process repeats until the specified maximum number of generations is reached. Details of this test system are obtained from [4].90 52981. The results of the proposed method is shown in Table 4 and compared against the results of the IHN and the AHNN for three load levels.56 Cost ($/h) 16585. RESULTS OF FLCGA.67 / 0. AECGA. AHNN and PGA for 1520 MW and 2238 MW of load demand. It is obvious that the proposed method produced the better solution than the compared methods for 6-unit system.92 P1 + 561.001562 P1 + 7.72 AHNN [4] 46068.24 20465.03 11477.30 75.84 53207.09 11477.24 $/h higher than the operation cost of the proposed method.66 335.66 335. the AECGA and the IHN produced higher operation costs for some loading conditions.0 1800.0 F6= 0.0 1800. the operation cost of the AHNN is slightly higher than the operation cost of the proposed method.60 335.54 Load (MW) 2238.85 P2 + 310.20 75.55 335.74 109. a fuzzy logic controlled genetic algorithm (FLCGA) [2].20 572.0 1800. it is In order to demonstrate the efficiency and the robustness of the proposed genetic algorithm. the results of proposed method (PGA) are compared with the results of FLCGA. AHNN AND PGA FOR 6-UNIT SYSTEM Load Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) 1800.07 248. SIMULATION RESULTS FOR A 20-UNIT SYSTEM Operation Cost ($/h) Error % of IHN [1] 46460.0 Cost ($/h) 20470.56 335.33 . TABLE 3.56 335.0 Cost ($/h) 11480.06 P4 + 500. TABLE 2.14 215. The execution time of the proposed method for the 20-unit system is about 6 seconds. AHNN AND PGA Methods AECGA IHN AHNN PGA Load (MW) 1520.0 250. IHN.11 8227.2% higher than the PGA.80 587.0 2 clear that the fuzzy logic controlled genetic algorithm [2] provides the worst results among the compared methods.46 P5 + 295. a random real value makes a random change in the m-th element of the chromosome. If the solution has at least one constraint violated.49 63401. RESULTS OBTAINED BY PGA.46 P6 + 295. TABLE 4. IHN.74 217. AHNN and FLCGA when the load demands are 800 MW and 1200 MW.0 F4= 0.43 217.26 Load (MW) 3150 3800 4600 Methods FLCGA AECGA IHN AHNN PGA TABLE 1.55 335.14 PGA 46027.0 Cost ($/h) 8231.24 0. a new random real value is used for finding a new value of the m-th element of the chromosome. The proposed method was implemented in Matlab. The cost function of each unit is chosen as a quadratic function for the test systems.14 248. 94 / 0. mutation is performed.35 52852.33 16579. IHN.05 8227. SIMULATION RESULTS The proposed method has been applied to two test systems. For 2238 MW of load demand. According to Table 1 and Table 2. the operation cost of the AECGA is 5. In the mutation step. a 20-unit system is considered.74% and 0.84 IHN / AHNN 0. RESULTS OBTAINED BY AECGA.In order to produce two offspring.54 14169. 61 / 0.76 63566.80 325.84 587.90 587. For 800 MW of load demand. After crossover is completed. IHN.0 F3= 0.00194 P22 + 7.0 F5= 0.24 100 < P1 < 600 100 < P2 < 400 50 < P3 < 200 140 < P4 < 590 110 < P5 < 440 110 < P6 < 440 In Table 1.18 75.33 16579.

1. J. 4.D. no. pp. Sheble and K. no. 117-124.V. May 1997. Distrib. 5. on Power Systems. Yalcinoz and H. Turkey. UK.." IEEE Trans.D. "Optimal power dispatch – A comprehensive survey.economic dispatch example. Distrib. 181-185.. Chou. November 1990. Transm. Wang. vol. Since 1998 he has been a Lecturer at Nigde University. Yalcinoz and M. Turkey. For a 6-unit system." IEE Proc. His interests include modeling and control of discrete event systems using Petri net based techniques. London. "Environmental/ economic dispatch using fuzzy logic controlled genetic algorithms. 141. 1325-1331. 1977 B. Happ.D. CONCLUSIONS In this paper. Walters and G. 2nd ed.B. "Genetic algorithm solution of economic dispatch with valve point loading. Murat Uzam (M'1998) was born in Aydin. PAS-96. pp. 377-382. H. vol 8. November 1995. vol. Johns.J. arithmetic crossover. Turkey. Transm. Wood and B. Chowdhury and S.Sc. degrees in electrical engineering from Yildiz Technical University.S. 1994.. Springer-Verlag.Y. In 1998 he obtained a Ph.H. Song and C. 67-80. vol. The real valued representation scheme. July 1997. Turkey. 841-854.." IEEE Trans. Wang. vol. Genetic algorithms for real parameter optimization. from Imperial College. "Genetic algorithm solution to the economic dispatch problem. Sc. He received the B. 4. from Univeristy of Nottingham. Wright. Rawlins (Ed. March 1997 Y.S. 144. Gener. A. G. vol. Transm. degree in electrical and electronic engineering from Karadeniz Technical University.H. 3.VIII. "Large-scale economic dispatch approach by genetic algorithm.E. 2000. 10. on Power Systems. Sheble. V. Morgan Kaufmann. Genetic Algorithms + Data Structures = Evolution Programs. Gener. P. 144. pp. Z. Bakirtzis. Distrib. He received both the B. Syst. Distrib. Since 1998 he has been a Lecturer at Nigde University. in Foundations of Genetic Algorithms. July 1994. Berlin. He recieved the BSc degree in Electronic and Communication Engineering from Yıldız University in 1991. 1984.conditioning genetic approach to power economic dispatch. pp. D. "Comparison of simulation algorithms for the Hopfield neural network: an application of economic dispatch. BIOGRAPHIES VI. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] T. "Advanced engineered." IEEE Trans. the AECGA. Michalewicz. Kazarlis. Turkey in 1989 and 1991 respectively. on Power Systems. mutation and elitism are used in the genetic algorithms to generate successive sets of possible operating policies. Turkey in 1993. Rahman. 144. Wollenberg.Sc. In 1998 he obtained a Ph.2% higher than the PGA for a 20-unit system. P. Chang. 1991." IEE Proc.. In the case studies. In 1998 he obtained a Ph.74% and 0. Turkey in 1990 and the M. on Power Systems. in 1968.H. signal and speech processing. the proposed method has been applied to the economic dispatch problem with 6 generators and 20 generators." Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering & Computer Sciences. A. in 1968. 1993. no. H. The FLCGA produced the highest operation cost among the methods. Song. a fuzzy logic controlled genetic algorithm [2].H." IEEE Trans. Gener. pp.. G. Short. "A review of recent advances in economic dispatch.Sc.F. John Wiley & Sons. "Refined genetic algorithm .T. vol. 205-218. Power App. [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] . no. 8. Tankut Yalcinoz (S'1991. pp. 12481259. vol." IEEE Trans. a new approach to the economic dispatch problem using a new genetic algorithm has been presented. Gener. A. Test results have shown the proposed genetic algorithm can provide better solutions than an improved Hopfield NN approach [1]. His main interests are in power system planning and operation and the application of computational intelligence to power systems.C. pp. the IHN and the AHNN produced higher operation costs than the new genetic algorithm for some loading conditions. 1995." IEE Proc.). Transm. pp. Altun. pp. an advance engineered-conditioning genetic approach [3] and an advance Hopfield NN approach [4]. T. 285-292. vol." IEE Proc. pp. "Large-scale economic dispatch using an improved Hopfield neural network. Halis Altun (M'1996) was born in Nevsehir. pp. and M. from Salford University. UK.1. Petrides and S. 10. VII. in 1968.B. 377-382. Since 1998 he has been a lecturer at Nigde University. Power Generation Operation and Control. Chen and H. Brittig. M'2000) was born in Mersin. New York. 1919-1926.J. no. His main interests are in neural networks.H. vol. Y. A. degree from Cukurova University. The obtained operation costs by the IHN [1] and the AHNN [4] are about 0.

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