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University of Nottingham Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering ENERGY MANAGEMENT 1 Handout 4A - Fundamental Concepts - Heat Transfer

4.1 Heat Transfer Thermodynamics is the study of energy interactions (work & heat). The laws of thermodynamics govern the quantities and directions of the interactions (eg. how much heat can be converted into work). Thermodynamics cannot predict how big a heat exchanger has to be or the rate of heat loss through some insulation. Heat Transfer is the study of the rate of flow of heat and can predict how fast heat energy transfer takes place. It can be used to design the size of heat transfer devices. Mechanisms of Heat Transfer Heat energy can be transferred by three mechanisms: Conduction Conduction takes place by interaction of molecules in a substance. Hotter molecules have a higher kinetic energy and they transfer this to colder molecules with which they are in contact. In substances with free electrons (eg. metals) heat energy can also be carried by electron flow, and this is a more effective form of heat transfer. Metals generally have much higher thermal conductivities. Convection Convection takes place in fluids. At the boundary of a solid with a fluid, heat is conducted into the fluid. The fluid may then move away and convecting heat with it. Convection is thus dominated by fluid mechanics as well as thermodynamics. Radiation Radiation heat transfer is energy transfer in the form of electromagnetic radiation. It is unusual in that it does not require the presence of any intervening matter for transfer to take place. Radiation is the only form of heat transfer that can take place in a vacuum. 4.1.1 Conduction Heat Transfer The rate of heat flow by conduction is described by Fourier's Law:

x q

kA

T x

The heat flow in any direction is proportional to the temperature gradient. The negative sign indicates that heat flows from a hotter to a colder region. A k cross-sectional area perpendicular to the direction of heat flow. is a constant known as thermal conductivity. Typical values of

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MM3EM1 - October 21, 2010 EES HT 2010-11.DOCX

Hence:  q T1 T2 Rth this is analogous to Ohm's Law for electrical conduction: I V R So thermal conduction can be analysed as a network of resistances.thermal conductivity are given in the Table 1.October 21. 2010 1 A x1 x2 x3 + + k1 k2 k3 2 EES HT 2010-11. A composite wall can be analysed as a number of thermal resistances in series:  = T1 T2 q Rth Rth = MM3EM1 .DOCX . x q k T x Conduction through a Plane Wall Steady conduction through a plane wall can be determined by integration of Fourier's Law to give:  q kA T1 T2 x The term x/kA is known as Thermal Resistance (Rth). The heat flow is often expressed as a heat flux q" per unit area of cross-section.

DOCX .October 21. Hence:  q 2 k L T1 T2 r log e o ri This may be expressed as a thermal resistance: log e Rth r0 ri 2 kL When there are multiple layers (eg of insulation) the overall thermal resistance can be determined by adding the thermal resistances of each layer. a general differential equation for conduction in 3dimensions including transient effects can be obtained and solved numerically. 2010 EES HT 2010-11. For more complex conduction heat transfer problems. See Heat Transfer by A Bejan 4.1.2 Convection Heat Transfer The heat flow by convection from a solid surface into a fluid is described by Newton's Law of Cooling:  q A Ts h A Ts Tf = area of surface = surface temperature 3 MM3EM1 .Conduction through Cylinders Heat flow through a cylinder (eg a pipe) can be analysed by integrating Fourier's Law for an elemental cylindrical strip from the inside to the outside of the pipe.

Thermal boundary layer When heat transfer occurs. The edge of the boundary layer is the position where the fluid is moving at the same velocity (or nearly the same) as it is far away from the surface. Temperature profiles in the boundary layer. It is a region where the temperature gradually changes from the surface temperature to the main stream temperature. a thermal boundary layer builds up over a surface as heat is transferred from (or to) the surface.Tw = Ts . The thinner the thermal boundary layer and steeper the temperature gradient. heat can only be transferred by conduction into the fluid at the surface.Tw = qs 4 MM3EM1 . The boundary layer acts as a thermal barrier to heat transfer and should be kept as thin as possible. Boundary layers When a fluid moves over a solid surface. the higher the heat transfer coefficient. 2010 EES HT 2010-11. Types of Flow At the edge of the boundary layer: T . the fluid at the surface is assumed to be stationary and therefore a layer of slower moving fluid builds up on the surface. Typical values for convective heat transfer coefficients that may be encountered in a number of different heat transfer situations are shown in Figure 1.October 21. This is known as the boundary layer. As the fluid at the solid surface is stationary. The rate of convection is thus proportional to the temperature gradient at the surface.DOCX .Tf = fluid temperature (away from surface) h = heat transfer coefficient (W/m2K) Convection heat transfer from a surface may be expressed in terms of a thermal resistance by:  q (Ts T f ) Rth Rth 1 hA The heat transfer coefficient h is dependent mainly on the fluid flow conditions over the surface and the properties of the fluid.

Appendices 1 & 2 (non-examinable) give details of how correlations may be used to determine heat transfer coefficients. hot objects glow visibly. 4.At low velocities the flow is laminar.1. At higher velocities the flow becomes turbulent and turbulent eddies move fluid (and heat) across the streamlines. Heat transfer coefficients for free convection depend. When the fluid movement is induced by buoyancy forces caused by density changes as heat transfer occurs and temperature changes locally in the fluid. for laminar flow over a flat or in a circular pipe. Types of Convection When the fluid is forced over a surface driven by an external source (eg pump or fan).67 x 10-8 W/m2K4) T is the absolute temperature of the surface (K) (q"b is referred to as the black body emission and sometimes given the symbol Eb) The emission of radiation varies with wavelength and the peak emission occurs at shorter wavelengths as temperature increases. In turbulent boundary layers heat transfer coefficients tend to be much higher.3 Radiation Heat Transfer Stefan-Boltzmann Law All substances emit energy as electromagnetic radiation and the maximum radiation that can be emitted by a perfect "black" surface is given by the StefanBoltzmann Law. At temperatures below » 500°C the wavelengths of emitted radiation are in the infrared but above » 500°C an increasing proportion is emitted in the visible spectrum. to a certain extent. Heat Transfer Coefficients As a result of the complexity of the fluid flow equations and the difficulty of solving them.  q Where: A T4 A is surface area (m2) is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant (5. Hence.DOCX .October 21. upon the magnitude of the temperature difference between the surface and the fluid. The heat transfer coefficients vary with orientation as the buoyancy forces are driven by gravity. The streamlines in laminar flow are parallel and heat can only pass across the streamlines (ie into the flow) by conduction. it is knows as forced convection. As radiation emission varies with T4 it is a highly non-linear phenomenon 5 MM3EM1 . it is not possible to calculate heat transfer coefficients except for the most simple cases (eg.) Convective heat transfer coefficients are therefore usually derived from experimental data and are expressed as a correlations between various dimensionless numbers as a means of generalising them. it is known as free or natural convection. Laminar flow heat transfer coefficients are generally low unless the flow is broken up regularly to keep the boundary layers thin. The heat transfer coefficient is largely independent of the temperature difference between the fluid and the surface. 2010 EES HT 2010-11.

So the emission from a real surface is  q A T4 e is the emissivity varying from 0 1.T2)(T1 + T2)(T12 + T22) an effective radiation heat transfer coefficient can be determined which may be used in a linearised equation:  rad = hradA1(T1 . If they can’t then the view factor tends to zero.October 21. Emissivity & Grey Surfaces Most surfaces are not "black" and emit less than the maximum amount of radiation. Therefore: 1-2 = 1 Radiation Heat Transfer Coefficient Radiation calculations are complex on account of the non-linearity of the radiation heat flux with temperature. For a small object enclosed by a much larger one.2 = 1 1 1 -1 + + A1 F 1. For example:  rad = A1 q 1-2 (T14 .2 A2 1 1 2 -1 F1-2 is known as the View Factor and is defined as the proportion of the radiation leaving surface 1 that lands on surface 2 – it thus depends on the geometrical arrangement of the surfaces. Typical values of emissivity are shown in Table 2 Radiation Heat Transfer between surfaces The radiation exchange between two grey surfaces is given by the equation: 12 q A1 1 2 T14 T24 where 1-2 is the grey body exchange factor and is a function of the geometric disposition of the surfaces and the emissivities ( 1 and 2) 1. 2010 EES HT 2010-11. The proportion of the "black" body radiation emitted by a surface is known as the emissivity.T2) q 6 MM3EM1 . then F1-2 = 1 and A1 << A2.T24) as (T1 .T24) by expressing (T14 .) View factors can be read from diagrams (see Figure 2).DOCX . A surface with an emissivity less than 1 (and one on which is assumed not to vary with wavelength) is known as a grey surface.and becomes much more important at higher temperatures. (If the surfaces can see a lot of each other then F 1-2 is close to unity.

convection and radiation can easily be solved by using thermal resistances. Radiation & Convection Situations with combined conduction.7 11.200 W/m2K Thus radiation is important at temperatures <100°C when there is natural convection. 2010 EES HT 2010-11.where: hrad = 1-2 (T1 + T2)(T12 + T22) Clearly.4 Combined Conduction. eg: Composite wall with convection and radiation on either side. With forced convection radiation is of importance only above about 100°C. Equivalent thermal resistances 7 MM3EM1 . hrad is also a function of temperature and an iterative solution is often needed. Above 500°C radiation heat transfer often dominates.8 32.DOCX . But when T1 and T2 are fairly close in temperature (eg in heat exchange calculations for buildings) then T1 » T2 = T. so hrad = 1-2 4T3 A thermal resistance for radiation can be written in the same way as for convection: Rth 1 hrad A Typical values for hrad If 1-2 = 1 then hrad = 4 T3 and typical values are: Temp °C 20 100 250 500 1000 1500 hrad [W/m2K] 5.20 W/m2K 10 .4 105 468 1264 Typical convection coefficients for air are: Natural convection Forced convection 2 .October 21.1. 4.

for the purposes of calculating a radiation heat transfer coefficient.93 Wall comprises three layers: Inner layer of brick 100mm thick k = 0.October 21. R 2 and R3 = x kA 1 RCo and RCi = hc A hc = convection heat transfer coefficient R Ro and R Ri = where hrad = if T1 and T2 are close together then hrad 1-2 1 hrad A 4T3 (T1 + T2)(T12 + T22) 1-2 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient In situations where heat is transferred from one fluid through a wall to another fluid (eg.5 W/mK Cavity 50mm wide filled with insulation k = 0.Total thermal resistance RTOT = 1 1 R Ri + 1 RCi + R1 + R 2 + R 3 + 1 1 R Ro + 1 RCo Heat flow:  = T1 T0 q RTOT R1 . in a heat exchanger or across the walls of a building) it is convenient to use an overall heat transfer coefficient:  = UA(Temp difference between fluids) q where:U = Overall heat transfer coefficient (sometimes known as U-value) Thus: RTOT = 1 UA The U-value thus contains terms for the convective and radiative heat loss as well as heat conduction through the wall.DOCX . 2010 EES HT 2010-11. the wall inner and outer surface temperatures are the same as the inside and 8 MM3EM1 .04 W/mK Outer layer of brick 100mm thick k = 0.6 W/mK Assume that. Example Calculate overall heat transfer coefficient for the wall of a house using the following data: Convective heat transfer coefficient on the outside = 20 W/m2K Convective heat transfer coefficient on the inside = 3 W/m2K Emissivity on the outside and inside walls is 0.

33 Km2/W RRo = 0. hrad outer = hrad inner = 4(Touter)3 4(Tinner)3 = = 4.228 Km2/W RRo = 0. (ie = ). Also assume that the grey body exchange factor for the inner and outer walls can be approximated to the emissivity.38 W/m2K 5. assume the area of the wall is 1 m2.05 Km2/W RCi = 0.30 W/m2K RCo = 0.outside air temperatures of 20°C and 2°C respectively.041 1.2 + 1.56 W/m2K (as area = 1 m2) 9 MM3EM1 .25 + 0.778 K/W K/W UA = 1/RTOT so U = 0. For the purposes of calculating U. 2010 EES HT 2010-11.189 Km2/W hconv outer = 20 W/m2K hconv inner = 3 W/m2K RTOT = 1 1 R Ri + 1 RCi + R1 + R 2 + R 3 + 1 1 R Ro + 1 RCo RTOT RTOT = = 0.DOCX .167 + 0.12 + 0.October 21.

Figure 1 Typical values for Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient showing effect of fluid type and flow regime 10 MM3EM1 . 2010 EES HT 2010-11.October 21.DOCX .

October 21.Figure 2 11 MM3EM1 . 2010 EES HT 2010-11.DOCX .

052 0.02-0.043 0.75 0.05 (20oC) 0.074 0. 2010 EES HT 2010-11.82 0.026 0.79 0.8 14 to 0.DOCX .Typical Values of Thermal Conductivity Substance Polyurethane foam Glass fibre mat Cork board Ceramic fibre insulation k [W/mK] at 20oC 0.066 0.90 0.09 0.90 0.036-0.2-0.39 0.28 0.44 0.31 0.192 0.1 0.65-0.93 0.7 to 17 35 50 110 120 220 390 420 Table 1 Wood Glass Concrete Stainless steels Lead Mild steel Zinc Brass (60% Cu.06 0.963 0.80-0.23 0.3 to 0.95 0.27-0. fused on iron) Glass (smooth) Oak (planed) Black or white lacquer Aluminium paints (various) Water Porcelain (glazed) Temperature oC 100 93-505 22 100 100 100 22 24 38-372 100 24 49-1000 27-1230 227-627 3320 28 21 1000 97-272 19 22 21 38-93 100 0-100 22 Emissivity 0.9 to 1.033 0. 40% Zn) Aluminium Copper Silver Table 2 Emissivities of Various Surfaces Surface Aluminium (commercial sheet) Aluminium (heavily oxidised) Brass (rolled plate) Chromium (polished) Copper (polished) Steel (polished) Cast Iron (newly turned) Sheet steel (shiny oxide layer) Steel plate (rough) Stainless steel (polished) Lead (grey oxidised) Nichrome wire (bright) Platinum filament Silver (polished pure) Tungsten filament Zinc (galvanised sheet iron) Brick (red rough) Fireclay Candle soot Enamel (white.94-0.94 0.952 0.97 0.95-0.67 0.075 0.2 (1000oC) 0.7 0.032 0.October 21.92 12 MM3EM1 .

36 3. • Evaluate fluid properties at mean fluid temperature for internal flows and at mean film temperature (Tfreestream + Twall)/2 for external flows. • Be aware of whether correlation is for a local heat transfer coefficient (at a particular point on a surface) or for an average heat transfer coefficient (over a particular region of surface). Use of Correlations In using correlations for heat transfer coefficients there are several important points to remember: • Only use correlation for application it was intended for.APPENDIX 1 . 2010 EES HT 2010-11.October 21.Convective Heat Transfer Correlations (non-examinable) Heat Transfer Correlations Convective heat transfer coefficients are usually derived from experimental data and are expressed as a correlations between various dimensionless numbers as a means of generalising them.66 3. Nud Nud Nud Nud = = = = 4. Forced Convection i) Flow in Pipes (a) Laminar Flow Fully developed thermal and hydraulic boundary layers. 13 MM3EM1 .DOCX . • Only use correlation for range of dimensionless numbers it is applicable for.65 2. The most commonly used dimensionless numbers are: Nusselt number (Ratio of convection heat transfer to conduction in a fluid) Nud hd (based on diameter ) k ud or or Nu L hL based on length k uL Reynolds number (Ratio of dynamic to viscous forces in a fluid) Re d Re L Prandtl number (Ratio of momentum diffusivity (viscosity) to thermal diffusivity) Pr cp k Grashof number (Ratio of buoyancy to viscous forces in a fluid) Gr g L3 2 2 T (Note: ß = 1/T for perfect gases) Typical correlations for free and forced convection are given in Appendix 2.95 (constant (constant (constant (constant wall wall wall wall heat flux) temperature) heat flux) temperature) (circular tube) (circular tube) (square tube) (square tube) For non-circular tube use an equivalent hydraulic diameter: hydraulic diameter = 4 cross section area/perimeter wetted by flow.

023 Re0.. Transition from laminar to turbulent flow often occurs at Re x = 5 x 105 in which case an average Nusselt number for a plate of length L is given by: NuL = Pr0. Not applicable for temperature differences between wall and fluid greater than 5oC for liquids and 55oC for gases.DOCX .850) for ReL > 5 x 105 14 MM3EM1 . ii) Flow over Flat Plates (a) Laminar Flow Nux = 0.037 ReL0..33 N u d = 0.33 for constant wall temperature for constant wall heat flux These formulae are applicable for 0.. for rough pipes. tubes with heating part way along.8 Prn n = 0.04 Re Hydraulic boundary layer is fully developed if: DH (b) Turbulent Flow in Pipes For fully developed turbulent flow the correlation is the Colburn correlation. curved pipes.33 Nux = 0.0 n = 1/3 for Pr > 5.5 Pr0.etc. rotating pipes.14 N u d = 0.8 d 0..5 for 0.. For larger temperature differences a correlation to take into account variation in viscosity due to temperature variations between the wall and bulk fluid can be used: 0.417 Re0.0 (Nux = Local Nusselt number) This correlation applies only to the turbulent boundary layer region.8 . Correlations are also available for the region near a pipe entry. Flow is fully developed >60 diameters downsteam of an inlet.0295 Rex0. 2010 EES HT 2010-11.027 Re Pr 0.33 w Where mw is viscosity of the fluid at the wall temperature and m is the fluid viscosity at the bulk fluid temperature.04 Re Pr DH x > 0.5 < Pr < 5.5 < Pr < 50 (b) Turbulent Flow Nux = 0.33 (0.5 Pr0.Thermal boundary layer is fully developed if: > 0.October 21. 0.8 d Pr x most commonly used Applicable for Re > 10000 and Pr near 1.332 Re0.

4 x 107 L3 (Tw T¥) 15 MM3EM1 .59(GrLPr)0.25 GrLPr > 105 Nusselt number based on: side length L for a surface plate.25(GrLPr)0.8 L iii) Flow Across Cylinders 0.25 Nu L = Pr 0.5 d 0.54(GrLPr)0. perimeter/4 for a rectangular plate.9 x diameter for circular plate. In reality the heat transfer coefficient varies significantly around the circumference of the cylinder. 0.330) w 0.66 d ) Pr 0.33 Nud = 0.129(GrdPr) 10 < GrdPr < 1012 Nusselt number based on diameter of cylinder. All fluid properties in this equation should be evaluated at the wall temperature except for m¥ Natural Convection iv) Vertical Plates & Vertical Cylinders of Large Diameter NuL = 0. Nusselt number based on height (L) of plate or cylinder.2 Nud is the average Nusselt number for the whole surface.25 105 < GrLPr < 108 NuL = 0. vi) Horizontal Flat Surfaces (at constant temperature) For a hot surface facing up or cold surface facing down: NuL = 0.4 Re + 0.036 Re .25 NuL = 0.525(GrdPr)0.25 < (m¥/mw) < 5.DOCX .33 104 < GrLPr < 109 109 < GrLPr < 1012 Surfaces must be at constant temperature.06 Re This is applicable for: 0.An alternative correlation applicable to liquids where there may be a significant viscosity variation in the boundary layer is: 0.33 GrLPr > 108 For a hot surface facing down or cold surface facing up: NuL = 0.43 (0. the correlations above may be simplified using: GrLPr = 6.October 21.4 w 10 < Red < 105 0.67 < Pr < 300 0.14(GrLPr)0.25 Nu d = (0.13(GrLPr)0. 2010 EES HT 2010-11.25 104 < GrdPr < 109 0. v) Horizontal Cylinders (at constant temperature) Nud = 0. In the case of natural convection in air at approximately room temperature.

130 x 10-5 Pas T = 160°C Pr = 0.525 20.Natural Convection from a Pipe mm Pipe diameter = 150 An unlagged steam pipe 150 mm diameter has a surface temperature of 170°C.96 x 107 -5 2 363(2.6 106 106)0.525 (Grd Pr)0.9595 kg/ m3 RT 287.25 Gr d = g d3 2 2 T Fluid properties should be evaluated at mean film temperature: 10 + 170 = 90 C 2 1 1 = = = 0. For natural convection from a horizontal cylinder the correlation for Nusselt number depends on the Rayleigh (Gr Pr) number.9595 )2 x 160 = 2.October 21.81 x (0.3 W/m2K Heat loss = hA T Heat loss per metre length q _ ' = 7.333 4 9 10 < Gr Pr < 10 Nud = 0.3 0.525(20.15 160 = 551 Watts/m 16 MM3EM1 . 2010 EES HT 2010-11.13 x 10 ) Gr Pr = 20.15 ) x (0.25 3 Use: Nud = 0. For: 109 < Gr Pr < 1012 Nud = 0.003534 T 363 d = 0.DOCX .25 h = 7. Determine the heat losses per metre length of pipe.APPENDIX 2 – Examples (non-examinable) Example 1 . The ambient air is at 10°C and there is no significant air movement.031 W/mK h= k x 0.1 x 363 = 2.6 k = 0.129 (Grd Pr)0.6 x 106 d 0.15 m = 5 p 10 = = 0.695 Gr d = 9.

06 Red w Red = w ud = at 170°C = 2. calculate heat loss.5 + 0.66 0.DOCX .76 x 10 -5 h = 25. 1-2 = e Therefore: q _ rad = A1 (T14 . 2010 q _ rad = 416 Watts/m 17 EES HT 2010-11.4 x 524000.457 x 10-5 Pas at 10°C = 1.4 N u d = 0.T24) Assume Assume pipe is in large surroundings which have an effective radiation temperature of 10°C. Therefore: MM3EM1 .9 0.October 21.Forced Convection from a Pipe If the pipe is exposed to an average wind speed of 5 m/s. Use: 0.66 (0.T24) A1 = D per metre length of pipe = 0.25 hd = 140 k Red = Therefore: 1. emissivity of surface is 0.67 10-8(4434 . If the pipe were painted with aluminium paint then = 0.Example 2 .23 x 5 x 0.457 0.9 (oxidised steel).76 x 10-5 Pas ¥ = = 1.23 kg/m3 at 100C d = hd 1.5.1 W/m2K q _ ' = 1890 Watts/m Heat loss per metre length of pipe Example 3 .5 Pr d + 0.2934) T1 = 170°C = 443 T2 = 10°C = 293 q _ rad = 749 Watts/m Radiation emission depends upon the surface condition of a surface.06 x 524000. q _ rad = 1-2A1 (T14 .15 = 52400 1.71 )0.4 k 2.15 5.76 = 0.25 0.4 Re0.Radiation Heat Loss from Pipe Calculate heat transfer by radiation from pipe in previous example.

October 21.129(GrdPr)0.Heat Loss from Insulated Pipe ri = 0. The resistance network is: ro ri R1 = insulation resistance = 2 kL 1 1 = R2 = convection resistance = hc A hc 2 r o L 1 1 R3 = radiation resistance = = 2 2 hr A T s + T a T s + T a log e r2 _1-2 2 r oL = hc can be determined from Nusselt number expression for free convection: Nud = 0.Example 4 .274 R3 = 0.3.81 W/m2K Therefore: R1 = 1. The emissivity of the outside of the lagging is 0.075 ro = 0. Initial guess Tsurf = 40°C hc = 4. 2010 .125 Steam pipe 150 mm in diameter has a surface temperature of 170°C.DOCX 18 MM3EM1 .704 RTOT = R1 + 1 1 R2 + 1 R3 EES HT 2010-11.05 W/mK.64 W/m2K hrad = 1. The ambient air is at 10°C and there is no bulk air movement.626 R2 = 0. The pipe is lagged with 50 mm of insulation with a thermal conductivity of 0.333 Method of solution is to guess a value for the surface temperature and iterate as both hrad and hc vary with surface temperature. Calculate the losses per metre length of pipe.

8 W/m Determine new surface temperature from: Therefore: So new So.October 21.323 R3 = 0. 2010 EES HT 2010-11.4 W/m 29.626 R2 = 0.RTOT = 1. hc hrad = 3.687 = q Tsurf = 27°C W/m2K T pipe .5°C 19 MM3EM1 .852 mK/W Therefore: Surface temperature is: = q T RTOT = 86.755 RTOT = 1.DOCX .95 = 1.823 mK/W = Therefore heat loss q T RTOT = 87.T surf R1 R1 = 1.