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Power Transformer Protection Based On Transient Detection Using Discrete Wavelet Transform@WT

S i n g a p polytachnic Singapore

Z.Q. Bo

A L S T O M T&D protcctioa &

SingapopePolytechnic: Singapore

M. A.Redfem
U n i v e r s i t y of Bath
Bath, UK

Z Chen

De Moatfort University


Leicesta. UK


This paper addresses a new relaying scheme for power


scheme and prove its feasibility.

Key words powa traasfomer, d i f f e r " protection, transient based
protection. discrete wavelet transform, transfamainrush.

One of the most important equipment in power system is the

transformer that changes in sizes, types, and connections. A power transformer functions as a nude to connect two different voltage levels. Therefore the continuity of transformer operation is of vital importance in maintaining the reliability of power supply. Any unscheduled repair work, especially replacement of faulty transformer, is very expensive and time consuming. The differential protection provides the best overall protection for a power transformer under the power frequency. In principle, this protection scheme makes use of current difference flowing through the different terminals of transformer so as to distinguish between an internal and external fault. When applied to a grounded transformer, this scheme provides satisfactory protection for both phase and ground faults. However, it can only provide the protection for phase faults if protected transformer is either unearthed or earthed via high Impedance[l]. In addition, the conventional differential protection scheme is difficult to detect the interturn fault.

Capacitance. The higher ratio has a transformer, the greater will be the concentration on voltage at the high tension terminal of transformer and the higher insulation stress on the first few turns of the transformer winding. Although this insulation stress can be released by screening , by reinforcing insulation of end turns and by designing special winding structure, the risk of an interturn partial discharge at high tension end of transformer due to impulse overvoltage is still relatively high compared with the phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase fault. The statistic survey shows that 7096-8096 of transformer failures results from interturn fault. This implies that the detection of interhm fault at early stage will minimise the failure of transformer and improve considerably the reliabilityof system operation.
T l l i s paper presents a new protection scheme for transformer

fault. The proposed algorithm extracts fault and inrush generated transient signals using DWT[2]. When a fault o c c u r s in the system, the specially designed relay captures the fault transient currents via C T s installed at the primary ard secondary sides of transformer respectively. The signals are then tuned by DWT multiresolution filter bank to filter out the unwanted components. In study, DB6(Daubcchies) wavelets are used to construct five levels filter bank t o extract the transients. From the DWT outputs, the differential and average currents bemeen the primary and the secondary are derived and the spectral energies of those cimnts are calculated t o produce the operational and restraint signals. Finally the relay compares the levels of two signals to determine whether the fault i s an internal or extemal to the transformer unit. Extensive simulation studies have been conducted t o verify the feasibility of piqmsed protection scheme under variety of fault conditions. In addition, investigation reveals that the technique is able to clearly distinguish an inrush current from a fault condition so as to avoid relay misoperation in occurrence of inrush.

0-7803-5935-6/00/$10.00 (c) 2000 IEEE


the differential and average transient sigaals are derived in tenas 0 1 ' 0-7803-5935-6/00/$10. Principle of llault detection The system configuration of proposed reiay as shown in Fig. It is apparent that if such low level internal faults in a transformer can be identified at early stage. while the details constitute the transient components within different bandwidths. the reliability of power transformer w i l l be undoubtedly improved and the failure rate will dramatically drop by adequate maintenance. As a wavelet with a certain scale moves along the time axis. 3. only mode 2 is applied to accomplish transformer protection. The signals from C T s are first combined in modal mixing unit s o as to remove the background noise effectively. Each level of DWT is accomplished by high pass filter. In fact. I and &.1 1 . to compensate the phase shift of AN transformer. the signal is compared with the wavelet and the signal components matching with the wavelet are extracted. Therefore the wavelet filter banks are designed to extract the wanted transient currents from the modal signals.00 (c) 2000 IEEE 1857 . low pass filter and downsampling units as depicted in Fig.1 mainly consists of analogue interface+modal mixing. internal fault detection. The two modal signals. It is acknowledged that DWT is capable of extracting both fast and slow events in a desired resolution. the protection technique in this paper focuses on the features of fault transient currents instead of the fault under fundamental frequency. inrush identification and logic decision units. wavelet filter ban& differential and average computations. extracted from high tension and low tension side of transformer contain very rich transient components in presence of a fault. the relay is interfaced with primary system through t w o sets of CTs which are connected to high tension and low tension side of transformer respectively in different groups. To achieve this. spectral energy extraction. the wavelet transform. The DWT filter bank ai shown in Fig2 is utilised to extract the and 1 . Y and A . functionsas a moving window with different scales. D 5 is used to characterise the transient fault. i. a powerful tool t o analyse a non-static signal. DESIGN ASPECTS OF PROPOSED RELAY The majority of conventional relays in use are designed to operate under the fundamental power frequency. Meanwhile the three phase currents are converted into two modal(m0de 2 and 3) signals. and I respectively.e. As can be seen in the figure. To distinguish between internal and external faults. The approximation mainly contains low fresuency components. DWT is an ideal means used to capture the transient phenomena for transformer protection. To detect the transformer fault. A. Hence. In the proposed day. only dminant transients within the certain bands play the important role.from 1 . In this paper. However over 70% of transformer faults are caused initially by internal inter-turn faults whose values are normally too low to be detectable by traditional relay. The filter bank performs five levels DB6 DWT transform on the signals so that the signal is finally decomposed into one approximation and five details. A5 and D3 are implemented to identify the i d current.

which are given as E l . To identify the inrush current.and Ik. the most commonly used method is harmonic constraint that can effectively depress the harmonics of inrush current. q is the scaling factor and M is the number of sample in the window. AT is the sampling step length.3 the d h k o f DWT on each level of multi-filter Then the spectral energies of bifand I. the stray capacitance of winding-to-winding and winding-to-earth becomes important. This is because at high frequency. based on the transient based protection. magnetising inrush current must be considered carefully because it has the appearance of an intemal fault. An intemal fault such as inter turn fault or winding short-circuited to earth is simulated by dividing the fault coil[5]. especially the 2nd harmonics. In fact. Then the ratio of EIh to EIb that functions as inrush restraint signal is used to determine whether inrush current occurs.2 the WT filter bank designed for the proposed relay . inrush current flows into a transformer only from source side. Hence the shunt capacitance is added to the transformer model to L Rg.& < EI. Whenever the above ratio exceeds the pre-set threshold in operation. 1 . and EIh. EIb.n Where Gf is different current between two sides of transformer. As explained previously. i.e. is average current.00 (c) 2000 IEEE 1858 . Measurement of inrush current In applying different relay to transformer protection. I.. are computed using the moving average process to obtain the operating signal and restraint signal I. the relay operation must be prohibited because magnetising inrush is present. (nAT)= k=n-M Z& (kAT)q AT 0-7803-5935-6/00/$10. which are the spectral energies of 1. The subroutine is capable of modelling transformer intemal faults. the characteristics of transformer at high frequency domain like fault generated transient and lightning impulse are dominated by capacitive parameters. I I I I I I I I . are calculated. incorporates the DWT filter bank to monitor the signal distortion of magnetising inrush current when the transformer is energised. EVALUATION OF PROPOSED RELAY The EMPT program incorporating transformer modelling subroutine BCTRAN was used for simulation studies. To assure no operation on transformer inrush. < EI. It is important to note that at frequency above 2 W . 111.2 is designed to extract Ih @3) and Ib(A5) for detecting inrush. < B .--. (nAT)= " : Z (kAT)q AT k=n-M Where n is the serial number of samples. The discrimination between intemal and external fault for a transformer can be achieved by comparing the operating signal with the restraint as follows[4]: EI+ EL. trip or alarm no operation (3) Where is scale factor the value of which is chosen as 10 in this paper. the WT filter bank in Fig. the traditional transformer models should be broken down. The proposed relaying algorithm.--I Wg. is transient current on high tension side 1~~ is transient current on low tension side EZ.

Relay response to externalbulb To investigate the selectivity of proposed relay to the internal faults.p e a r t ingdgnal -I- I time(ms (d). In operation.4d is clearly higher than 2000 In this part. 4a and 4b indicate the primary currents at both sides of the transformer. But the qm$ralenergy of operating signal " i n s higher than that o f restraint signal to ensure the correct operation to internal fault. that of restraint signal. the transformer currents are captured by the proposed relay. operatirg signal andrestrdrt signal Eg. p h a a e ' b ' / ' I so dlfferentlrl dgnal averagedgnal .00 (c) 2000 IEEE 1859 . Figure 4c presents the differential and average signals which are extracted by DWT filter banks and then computed using (1). It is noted h m FigSa that the high fault path impedance reduces the differential and average signals dramatically.-- 1 140 1 (c). Figure 5 presents the response of relay to similar internal fault that has a 1OkQ fault path impedance. F i i y the spectral energies of transient signals are analysed to distinguish between internal and external faults.reveal the behaviour of transformer at high frequency.the currents at fault phase 'a' and ' A ' possess higher distortion. A . Figure 6 depicts the response of relay to a pllase 'a'-toearth fault on the low tension tamid of transformer. It can be seen h m the figure that average signal in this case is much highex than differential signal. Referring the operating aitcrion in (3). Since the spectral energy of operating signals in Fig. It proves that the relay does not response to an external faulL 1 A . different types of internal faults are implemented in the simulation. Figure 4 shows the operation of relay when a winding turn to earth fault a t the mid-point of phase ' A ' on the high tension side of transformer. Relay response to internal faults B . Figures. Accordingly the spectral energy of operating signal is much lower than that of restraint signal. Then the specially designed DWT filter bank processes current signals at different DWT levels and consequently extract the signals in the wanted fresuency bands. no relay option occurs. relay will operate. As can be seen. and intemalfault and iii@i%%iiiiginrush. differential Jgnel'kd'evsragesignel o .4 Respollse o f proposed relay t o a tum-tocarthfault at the mitl-pobt o f phase 'A' 011 high tensions i & ofl"ex 0-7803-5935-6/00/!§10. the discrimination of relay to an external fault is &"rated.

-1 I 5 6 8 8 H) (a). In the relay. QX.and I h extracted by DWT filter bank are given in Figs. operatingsignal and restraintsignal pio. 1998. published by Marcel Dekker.of China in 1982 He achieved MSc d c p from E l e c t r i c a l Power Research htitutc of chi^ in 1985 and hD.G. filter banks are designed to extract the transient signals effectively. UK in 1995."the wave& tnnsfam applied t o distinguish between traasimt and pamanent huh". ZQ. 5 Relay mponsetoaphase ' A ' to eatth Eghimpadana fault at the midpoint of transforma winding C IdenMcation of magnetisinginrush addition.00 (c) 2000 IEEE 1860 . P. Therefore the proposed relay can effectively block the relay operation upon the occurrence o f V . the DWT. REFERENCES [l]. The spectral energy levels of internal fault restraint and inrush restraint as seen in Fig. J i g . Researdl Studiea Press Ltd. phadke and J .Bo. The proposed technique concentrates on the transient currents which are energised by a fault. 8(4). New Yak. S . Chi% 1991. 1998. 7d indicate the restraint signal of inrush is over four times higher than that of an inmad fault. A. J. [5].0livia R i d and Martin V e l t d . Figure 7a presents the internal fault modal signals of inrush and an internal fault. BIOGRAPHIES JLmg Fpn was graduated from E l e c t r i c a l Engincuing Departmnt of R h UnivaSity. " wavelet and signal Proceapng". Inc. " computer Relay f a Powa System".7b and 7c respectively. 1999. Singapore Fblytechnic. - imUSh.FOWBR"98.R.WeIlcr. It is seen that inrush current contains highly saturated waveform compared w i t h that of internal fault. August. P. [41. The precise discrimination between internal and external faults c a n be assured by use of spectral energies of extracted transients. [2]. The simulation results as shown in Fig. 7 illustrate the response of relay to inrush and internal fault. The inrusb c m n t flowing on one side of transformer has the feature of internal fault. G.kwis Blackbum. dHferentialsigneland average signal 36 @).. 7 h " * " m y . Cbh. CONCLUSIONS This paper introduces a novel differential protection scheme for a power transformer. In [3].Bo. VI. i n t a n a t i d confaena on power system techndogy. Therefore protection device need to distinguish between inrush and internal fault to assure no operation in the presence of inrush. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would express their grateful thanksto Singapore Polytechnic for its support. Jdy. The corresponding 1 . IEEE signal p d n g magazine.SM.Yang.Bcijiq. "A nonunnadcatiaa transmission line protetim using wavela transform d tMsieat p " technique". F . the proposed relay is able to discriminate inrush f r o m internal fault successfully. F J i g . proceeding of the 13* Powa Systcm computntioacoafaence(pscc'99).chin. ZQ.USA.k m The R t m Gardoa Univasity. Thap." protectivCd y i n g pdnciplesand applications". 1988 VII. Recently hc i s a lcctllrer in tbe Dzptmeat of Electricpl Eagineaing. Hc has 0-7803-5935-6/00/$10. IV.

signalsextractdon theievdaof M a d D3 when inrwh occurs tlma(ms) 10 19 14 18 18 c -150 1. he is with ALSIOM T&D protection & Control Ltd. Austtalia. high voltage engineain& applicatim of microprocessor and computer in the powm system and developmeat of micraprocessor based inslnunent. Rom 1989 to 1997. authored and co-authored over ugh9 papas 011 O p t i d m ~ o a . approximate Jgml of inruoh'A5' I signalof internal fault current -10 daaiidgnaiof . H e has Philip S . and Singapore. Dpring this time. Chin obtained his Bachelor of Electrical Engineesing. presently. 7 Investigation of relay responses to an i n t d fault and iruuah t " t when transformer I s swltched to supply source 0-7803-5935-6/00/$10. He haspubli~maayjournalandconfcnacepapersinhisnsear~harra~.10 12 1 20 I restraint signal f orminternat fault 14 IO 10 t ime(ms) (d). he worked at the Power Systems cfroup at thc Udv&ty of Bath. inrushrestraint algnalaf or an Internaif autt andhrU* a 1 0 1P 14 la 10 tromanInternalfault modalslam1 F i g . ' . " ' rimelmd . an electrical engineer f a five years and a research engineer for one year. he is the Direan ofthe Department o f Elecbical Engineering at the Singapore Polytechnic.M m p h H e is a Fellow of the Institutiono f Engineus i n Singapolc. ' .' . joint vcnbure~ and management in science and technology.00 (c) 2000 IEEE 1861 . 2 4 Zpproximateslgnalof internal fault 'AS' 8 I. ' . Technology Transfer. he published n " s papers and caahibuted m significant i n n o d o m in the field. Poww Systems. and an H o n o r a r y professor at the Mongolian Technicat University. Battery Ttchnology. UK. wind energy application. Fkllow of the Institute of Mcasuremtot and t h U 0 1 . AustnliaHe has many ycar~ of professional. Alternate Fuel Vehifles.' .worked as an assistant electrid engineer for two years. and serves as Adjunct R. ' . Presently. Renewable Eoergy appUcathS and Fieldbus Twhnobgy. 0 -. Stability. Zbiqinn Bo obtained his BSc degree f r o m the Natheastern Univasity.pswe~asFc~woftbeInstituteof~~~~uK. Resident o f the h r s m t a t i a coaod Society. he is saving as Chairman of the Sinsapore Natianl carmnitue o f the World Energy Council. His main reseapch interrsts are powa system pmtcction and control. Pellow of bstitution of Radio and Electrunic Engineers. Ausbralip. S i g a p o r e and the chairmsn o f the Singapon Chpm of tbe Rofibus Association ofsouth East Asia. chinein 1982 and PhD degree fromThcQueen'sUnivaSityofBelfasf UK in 1988.oleswr a t the Queensland Univasity of Tcchnology and CUrtiD UnivaSity o f Twhnology. signairextracted on the leveisof AS and D3 8 . as well as acting as a CDaSulEBnt to leading Companies and government departments and as a Visiting pmfesm to academic institutions. managerial as well as academic experience both in Australia 4 rJ. M . Hag Koag and Ailsnalia. and MemberofIEEKUSA Presently. ' 0 time(m8) (a). (b). Inrudt'D3' ' .' * ' . His main areas are electrical power system protection. modalslgnaisof internal f ault and inrush 5 10 15 20 2 4 5 I I 51 (c). He is also intaested in and takes an active role in projects involving international technicalcollahtim. Master of Engineaing Science in Mechanical Engineering and Doctor of Phiksqhy at the University of Melboume.