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Ques. 1 What is difference between MIS and DSS? What are the different types of DSS? Ans.

A management information system (MIS) provides information that organizations require to manage themselves efficiently and effectively. Management information systems are typically computer systems used for managing. The five primary components : 1.) Hardware 2.) Software 3.) Data (information for decision making) 4.) Procedures (design ,development and documentation), and 5.) People (individuals, groups, or organizations). Management information systems are distinct from other information systems because they are used to analyze and facilitate strategic and operational activities. A Decision Support System (DSS) is a computer-based information system that supports business or organizational decision-making activities. DSSs serve the management, operations, and planning levels of an organization (usually mid and higher management) and help to make decisions, which may be rapidly changing and not easily specified in advance (Unstructured and Semi-Structured decision problems). Decision support systems can be either fully computerized, human or a combination of both. Difference between MIS and DSS: S.NO. 1. MIS The main focus is on the structured tasks and the routine decisions. DSS Focus is mainly on the semi / un-structured tasks, which demand the managerial judgment. Identifies the information requirement. Develops certain tools for using in the decision process. Data storage is of great importance The main emphasis is on the data – manipulation. Delivers system depending on the frozen Current data can be used in the requirements. Decision Support System. Only the in – direct access to the data by the Managers enjoy direct access to managers is provided. the data. Very much dependent on the computer expert. Depends on the managerial judgment. Access to the data possibly requiring a ‗wait‘ for the Waiting is not at all required. manager‘s turn. MIS manager may not completely understand the Manager possesses the nature of the decision. knowledge about the nature of the decision and the decision

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or via the web.  Data-driven DSS Most data-driven DSSs are targeted at managers. making environment. staff and also product/service suppliers. or software running on stand-alone PCs. Different types of DSS There are a number of Decision Support Systems. or for users to collaborate. It is used to query a database or data warehouse to seek specific answers for specific purposes. . online collaboration and net-meeting systems.9. The most common technology used to deploy the DSS is a web or client server. These can be categorized into five types:  Communication-driven DSS Most communications-driven DSSs are targetted at internal teams. targeted at a broad base of user groups. but may also include others interacting with the organization . Its purpose are to help conduct a meeting. The usual technology used to set up such DSSs are via the web or a client/server system. including partners. Main stress is on the efficiency. Main emphasis is laid on the effectiveness. The purpose of such a DSS is to search web pages and find documents on a specific set of keywords or search terms. It is deployed via a main frame system. The typical deployment technology used to set up such systems could be slient/server systems. It is essentially used to provide management advice or to choose products/services. client/server link. are a catch-all category covering a broad range of systems covering users within the organization setting it up. consumers of a business. Examples: computer-based databases that have a query system to check (including the incorporation of data to add value to existing databases.  Document-driven DSS Document-driven DSSs are more common.for example.  Knowledge-driven DSS: Knowledge-driven DSSs or 'knowledgebase' are they are known. Examples: chats and instant messaging software. the web.

These DSSs can be deployed via software/hardware in stand-alone PCs. Model-driven DSS Model-driven DSSs are complex systems that help analyse decisions or choose between different options. or the web. 2 Differentiate between OLAP and OLTP? Ans. personnel and so on and relate it to various norms and rules. decision analyses etc. inventory. or people who interact with the organization. if Necessary. These are used by managers and staff members of a business. We can divide IT systems into transactional (OLTP) and analytical (OLAP). client/server systems. whereas OLAP systems help to analyze it.  Ques.  Accounting Systems decision support systems These systems are not necessarily required for decision making but they are desirable to keep track of the major aspects of the business or a contents of these systems is more data processing leading to formal reporting . In general we can assume that OLTP systems provide source data to data warehouses.scheduling. . for a number of purposes depending on how the model is set up . These systems account items such as cash.eg : Charted Accountants use accounts decision software to calculate TAX Saving.with exceptions.

For OLAP systems a response time is an effectiveness measure.OLTP (On-line Transaction Processing) is characterized by a large number of short on-line transactions (INSERT. historical data. OLAP applications are widely used by Data Mining techniques. The following table summarizes the major differences between OLTP and OLAP system design. In OLTP database there is detailed and current data. stored in multi-dimensional schemas (usually star schema). In OLAP database there is aggregated. The main emphasis for OLTP systems is put on very fast query processing. and schema used to store transactional databases is the entity model (usually 3NF). Queries are often very complex and involve aggregations. UPDATE. DELETE).OLAP (On-line Analytical Processing) is characterized by relatively low volume of transactions. maintaining data integrity in multi-access environments and an effectiveness measured by number of transactions per second. .. .

query speed can be improved by creating indexes Larger due to the existence of aggregation structures and history data. OLTPs are the original source of the data. To control and run fundamental business tasks Reveals a snapshot of ongoing business What the data processes Inserts and Short and fast inserts and updates initiated Updates by end users Relatively standardized and simple queries Queries Returning relatively few records Processing Speed Typically very fast Space Requirements Can be relatively small if historical data is archived DatabaseDesign Highly normalized with many tables Backup religiously. use of star and/or snowflake schemas Instead of regular backups. some environments may consider simply reloading the OLTP data as a recovery method Ques. Simon’s model of Decision making .OLTP System Online Transaction Processing (Operational System) Source of data Purpose of data Operational data. batch datarefreshes and complex queries may take many hours. data loss is likely to entail significant monetary loss and legal liability Backup and Recovery OLAP System Online Analytical Processing (Data Warehouse) Consolidation data. OLAP data comes from the various OLTP Databases To help with planning. operational data is critical to run the business. problem solving. requires more indexes than OLTP Typically de-normalized with fewer tables. semi structure and unstructured decision making? Ans. and decisionsupport Multi-dimensional views of various kinds of business activities Periodic long-running batch jobs refresh the data Often complex queries involving aggregations Depends on the amount of data involved. 3 Explain the Simon‘s model of Decision making? Differentiate between structure .

comparing the current status of a project or process with its plan. intelligence. ―intelligence. we must often collect a great deal of information before we realize that a decision is called for. is talking about decision making.Herbert A. Intelligence as we usually use the term informally. Simon developed a model of decision making. In the intelligence phase. it is what we use after we know a decision must be made. Simon borrowed the term from its military meaning. This has been calleddeciding what to decide. the problem is identified. and choice. The design phase develops several possible solutions for the problem. The end result of the intelligence phase is a decision statement. as the decision to be made comes from the information. The intelligence stage may involve.‖ can be confusing. The Intelligence Phase The intelligence phase consists of finding. design. and formulating the problem or situation that calls for a decision. The Design Phase . The model consisted of three steps. The name of this phase. This can be a long process. and information is collected concerning the problem. the choice phase chooses the solution. which involves the gathering of information without necessarily knowing what it will lead to in terms of decisions to be made. for example. identifying. In business decision making. Finally.

The end product of this phase is a decision that we can carry out. Business analysts describe a structured decision as one in which all three components of a decision—the data. and evaluation—are determined. process. Structured. Since structured decisions are made on a regular basis in business environments.The design phase is where we develop alternatives. and evaluation—there is little agreement on their . When there is a desire to make a decision more structured. it is also possible and desirable to develop computer programs that collect and combine the data. then it is quite possible to develop a program either as part of the checklist or form. Structured decision support systems may simply use a checklist or form to ensure that all necessary data are collected and that the decision making process is not skewed by the absence of data. During the design phase we should also state our objectives for the decision we are to make. it makes sense to place a comparatively rigid framework around the decision and the people making it. process. One interesting consequence of making a decision more structured is that the liability for inappropriate decisions is shifted from individual decision makers to the larger company or organization. If the choice is also to support the procedural or process component of the decision. While these have the same components as structured ones—data. The Choice Phase In the choice phase. This phase may involve a great deal of research into the available options. Many firms that hire individuals without a great deal of experience provide them with detailed guidelines on their decision making activities and support them by giving them little flexibility. Unstructured Decisions At the other end of the continuum are unstructured decisions. we evaluate the alternatives that we developed in the design phase and choose one of them. thus giving the process a high degree of consistency or structure. semi structured and unstructured decisions Structured Decisions Many analysts categorize decisions according to the degree of structure involved in the decisionmaking activity. In fact. the support system for that decision is designed to ensure consistency.

Faced with this difficulty.nature. These decision makers are usually entrusted with decisions that are unstructured because of their experience or expertise. In essence. but are also typified by efforts to retain some level of human judgment in the decision making process. one-shot occurrences requiring specifically tailored solution approaches without the benefit of any previously available rules or procedures.. which often have limited technological or work force resources. Decisions of this type are characterized as having some agreement on the data. One approach to support systems in this area is to construct a program that simulates the process used by a particular individual. or the evaluation of outcomes). In addition. an executive in a small business must seek tools and . With unstructured decisions. An initial step in analyzing which support system is required is to understand where the limitations of the decision maker may be manifested (i.— are not completely understood (new product and marketing strategy decisions commonly fit into this category). Unstructured decision systems typically focus on the individual who or the team that will make the decision. for example. the process component. and/or evaluation to be used. Grappling with the latter two types of decisions—unstructured and semi-structured—can be particularly problematic for small businesses. Semi-Structured Decisions In the middle of the continuum are semi-structured decisions—where most of what are considered to be true decision support systems are focused. these systems—commonly referred to as "expert systems"—prompt the user with a series of questions regarding a decision situation. This unstructured or semi-structured nature of these decisions situations aggravates the problem of limited resources and staff expertise available to a small business executive to analyze important decisions appropriately. the data acquisition portion. each decision maker may use different data and processes to reach a conclusion. As Gupta and Harris indicated. "many decision situations faced by executives in small business are one-of-a-kind. etc. it is their individual ability that is of value. competitor response. cost of securing raw materials.e. because of the nature of the decision there may only a limited number of people within the organization qualified to evaluate the decision. Generally. process. unstructured decisions are made in instances in which all elements of the business environment—customer expectations.

Examples of knowledge banks include: IDeA Knowledge (www. They introduce the background and data of their project and their capabilities." Subsequently. They are typically used to showcase the work of an organisation and provide signposts to documents. KNOWLEDGE BANKS(WIKIPEDIA) Knowledge Banks are online services and resources which hold information. based on dialogue and mutual respect among peers. Ques. both teams work together to identify possible solutions to the problem.uk).techniques that do not demand too much of his time and resources and are useful to make his life easier. 4 What are the different knowledge sharing techniques? What is the difference between data. articles and toolkits. knowledge and wisdom? Ans. Peer Assist involves a meeting organized by a work team who are starting up a new project (the hosts). information. see below Improvement Network (www.Once the situation is explained. The hosts call on another group who already has experience with a similar project. They then express their specific needs . small businesses have increasingly turned to DSS to provide them with assistance in business guidance and management. Case studies are often published with a broad audience in mind. AFTER ACTION REVIEW What was supposed to happen? What actually happened? What is the difference? What went well? What could have gone better? What lessons can we learn? CASE STUDY A case study is a written examination of a project. It has a clear structure that brings out key qualitative and quantitative information from the project.gov. PEER ASSIST:Peer Assist is a method of cooperation. so it is useful to bring the most useful and transferable information to the fore.gov. learning and support: giving you the power to improve your council.idea. or important part of a project.uk) KNOWLEDGE CAFÉ .improvementnetwork.

key messages and lessons learn. Stories have recently been rediscovered as a way to transfer knowledge. Meetings and forums can be useful learning and knowledge sharing opportunities when: . Even today. It aims to improve that person‘s learning and job performance. this relationship does not necessarily mean that the person reports to the coach. Stories are a simple and accessible way to communicate complex ideas. stories are part of our daily lives. and any type of staff or regular meeting that brings people together. but the emphasis should be on flowing dialogue that allows people to share ideas and learn from each other. The aim is to transmit tacit knowledge that an organization can use. Even today. Coaching focuses solely on the employee‘ predefined needs as these relate directly to his/her job. Coaching specifically aims to develop new qualifications and skills in an employee. Coaching aims to develop abilities to meet targeted goals in a given work situation. Stories are a simple and accessible way to communicate complex ideas.A knowledge café brings people together to have open. however. The process of the meeting . creative conversation on topics of mutual interest. MENTORING People have told stories for thousands of years. But. Stories allow us to describe employee relations or activities in a formal or informal way. employees are guided by the advice and experience of senior counterparts who ―take them under their wing‖. to armchair presentations or panel presentations. so that he/she can then reach organizational goals. FORUMS AND MEETINGS Small meetings. The coach does not convey his or her personal vision to the employee. Stories allow us to describe employee relations or activities in a formal or informal way. In mentoring. to round-table discussions that happen on their own or inside a large conference. STORY TELLING People have told stories for thousands of years. It can be organised in a meeting or workshop format. for this to happen. By forums and meetings. COACHING Coaching is not mentoring. we are referring to everything from a large conference or congress. discussion groups and large forums can all serve as opportunities for sharing knowledge and learning. It encourages people to explore issues that require discussion in order to build a consensus around an issue. stories are part of our daily lives. The aim is to transmit tacit knowledge that an organization can use. discussion or forum has to be well planned in advance. Stories have recently been rediscovered as a way to transfer knowledge. they have to be organized with learning in mind. key messages and lessons learn.

Data Data is a fact that alone is not significant. if the definition or code is complex. People discuss things. such as a glossary definition. You can use several technical means to present your information to the target group. They include showcases. this approach is giving way to a much more dynamic and stimulating group learning process. Data may answer a very basic what question. as is doesn‘t relate to other data. scale models and kiosks. panels. . The trend in learning activities is now for people to interact with their peers. TRAINING AND SEMINARS In traditional courses. People share what they know. people listen to the presenter without interrupting. More and more. This may involve a workshop.WORKSHOPS. Knowledge fair is designed to present information on a chosen theme. or code listing. training session or seminar. a definition or code may require knowledge. However. KNOWLEDGE FAIR Got a lot of information to share with a whole lot of people? Think an interactive presentation would be the ideal way to share your knowledge of a specific subject? Then it may be useful to organize knowledge fair. You can also have all kinds of demonstrations and presenters. People benefit from each other‘s views and experiences. directory entry.

business units and departments. providing a baseline for a Process (i. Policies. control point. and Procedures across enterprise locations. Information is data that relates who. Wisdom addresses how and why. Knowledge allows management to gain an accurate and complete picture of the enterprise Policies. and correct™ Policies. what. Management is able to standardize Policies. The knowledge links all the information together to produce a comprehensive Policy. Knowledge Knowledge is the application of information. what. Processes. They can also be referred to as a map to the organization. Processes. where and when at the Enterprise level. Processes. Wisdom allows for Policies. in addition to who. the level of understanding may limit that Process or Procedure to an individual or department level. Enterprise and more complex Processes and Procedures require Knowledge. date. cycle time) or a Procedure (i. functional alignment. screen description). The Policies. Knowledge addresses how and why. an enterprise may now assess best practices and compliance issues. in addition to who. otherwise the Policy and Process may be considered Conditional. in that they reflect the As-Is guidelines and functions of the enterprise. concise. and Procedures. Processes.Information Information is data that is related and is therefore in context. complete. It can then be transformed into a Process or Procedure. and Procedures become transformed into an enterprise asset. where and when to each other. and Procedures must be at this understanding level to be considered permanent. Wisdom Wisdom is complete understanding of the effects and outcomes of Knowledge. what. and Procedures become a tool for others within the enterprise for remodeling and initiatives. making it useful. Processes. Having clear. Process or Procedure. Processes. Enterprise Policies. and Procedures to be modified so they reflect the strategic vision. and Procedures. best practices and operational objectives of the enterprise. .e. Processes. code.e. where and when. While information may become input for a Process or Procedure.

 The collation of the result is determined by the rules of collation precedence when the result data type is char. 1 £ n £ 15000 . You can also define your own data types in Transact-SQL or the Microsoft .Ques. see CREATE TYPE (Transact-SQL). For more information about alias data types. User-defined types obtain their characteristics from the methods and operators of a class that you create by using one of the programming languages support by the . See 1 £ n £ 15000 Range CHARACTER VARYING(n) or VARCHAR(n) Variable length character string. or length are combined by an operator. A data type is an attribute that specifies the type of data that the object can hold: integer data. maximum length n.  Explicit data type references are made in SQL statements in the creation of domains and base tables and in the alteration of table definitions. expression. precision. and length of the input expressions. fixed length n.. nvarchar. the characteristics of result are determined by the following:  The data type of the result is determined by applying the rules of data type precedence to the data types of the input expressions. scale. Alias data types are based on the system-supplied data types.varchar. scale. local variable. and parameter has a related data type. collations.  The precision. SQL Server supplies a set of system data types that define all the types of data that can be used with SQL Server. each column. 5 What are different data types in SQL? Also explain what are the different checks and constraints applied on DBMS? Ans. text.NET Framework. and length of the result depend on the precision. nchar.NET Framework. The permissible data types and their ranges are: Data type CHARACTER(n) Description Character string. monetary data. In SQL Server. binary strings. date and time data. character data. scale. and so on. or ntext. When two expressions that have different data types.

Approximate numerical mantissa precision 16.775. DECIMAL(p.854. (Same as DECIMAL . scale s.372. s) Exact numerical.see below).223.036.147. maximum length n. s) 1 £ p £ 45 0£s£p FLOAT(p) Approximate numerical. NUMERIC(p. precision 19. maximum length n. precision p. 1 £ p £ 45 Zero or absolute value 10-999 to 10+999 Zero or absolute value 10-38 to 10+38 Zero or absolute value 10-308 to 10+308 Zero or absolute value 10-308 to 10+308 REAL Approximate numerical mantissa precision 7.807 1 £ p £ 45 0£s£p INTEGER Integer numerical.647 -9. mantissa precision p. precision p. 1 £ n £ 15000 BINARY VARYING(n) or VARBINARY(n) INTEGER(p) SMALLINT Variable length binary string.775.372.BINARY(n) Fixed length binary string. 1 £ p £ 45 -32768 through 32767 -2.147. Integer numerical precision 5. Approximate numerical mantissa precision 16. precision p. 1 £ n £ 15000 Integer numerical.483.036.854. FLOAT DOUBLE PRECISION .648 through 2.223.808 through 9. BIGINT Integer numerical. precision 10. Exact numerical. scale s.483.

Composed of a number of integer fields. INTERVAL Different checks and constraints applied on DBMS : 1.Indicates that a column cannot store NULL value Eg: Create table student ( Rollno varchar(10) primary . Ensures that a column (or combination of two or more columns) have an unique identity which helps to find a particular record in a table more easily and quickly. AGE NUMBER(5) NOT NULL ). depending on sub-type.A combination of a NOT NULL and UNIQUE. NAME VARCHAR(10) NOT NULL. _________________________________________________________________UNIQUE Ensures that each row for a column must have a unique value CREATE TABLE PERSON( PERSON_ID VARCHAR(10) PRIMARY KEY. . Name Varchar(10). _________________________________________________________________________PRI MARY KEY . represents a period of time. Gender Varchar(2) Noy Null).NOT NULL . DRIVINGLICENSE NUMBER(10) UNIQUE NOT NULL.DATE TIME TIMESTAMP Composed of a number of integer fields. depending on the type of interval. represents an absolute point in time.

DEFAULT . Create table course ( Courseid Varchar(10) Primary key . so in case INSERT INTO statement does not provide a value for this column. Gender Varchar(2) Noy Null. Name Varchar(10).Create table student ( Rollno varchar(10) primary . Name Varchar(10). Gender Varchar(2) NoT Null). SALARY column is set to 5000.00 by default.Specifies a default value when specified none for this column  For example. _________________________________________________________________ FOREIGN KEY . Create table student ( Rollno varchar(10) primary . Gender Varchar(2) Noy Null . Name Varchar(10). Courseid varchar(10) Foreignkey references course(courseid)). marks number(10) check( marks<=100)). Here. _________________________________________________________________________ CHECK .Ensure the referential integrity of the data in one table to match values in another table. the following SQL creates a new table called CUSTOMERS and adds five columns.00.Ensures that the value in a column meets a specific condition Eg: Create table student ( Rollno varchar(10) primary . . Title Varchar(10)). then by default this column would be set to 5000.

NOT NULL.by values in tables. that is comprehensive in supporting all of the following items:       Data Definition View Definition Data manipulation (interactive and by program) Integrity Constraints Authorization Transaction boundaries (begin.modes of terminal use (for example. Rule 7: High-Level Insert. so that authorized users can apply the Based on the Relational Model same relational language to its interrogation as they apply to the regular data.       CREATE TABLE CUSTOMERS( ID INT NAME VARCHAR (20) AGE INT ADDRESS CHAR (25) . primary key value. 6 List out all the Codds rule and explain each point? Ans. and rollback) Rule 6: View Updating All views that are theoretically updateable are also updateable by the system. Null values (distinct from the empty character string of blank Rule 3: Systematic Treatment of characters and distinct from any zero or other numbers) are Null Values supported in fully relational DBMS for representing missing information and inapplicable information in a systematic way. the fill-in-the-blanks mode). there must be at least one language whose statements are expressible. NOT NULL. A relational system may support several languages and various Rule 5: Comprehensive Data Sub. NOT NULL. and column name. per some well-defined syntax. The capability of handling a base relation or a derived relation as a and Delete single operand applies not only to the retrieval of data but also to . as character strings.00. Update. commit. Ques. 2) PRIMARY KEY (ID) DEFAULT 5000. SALARY DECIMAL (18. Each and every datum (atomic value) in a relational database is guaranteed to be logically accessible by resorting to a combination of table name. The database description is represented at the logical level in the Rule 4: Dynamic Online Catalog same way as ordinary data. language However. ule 1: The Information Rule 2: Guaranteed Access All information in a relational database is represented explicitly at the logical level and in exactly one way .

Rule 10: Integrity Independence Integrity constraints specific to a particular relational database must be definable in the relational data sub-language and storable in the catalog. If a relational system has a low-level (single record at a time) language. Application programs and terminal activities remain logically Rule 9: Logical Data Independence unimpaired when information-preserving changes of any kind that theoretically permit unimpairment are made to the base tables. update. and deletion of data.the insertion. Rule 8: Independence Physical Data Application programs and terminal activities remain logically unimpaired whenever any changes are made in either storage representations or access methods. not in the application programs. Rule 12: Nonsubversion . that low level cannot be used to subvert or bypass the integrity rules and constraints expressed in the higher-level relational language (multiple records at a time) Rule 11: Distribution Independence A relational DBMS has distribution dependence.