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ColumnShortening

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Midas Gen – One Stop Solution for Building and General Structures

19 November 2013 Midas IT, HyeYeon Lee esupport@midasit.com

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ColumnShortening

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Contents
I. Introduction in Column Shortening II. Column Shortening of Lotte World Tower III. midas Gen Introduction

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m Introduction
midas Gen Introduction

Intuitive User Interface
• • • • •

Works Tree (Input summary with powerful modeling capabilities) Models created and changed with ease Floor Loads defined by area and on inclined plane Built-in Section property Calculator Tekla Structures, Revit Structures & STAAD interfaces

• RC Design: ACI318, Eurocode 2 & 8, BS8110, IS:456 & 13920, CSA-A23.3, GB50010, AIJ-WSD, TWN-USD, • Steel Design: AISC-ASD & LRFD, AISI-CFSD, Eurocode 3, BS5950, IS:800, CSA-S16, GBJ17 & GB50017, AIJ-ASD, TWN-ASD & LSD, • SRC Design: SSRC, JGJ138, CECS28, AIJ-SRC, TWN-SRC • Footing Design: ACI381, BS8110 • Slab & Wall Design: Eurocode 2 • Capacity Design: Eurocode 8, NTC2008 • 3-D Column Shortening Reflecting change in Modulus, Creep and Shrinkage • Construction Stage Analysis accounting for change in geometry, supports and loadings • Building model generation wizard • Automatic mass conversion • Material stiffness changes for cracked section

Comprehensive Design

High-rise Specific Functionality

Seismic Specific Functionality
• Static Seismic Loads • Response Spectrum Analysis • Time History Analysis (Linear & Non-linear) • Base Isolators and Dampers • Pushover Analysis • Fiber Analysis • Capacity Design: Eurocode 8, NTC2008

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m Introduction multi-storey reinforced concrete structure midas Gen Introduction 3 .

ColumnShortening C Contents I. Introduction in Column Shortening II. Column Shortening of Lotte World Tower III. midas Gen Introduction 4 .

Time Dependent Material Properties (Elastic Modulus.EQ A cts Other Dead Loads (Partitions. and Shrinkage) Compensation for Differential Column Shortening • • • Dead Load + Live Load Wind LL. Finishes) Self weight of slab Earthquake Construction Completed Structure Sequence 5 . Creep.ColumnShortening C Construction Stage Analysis Why Construction Stage Analysis? Dead Load is Sequential Loading. WL.

6 19.6 6.1 4.ColumnShortening C Construction Stage Analysis Comparison between with and without considering sequential loading Shortenings of an 80-story column (cm) Steel Elastic Creep Shrinkage Total End Moment of Girder by Stories (Wall Connection) 6 Concrete 6.8 19.6 .1 16.

ColumnShortening ▣ High-rise Considerations C Effects of Column Shortening Structural safety aspects Increase construction cost due to additional stress in outrigger and mega column Safety verification due to the tilt of tower Construction Joint management Lateral-Displacement control High performance Concrete Spalling Concrete Pumping Technology Health Monitoring Decline of construction quality by over or lessreinforced rebar Safety of joint members Deformation of members due to Additional stress Safety verification of slab due to deferential shortening Usability aspects Safety of Elevator operation due to tower tilt Deformation and failure of curtain wall and exterior materials Deformation and failure of Vertical piping Reverse Inclination of Drainage Piping System Serviceability problems due to slope on the slab Breakage of finishes Wind Induced acceleration control Optimum Structure System Compensation for Differential Shortening Deformation of Vertical Piping System Elevator’s safety due to tower’s tilt Additional Stress of Outrigger 7 .

windows & Parapet walls… Reverse Inclination of Drainage Piping System Deformation of Vertical Piping System Deformation and breakage of internal partitions 8 .ColumnShortening C Effects of Column Shortening Deformation and breakage of Facades.

ColumnShortening C Reasons of Column Shortening Column Shortening • Deformation of the tower is a naturally occurring depending on material. construction method • Vertical Deformation: Vertical Shortening / Settlement / Construction Errors • Horizontal Deformation: Differential Shortening / Settlement Uneven load due to construction method Asymmetric floor plan / Construction errors Vertical Deformation Horizontal Deformation Tower Deformation ▪ Column Shortening in Concrete Structures = Elastic Deformation △1 + Inelastic Deformation △2 ▪ Inelastic Shortening: 1 ~ 3 times of Elastic Shortening ▪ Types of Inelastic Shortening: Shrinkage. Creep Deferential Shortening △1 Con’c Vertical Member 시간 With 경과 Time △1 △2 Core Shortening Pre-slab Installation shortening Column Shortening Core wall <Inelastic> Column < Deferential Deformation > Initial Curing <Elastic> 9 .

Linear elastic Behavior Nonlinear Inelastic Behavior But in general Analysis and design behavior of concrete is treated as linear elastic material Neither Stress ∞ Strain σ Nor Strain is constant for a given Stress During loading & unloading Elastic Strain + Inelastic Strain E = (σ / ε) ΔL = (PL/A E) 10 .ColumnShortening C Reasons of Column Shortening Elastic and Inelastic Column Shortening Concrete Structures Stress ∞ Strain Strain is constant for a given Stress during loading & unloading Steel Structures .

1990) PCA Method (Mark Fintel) GL 2000 (Gardner and Lockman) 11 .  Some of the popular predictive methods for predicting creep and shrinkage strains are       Eurocode ACI 209 -92 Bazant – Bewaja B3 CEB – FIP (1978.ColumnShortening C Column Shortening Elastic and Inelastic Column Shortening  Two basic prerequisites for accurately and efficiently predicting these effects are  Reliable Data for the creep and shrinkage characteristics of the particular concrete mix  Analytical procedures for the inclusion of these time effects in the design of structure.

εe (t) = Instantaneous strain at time t. creep and shrinkage components: Where. 12 . εc (t) = Creep strain at time t. εsh (t) = Shrinkage strain at time t.ColumnShortening C Column Shortening Elastic and Inelastic Column Shortening  The total strain at any time t may be expressed as the sum of the instantaneous.

20 or 0.38 13 .25 or 0. Ec(t) = Elastic modulus of concrete at time t. given by Ecm: Secant modulus of elasticity of concrete at an age of 28 days fcm(t): Mean value of concrete cylinder compressive strength at an age of t days fcm: Mean value of concrete cylinder compressive strength at an age of 28 days βcc(t): Coefficient which depends on the age of the concrete t s: Coefficient which depends on the type of cement. 0.ColumnShortening C Column Shortening Elastic and Inelastic Column Shortening  The instantaneous strain in concrete at any time t is expressed by σ (t) = Stress at time t.

05Ecm ∞ σc = Constant compressive stress at time t= Shrinkage As per EN1992-1-1:2004. the total shrinkage strain is composed of two components. 1. As per EN1992-1-1:2004. t0 = Age of the concrete at first loading in days Ec= Tangent modulus. Basic creep occurs under the condition of no moisture movement to and fro m the environment. Where.ColumnShortening C Column Shortening Elastic and Inelastic Column Shortening Inelastic Shortening = Creep + Shrinkage Creep Creep is time-dependent increment of strain under sustained stress. kh = coefficient depending on the notional size h0 t = age of the concrete at the moment considered ts = age of the concrete (days) at the beginning of drying shrinkage 14 . Drying creep is the additional creep caused by drying. Drying Shrinkage(εcd) is due to moisture loss in concrete. Autogenous Shrinkage(εca) is caused by hydration of cement. the drying shrinkage strain and the autogenous shrinkage strain. Drying creep has its effect only during the initial period of load. the creep deformation of concrete is predicted as f ollows: Where.

15 .ColumnShortening C Reasons of Column Shortening Influence Factors of Creep and Shrinkage Type Influence Factors Variables Water – Cement ratio Mixture Proportions Aggregate Characteristics Degrees of Compaction Curing Condition Curing Temperature Concrete Temperature Relative Humidity Size and Shape Concrete age at load Application Duration of loading/Stress Ratio Concrete Properties (Creep & Shrinkage) Concrete Composition Curing Member Geometry and Environment Variable (Creep & Shrinkage) Loading (Creep Only) Environment Geometry Loading History Stress Conditions ⇒Required to monitor during construction by material test and measuring in the field.

measurement Review 0 50 100 150 200 Day 250 300 350 0.0E-04 2. Schedule Design with Additional Force Material Experiment •Compressive strength •Modulus of elasticity •Creep & Shrinkage Main analysis •Updating material properties from experiments •Construction sequence considering the field condition Applying Compensation to in-situ structure Main Analysis.ColumnShortening C Column Shortening Analysis Process Preliminary Analysis Pre-Analysis Material / Section Properties Applied Load. 3rd Re-Analysis Suggestion of compensation and details for nonconstructed part of structure & Re-Analysis Measurement Measurement of strain for Column & Wall Final Report 4.0E-04 16 . Construction 1st. 2nd.0E-04 Back Analysis Output (103-1F-01) Strain Gauge Output (103-1F-01) 3.0E-04 Shortening. result from test.0E+00 Strain 1.

▲ Error between measurement and predicted values 17 . 2) Accurate shortening must be calculated during construction by 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 이론식 범위 (PCA) Pre-analysis 28 일 압축강도 Compressive strength at 28 days material test. material properties. → Serviceability problems can occur due to the over-estimated compensation. Rebar ratio ▪ Curing condition ▣ Construction Schedule and Field Condition ▪ Changes in Schedule ▪ Design loads vs Construction loads ▪ Construction error ▪ Settlement shortening 18 16 14 3 크리프변형도 με) Creep Deformation(x10 (x103 με) 1) Pre-analysis is performed based on the several assumption of 실측값 편차 values Measured Measurement 실측값 Pre-Analysis 이론식 범위 construction schedule. S/A …). → For the safety factor. Conc. Amount of air ▪ Volume vs Surface ratio. and environment condition. measurement and re-analysis. Strength ▪ Mix ratio(W/C. conservative results will be obtained.ColumnShortening C Column Shortening Analysis Process Procedure for predicting accurate shortening results (30~40%) Compensation by measurement and re-analysis (15~25%) Minimize errors by material test Variables of Shortening (30~40%) ▣ Environment Condition ▪ Temperature ▪ Relative Humidity ▣ Material Properties ▪ Elastic Modulus.

Creep)> <Loading of Specimens> <Material Testing Procedure> 18 .ColumnShortening C Column Shortening Analysis Process Material Test Specimens created Curing Testing CREEP Drying Shrinkage Strain Gauge Attachment Strain Gauge 2 years 2 Years  Compressive strength / modulus of elasticity / drying shrinkage / creep experiments  Generate formulations based on the test and update the model  Need on-site materials testing according to the construction progress  Reflect Site Conditions at a given time Elastic Modulus Primary Modulus test Secondary Modulus test Third order Modulus test Measure Deformation Measure Deformation Final Report ⇣ <Cylinder Specimens (Ec. F’c.

0E-04 4.5E-04 2.0E-04 1.0E-04 5. humidity) Difference in initial curing condition Difference in loading history Difference in material composition 5.ColumnShortening C Column Shortening Analysis Process Field Measurement Analytical Measurement Experimental Measurement Using Software or Manual Calculation Shortening analysis based on the predictive equations Apply material test results Consider construction schedule Difference in field environmental condition (temperature.5E-04 3.5E-04 4.0E-04 Strain Field Measurements  Installing gages in major structural members  Measuring deformations in accordance with construction field condition  Considering accurate loading time  Considering field condition and variables  Apply for the compensation Back Analysis Output(TA1-20F02) Stain Gauge Output(TA1-20F-02) 2.5E-04 1.0E+00 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Date 350 400 450 500 550 Deferent between analysis value and measurement 19 .0E-04 3.0E-05 0.

ColumnShortening C Column Shortening Analysis Process Field Measurement Determination of Installation location Installation of Gauge After Installation After Installation of Gauge After Casting of Concrete Field data collection 20 .

Attachments to support the slabs Pre-slab installation shortenings need to be known. ② : Design Level ③: Pre-slab Installation shortening ④: Post-slab Installation shortening Compensation for the summation of Pre-installation and Post-installation shortenings 21 .ColumnShortening C Compensation at Site Pre-slab installation shortenings – Shortenings taking place up to the time of slab installation • • Post-slab installation shortenings – Shortenings taking place after the time of slab installation • Reinforced Concrete Structure – – – Pre-slab installation shortenings has no importance Compensation by leveling the forms Post-slab installation shortenings due to subsequent loads and creep/shrinkage ① :Compensation • Steel Structure – – – – Columns are fabricated to exact length.

ColumnShortening C Compensation at Site 2nd correction 1st correction 1st correction Column Column 22 .

Introduction in Column Shortening II.ColumnShortening C Contents I. Column Shortening of Lotte World Tower III. midas Gen Introduction 23 .

Lotte World Tower L Overview 24 .

Residential. Seoul. Roof – 554.6 m.Lotte World Tower L Overview Lotte World Tower Location Height No. Observation Deck (497.081 m2 Office. Antenna Spire – 556 m 123 304. Hotel. South Korea.6 m) Reinforced Concrete + Steel Core Wall + Outrigger Truss + Belt Truss Mat Foundation March 2011 ~ 2015 25 . of Floors Floor Area Function / Usage Structure Type Lateral load resisting system Foundation Type Construction Period Jamsil.

Hotel.Lotte World Tower L Overview Lotte World Tower Location Height No. Residential.6 m.081 m2 Office. of Floors Floor Area Function / Usage Structure Type Lateral load resisting system Foundation Type Construction Period Jamsil. South Korea. Roof – 554. Observation Deck (497.6 m) Reinforced Concrete + Steel Core Wall + Outrigger Truss + Belt Truss Mat Foundation March 2011 ~ 2015 26 . Antenna Spire – 556 m 123 304. Seoul.

7 mm ⇒ Core wall: 314. CORE WALL MEGA COL. OW10 OW12 OW5 OW1 Differential Shortening Deferential Shortening Core Shortening Column Shortening FOUNDATION <Complete> MEGA COL.Lotte World Tower L Pre-Analysis .8 mm • Prediction OW4 OW3 Y-Dir Y OW2 OW1 A BOVE OW11 OW6 X-Dir X F IRE SHUTTER A BOVE X dir: 27.Deformations Lantern & Core Horizontal deformation Vertical deformation • Top of tower ⇒ Steel Frame: 368. MEGA COL. CORE WALL MEGA COL. Core wall Column CORE WALL FOUNDATION • Deferential shortening btw Core & Column ⇒ Core wall settlement: 35mm ⇒ Column settlement: 16mm ⇒ Steel column: Max 55mm ⇒ Mega column: Max 65mm 27 .5mm Safety check  Elevator’s rails  Vertical Pipes OW4 OW7 OW7 OW8 OW9 OW10 Differential settlement <initial> MEGA COL.2mm Y dir: 115. MEGA COL.0 mm • Top of mega column ⇒ Mega Col: 297.8 mm ⇒ Core wall: 232.

700 tons ⇒ required a delay joint installation • Additional Stress with Delay Joint ⇒ 1st outrigger (L39~L43): 1.m  Require Settlement Joint & Safety check L72~L75 ⇒ 2nd outrigger (L72~L75): 4.Lotte World Tower L Pre-Analysis .600 tons • Additional stress btw tower & podium  Max 100 ton.Stresses Slab’s additional stress Stress in Outrigger Differential Deformation btw Slab-Column  Slab has additional stress L87~L103 • Additional Stress without Delay Joint Podium’s additional stress connection ⇒ 1st outrigger (L39~L43): 3.700 tons ⇒ 2nd outrigger (L72~L75): 2.000 tons L39~L43 Tower Podium B06~B01 28 .

Column: Relative correction for deferential shortening Lantern TOP L120 L110 L100 L90 L80 F loor 층 코어 Core 기둥 Column 비고 L106-L123 설계레벨+1mm Design level+1mm L106~L123 철골기둥 보정 참조 Steel columns L76-L105 L76~L105 Design level+2mm 설계레벨+2mm 철골기둥 보정 참조 Steel columns Design level+2mm level+25mm 설계레벨+3mm 코어레벨+25mm Core 2nd O/R 구간 Design level+2mm 설계레벨+3mm 코어레벨+30mm Core level+30mm Design level+2mm 설계레벨+3mm 코어레벨+35mm Core level+35mm Design level+2mm 설계레벨+2mm 코어레벨+40mm Core level+40mm Design level+2mm 설계레벨+2mm 코어레벨+45mm Core level+45mm Design level+2mm 설계레벨+2mm 코어레벨+50mm Core level+50mm Design level+3mm 설계레벨+3mm 코어레벨+55mm Core level+55mm Design level+3mm 설계레벨+3mm 코어레벨+60mm Core 1st level+60mm O/R 구간 포함 Design level+3mm 설계레벨+3mm 코어레벨+55mm Core level+55mm Design level+3mm 설계레벨+3mm 코어레벨+50mm Core level+50mm 설계레벨+3mm 코어레벨+50mm Core level+50mm Design level+3mm 설계레벨+3mm 코어레벨+45mm Core level+45mm Design level+3mm 설계레벨+3mm 코어레벨+40mm Core level+40mm Design level+3mm 설계레벨+3mm 코어레벨+35mm Core level+35mm Design level+3mm 설계레벨+3mm 코어레벨+30mm Core level+30mm Design level+3mm 설계레벨+3mm 코어레벨+25mm Core level+25mm Design level+3mm 설계레벨+3mm 코어레벨+20mm Core level+20mm Design level+3mm 설계레벨+3mm 코어레벨+15mm Core level+15mm Design level+3mm 설계레벨+3mm 코어레벨+10mm Core level+10mm Design level+3mm 설계레벨+3mm 코어레벨+5mm Design level+3mm 2nd B/T L72-L75 L72~L75 L69-L71 L69~L71 L66-L68 L66~L68 L63-L65 L63~L65 L60-L62 L60~L62 L57-L59 L57~L59 L37-L56 L54~L56 L54-L56 L37~L53 L34-L36 L34~L36 L31-L33 L31~L33 L28~L30 L28-L30 L25~L27 L25-L27 2nd O/R 1st B/T L70 L60 L50 ▲ Relative correction between core and column pre-Analysis Material Test Analysis Measurement 1st correction 1st O/R L40 L30 L22~L24 L22-L24 L19~L21 L19-L21 2nd correction L20 L10 L16~L18 L16-L18 L13~L15 L13-L15 L10~L12 L10-L12 L7~L9 L7-L9 Re-analysis 1~6 times Additional correction for unconstructed L01 B06 L4~L6 L4-L6 B6~L3 B6-L3 Core level+5mm ▲ correction due to measurement 29 .Lotte World Tower L Pre-Analysis – Compensation .Core wall: Absolute correction for securing design level .

Lotte World Tower 코어측 L Vertical Shortening Measurement : Mega Column : External Core : Internal Core A BOVE F IRE SHUTTER A BOVE : B006~L070 : B006~L050 A A’ L90 L76 L70 L60 L50 외곽측 400 gauges (30~60 per floor) ▲ Gauges Location in Plan A-A’ <Gauge location in Mega Columns> L38 : Load cell : Level surveying L28 : Strain Gauge L18 L10 L01 B03 B06 Foundation settlement ▲ Gauges Location of settlement 30 .

Lotte World Tower L Structural Safety Verification Method Outrigger Structural Safety issues and alternatives proposed Effect & Safety Measure  Additional stress due to differential shortening between core and column  Provide outrigger delay joint Additional Stress 4700 kN ▲ 2nd Outrigger (L72~L75) ① ② ① Steel Outrigger Delay Joint ② Steel Outrigger Adjustment Joint Additional Stress 3600 kN ▲ 1st Outrigger (L39~L43) (Securing safety under construction) 31 .

Lotte World Tower L Structural Safety Verification Method Tower Slab Structural Safety issues and alternatives proposed Effect & Countermeasure due to shortening  Additional stress due to differential shortening between core and column  Additional reinforcement details are in each area ▲ Slab’s additional stress check L Reinforcement STORY 26F~35F 2-HD19 2-HD19 2-HD19 1-HD19 3-HD19 2-HD19 … Δ 부등축소량 발생 ① 거더 Connecting 연결보 및member Differential Shortening ② ③ ④ ⑤ ⑥ Column 기둥 코어벽체 Core Wall … ▲ Additional Force induced by differential shortening ▲ Example of reinforcement due to additional force 32 .

shortening + Foundation Dif. shortening: difference between columns & podium . settlements . settlements : difference between podium & foundation  Additional force due to phase difference  Alternative .Lotte World Tower L Structural Safety Verification Method Lower Levels Structural Safety issues and proposed alternatives Effect & Countermeasure due to shortening  Phase difference=Diff.Diff.Dif.Settlement Joint 조인트 폭 Reinforcement보강철근 for moment 보 또는 슬래브 보강대상부재 주동측 기둥 The Side of Tower Jack Support 설치 포디움 기둥 The Side of Podium ▲ Settlement Joint Control Joint 포디움 The Side of Podium 기둥 주동부 The Side of Tower 기둥 BEAM & GIRDER a + b ≈ 1/5 to 1/4 t a t b ▲ Detail of reinforcement ▲ Detail of Control Joint Moment & Shear force due to phase difference 33 .Structural reinforcement & Control Joint .

) 28 days Concrete Age (Day) <Comparison Graph of Elastic Modulus> Pre-analysis Re-analysis Ultimate Shrinkage Strain (με) Pre-analysis Re-analysis Design Strength Specific Creep Design Strength <Comparison Graph of Shrinkage> <Comparison Graph of Specific Creep> 34 .Lotte World Tower L Material Test Results Material test results for re-analysis Elastic Modulus Re-analysis (Material Test) Pre-analysis (Theoretical Eq.

1st & 2nd outrigger installation Loading Condition .Service verification: 3years after (95% of ultimate shortening) Foundation modeling: Apply spring stiffness obtained from settlement analysis model results (Arup. 39~42% in shrinkage deformation Outrigger Installation Condition: After completion of frame construction.Comparing to pre-analysis results. “DD100 Foundation Geotechnical Design Report) Apply soil stiffness from foundation/ground analysis results 35 .4% .Lotte World Tower L Main Analysis & Re-Analysis Analysis Condition and Assumption Analysis Tool: midas/GEN .Dead Load & 2nd Dead Load: 100%.Relative humidity of average 5 years Target period of shortening . 32~33% in creep deformation.Regression analysis results from the material test data (6 month ) .3D Structural Analysis with changes of material properties Material properties . Live Load: 50% Environment: Average relative humidity 61.Safety verification: 100years after (≒ultimate shortening) .

MAX  Maximum shortening of mega column .2(L69) PW7 75.Total: 153.1mm (B6) MC2 137. MIN PW15 79.6(L69) MC4 133.3(L71) PW2 79.1(L65) PW3 85.1(L71) PW11 76.3(L69) 36 .0~169.0(L71) PW9 74.5(L71) PW6 77.SubTo: 74.1(L71) PW8 75.Total: 289.1(L71) MC1 137.1~297.2~25.8mm (L76) (67~70% of pre-analysis)  Differential shortening between column-core . L69) (80~83% of pre-analysis) .9(L71) Wall MAX PW4 85.4(L69) Col.3(L71) MC3 135.4(L71) PW5 83.6(L69) PW1 79.9(L71) IW4 77.  settlement shortening .2mm (L65.8mm (L76) (71~73 % of pre-analysis) Shortening of core walls . Mega Column Shortening (B06~L75)  Target Period: 3years .6~29.4(L71) IW1 75.53.Mega column: 21.6(L71) Col.8(L71) PW10 75.2(L69) MC8 135.1~85.4(L71) MC7 131.1~60.4~137.5mm (B6) .0(L71) PW13 79.Lotte World Tower L Re-analysis Results Shortening Results– 1-1.6(L71) PW14 77.SubTo: 131.6(L69) Wall MIN MC5 131.9mm (L71) (77~78% of pre-analysis) .5(L71) IW2 83.1(L71) MC6 132.3 years was determined as the optimal time of target serviceability application.Core wall: 23.9mm (L65) PW12 77.5(L71) IW3 77.

0(L76) SC7 128.0(L76) SC14 114.4(L76) IW3 73.1mm (L76) (80% of pre-analysis) Shortening of core walls .  Maximum shortening of steel column .5(L76) SC20 115.4(L76) SC8 129.9~213.1(L76) PW6 72.1(L76) PW10 68.9mm (L76) (80% of pre-analysis) .6mm (L76) (67~70% of pre-analysis)  Differential shortening between Column-core .2(L76) IW2 78.8(L76) SC17 111.3(L76) SC21 130. MIN SC9 110.9(L76) PW15 74.9(L76) SC12 115.1(L76) SC5 129.9(L76) PW9 67.6(L76) SC3 121.5mm (L76) 37 SC1 121.9(L76)  Target Period: 3years .6(L76) IW1 71. MAX SC7-1 128.Total: 162.9(L76) PW3 81.2(L76) SC19 131.3(L76) SC22 133.8(L76) Wall MIN SC16 124.3 years was determined as the optimal time of target serviceability application. Steel Column Shortening(L76~L106) SC6 115.9(L76) SC18-1 126.1(L76) SC2 136.4~136.3(L76) SC11 126.40.6(L76) PW1 73.8(L76) PW8 69.4(L76) SC18 128.Total: 260.0(L76) PW11 71.5(L76) .6(L76) SC4 132.0mm (L76) (65~70% of pre-analysis) .8(L76) SC8-1 130.SubTo: 110.0(L76) SC10 124.8~81.9(L76) SC15 126.Lotte World Tower L Re-analysis Results Shortening Results– 1-2.4(L76) SC13 130.4(L76) PW4 80.SubTo: 67.1~44.2(L76) PW14 71.7(L76) IW4 72.1(L76) PW12 71.0(L76) PW13 74.5(L76) PW7 69.0(L76) SC19-1 130.4(L76) Col.5(L76) PW5 78.7~286.0(L76) Wall MAX PW2 73.9(L76) Col.

Core wall: Absolute compensation up to design level .Lotte World Tower L nd Re-analysis Results Compensation due to core and column differential shortening Lantern TOP L120 L110 L100 L90 L80 .Column: Absolute + Relative compensation due to differential shortening 층 코어 설계레벨+25mm 설계레벨+30mm 설계레벨+35mm 설계레벨+40mm 설계레벨+40mm 설계레벨+40mm 설계레벨+45mm 설계레벨+45mm 설계레벨+45mm 설계레벨+50mm 설계레벨+50mm 설계레벨+55mm 설계레벨+55mm 설계레벨+55mm 설계레벨+50mm 설계레벨+50mm 설계레벨+50mm 설계레벨+45mm 설계레벨+45mm 설계레벨+40mm 설계레벨+35mm 설계레벨+35mm 설계레벨+35mm 설계레벨+30mm 설계레벨+30mm 설계레벨+25mm 설계레벨+25mm 설계레벨+20mm 설계레벨+20mm 보정없음 기둥 설계레벨+25mm 설계레벨+30mm 설계레벨+35mm 설계레벨+40mm 설계레벨+45mm 설계레벨+50mm 설계레벨+55mm 설계레벨+60mm 설계레벨+65mm 설계레벨+70mm 설계레벨+75mm 설계레벨+80mm 설계레벨+105mm 설계레벨+100mm 설계레벨+95mm 설계레벨+90mm 설계레벨+85mm 설계레벨+80mm 설계레벨+75mm 설계레벨+70mm 설계레벨+65mm 설계레벨+60mm 설계레벨+55mm 설계레벨+50mm 설계레벨+45mm 설계레벨+40mm 설계레벨+35mm 설계레벨+25mm 설계레벨+20mm 보정없음 비고 L120 ~ L123 L113 ~ L119 L107 ~ L112 L103 ~ L106 L100 ~ L102 L99 ~ L99 L96 ~ L98 L91 ~ L95 L90 ~ L90 L88 ~ L89 L81 ~ L87 L77 ~ L80 L56 ~ L76 L52 ~ L55 L45 ~ L51 L37 ~ L44 L33 ~ L36 L30 ~ L32 L28 ~ L29 L23 ~ L27 L22 ~ L22 L19 ~ L21 L18 ~ L18 L14 ~ L17 L13 ~ L13 L10 ~ L12 L8 ~ L9 2 B/T 2 O/R 1 st B/T nd L70 L60 L50 ▲ Relative correction between core and column pre-Analysis Material Test Analysis Measurement 1st correction 1 st O/R L40 L30 L20 L10 2nd correction Re-analysis 1~6 times Additional correction for unconstructed L01 B06 L6 ~ L7 L5 ~ L5 B6 ~ L4 ▲ correction due to measurement 38 .

Lotte World Tower L Contents I. midas Gen Introduction 39 . Column Shortening of Lotte World Tower III. Introduction in Column Shortening II.

m BIM (Building Information Modeling) midas Gen Introduction Tekla Structure Revit Structure Analysis & Design Analysis & Design midas Gen midas Gen [Tekla interface] [Revit interface] • STAAD Import/Export • SAP2000 Import • AutoCAD DFX Import/Export • IFC Export • MSC.Nastran Import • Drawing Module (midas Gen) Export • Unit Member Design Module (Design+) Export [MCAD – 3D midas CAD] 40 .

CEB-FIP.Eurocode.v CSA Canadian Standards Association IS Indian Standards JIS Japanese Industrial Standards KS Korean Industrial Standards GB Chinese National Standard JGJ Chinese Engineering Standard JTJ Chinese Transportation Department Standard *SRC and User Defined material properties can be defined [Steel & Concrete Material Database] midas Gen Introduction • Creep/Shrinkage .Eurocode. ACI. ACI. CEB-FIP.m Material Data Material Data Definition Database Code Name BS British Standards ASTM American Society for Testing Materials EN European Code DIN Deutshes Institut Fur Normung e. Strength . Ohzagi… [Time Dependent Materials] 41 . PCA… • Comp.

m Section Data Section Data Definition • Section Database • AISC2K(US). CISC02(SI). AISC. Angle. • CISC02(US). Pipe…) • Steel – Concrete composite section (SRC) • Tapered section • Section Property Calculator tool [Section Database] midas Gen Introduction [Arbitrary Section Definition] 42 . Channel. T. BS. DIN… • Import data file already defined • Input dimensions of typical sections • Typical steel section (I. AISC2K(SI).

prestressing and thermal loads encountered in practice. • Load combination based on the various design codes • Load group generation of load case from load combinations • • • • • • • • • Temperature load • Pressure Load • • • • Static Wind Load Static Seismic Load Construction Stage Load Initial Forces Time History Load Moving Load Pushover Loads Response Spectrum Function Ground Acceleration Dynamic Nodal Loads [Time History Load] [Floor Load] • • • • [Wind and Seismic Load Generation] • • 43 . element. point. surface.m Loads midas Gen Introduction Applicable Loading Types • • Self Weight Nodal Load Prescribed Displacement Elements Beam Load Line Beam Load Floor Load Prestress Beam Load Pretension Load Tendon Prestress Load Hydrostatic Pressure Load • midas Gen enables us to specify all types of nodal. dynamic.

m Boundary Conditions midas Gen Introduction Applicable Boundary Conditions [Rigid Link] [General Spring Supports] [Floor Diaphragm] • • • • • Supports Point Spring Supports General Spring Supports Surface Spring Supports Pile Spring Supports • • • Elastic Link Nodal Coordinate System Beam End Release (Semi-rigid connection) Beam End Offset Release • Linear Constraints • • • Rigid Link Diaphragm Disconnection Panel Zone Effects • • Plate End 44 .

Hook  Inelastic Time History Analysis  Other Analysis Unknown Forces by Optimization Moving load analysis Settlement analysis 45 . Eurocode. Masonry material types  Boundary Nonlinear Time History Analysis Damper. Isolator. Gap. SRC. Pipe Cooling  Construction Stage Analysis Time Dependent Material Column Shortening Analysis (Elastic/Inelastic)  Pushover Analysis FEMA.m Analysis midas Gen Introduction Applicable Analysis Types [Construction Stage Analysis] [Dynamic Boundary Nonlinear] [Post-tensioning girder analysis] [Pushover analysis]  Static Analysis  Dynamic Analysis Free Vibration Analysis Response Spectrum Analysis Time History Analysis  Geometric Nonlinear Analysis P-Delta Analysis Large Displacement Analysis  Material Nonlinear Analysis Structural Masonry Analysis  Linear Buckling Analysis Lateral Torsional Buckling  Heat Transfer Analysis Time Transient Analysis  Heat of Hydration Analysis Thermo-elastic Analysis Maturity. Multi-linear hinge properties RC. Creep. Steel. Shrinkage.

m Results midas Gen Introduction Displacement Contour Von Mises Stresses Contour Solid Stresses (Iso-Surface) Stress Results (Diagrams & Graphics 46 .

m Results midas Gen Introduction Story related tables & Define modules Define modules for a twin tower to check following results: • Story Drift • Story Displacement • Story Mode Shape • Torsional Amplification Factor • Overturning Moment • Story Axial Force Sum • Stability Coefficient • Torsional Irregularity Check • Stiffness Irregularity Check (Soft Story) • Weight Irregularity Check • Capacity Irregularity Check (Weak Story) Module 2 Module 1 Module 3 47 .

m Results midas Gen Introduction Dynamic Report Generation Drag & Drop 1 48 .

m Design
midas Gen Introduction

Applicable Design Code
RC Design Steel Design SRC Design

ACI318 Eurocode 2, Eurocode 8 BS8110 IS:456 & IS:13920 CSA-A23.3 GB50010 AIJ-WSD TWN-USD AIK-USD, WSD KSCE-USD KCI-USD Slab Design Eurocode 2 ACI 318

AISC-LRFD AISC-ASD AISI-CFSD Eurocode 3 BS5950 IS:800 (1984 & 2007) CSA-S16-01 GBJ17, GB50017 AIJ-ASD TWN-ASD, LSD AIK-ASD, LSD, CFSD KSCE-ASD KSSC-ASD

SSRC79 JGJ138 CECS28 AIJ-SRC TWN-SRC AIK-SRC KSSC-CFT Footing Design ACI318 BS8110

49

m Design
midas Gen Introduction

Eurocode Implementation Status
Concrete Material DB Eurocode 2:2004 Eurocode 3:2005 UNI, BS, DIN Eurocode 1:2005 Eurocode 8:2004 Eurocode 8:2004 OPCM3431 Eurocode 8:2004 Eurocode 8:2004 Eurocode 0:2002 Eurocode 2:2004 Eurocode 8:2004 NTC 2008 Eurocode 3:2005 Eurocode 2:2004

Material DB
Steel Material DB

Section DB

Steel Section DB Static Wind load

Load

Static Seismic Load Response Spectrum Function Masonry Pushover

Pushover Analysis

RC Pushover Steel Pushover Load Combination Concrete Frame Design (ULS & SLS)

Design

Concrete Capacity Design Steel Frame Design (ULS & SLS) Slab/Wall Design (ULS & SLS)

50

m Design
midas Gen Introduction

Meshed slab and wall design
 Slab and wall design for meshed plate elements as per Eurocode2-1-1:2004, ACI318-11  Slab design for non-orthogonal reinforcement directions based on the Wood-Armer formula  Smooth moment and shear forces  Automatic generation of Static wind and seismic loads for flexible floors  Detailing for local ductility

Slab flexural design

Slab serviceability checking

Punching shear check result

Wall design

Define reinforcement direction

51

m Useful Features for Construction Stage Analysis midas Gen Introduction Construction Stage Wizard for Building Structure  The wizard readily allows us to define the timing of elements created and loadings applied in the construction stages during the erection of a building. 52 .  You may find it more convenient to first click the [Automatic Generation] button to define the basic construction stages and modify them as necessary.

m Useful Features for Construction Stage Analysis midas Gen Introduction Construction Stage Analysis for Composite Members  Define an analytical model for each construction stage by assigning activated or inactivated se ctions corresponding to each construction stage of a composite section. we can consider the construction sequence with creep and shrinkage effect. 53 .  By using Composite Section for Construction Stage.

 Section stiffness scale factors can be included in boundary groups for construction stage analysis.m Useful Features for Construction Stage Analysis midas Gen Introduction Material Stiffness Changes for Cracked Sections  Specific stiffness of specific member types may be reduced such as the case where the flexural stiffness of lintel beams and walls may require reduction to reflect cracked sections of concrete. The scale factors are also applied to composite sections for construction stages 54 .

-only. and Distributed Spring)  Springs can be activated / deactivated during construction stage analysis.m Useful Features for Construction Stage Analysis midas Gen Introduction Spring Supports For Soil Interaction  Point Spring Support (Linear.-only. [Nonlinear point spring support] [Pile Spring Support] [Surface Spring Support] [Nodal Spring and Distributed Spring] 55 . Comp. and Multi-linear type)  Surface Spring Support (Nodal Spring. Tens.

 Tendon primary / secondary forces are provided with pre-stress loss graph 56 .m Useful Features for Construction Stage Analysis midas Gen Introduction Tendon Loss  Pre-stress load can be considered in construction stage analysis.

of floors Location Function / Usage Designer Architect General Contractor 705 m 160 Dubai. UAE) CS:1 CS:30 Height No. United Arab Emirates Office Building & Residential Building Adrian D. Smith Skidmore. Owings & Merrill Samsung Development 57 overview .m Project Applications midas Gen Introduction Burj Khalifa (Dubai.

m Project Applications midas Gen Introduction SK S-Trenue (Seoul. of floors Location Function / Usage Structure Type Foundation Type Lateral load resisting system 39. Korea) Area No.600 m2 36 Seoul. Korea Office Building Composite Structure Mat Foundation RC Core + Steel + RC Composite Frame 58 overview .

.m Project Applications midas Gen Introduction Keangnam Hanoi Landmark Tower (Hanoi. Office. of floors Location Function / Usage Structure Type Architect Contractor 345m 70 fl. Vietnam) Height No. and Residential building Reinforced Concrete Structure Heerim. Aum & Lee. 49 fl. Hellmuth Obata + Kassabaum Keangnam 59 overview . Hanoi. Vietnam Hotel. Samoo.

m Project Applications midas Gen Introduction 60 .

m Project Applications midas Gen Introduction 61 .

m Project Applications midas Gen Introduction 62 .

m Project Applications midas Gen Introduction 63 .

ColumnShortening C One Stop Solution for Building and General Structures Thank You! http://en.com/ esupport@midasuser.midasuser.com 64 .