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A Tunable Fuzzy Logic Controller For Chopper-Fed Separately Excited DC Motor Drives

Hussein F. Soliman and A.M.Sharaf Electrical Engineering Department The University of New Brunswick Box 4400 / Fredericton, N.B. E3B 5A3, CANADA
S. A. Kandil, M.M.Mansour and M.H.El-Shatii

Department of Electrical Engineering Ain Shams University Cairo, Abassia, Abdo Basha

EGYPT
is the sampled value along the entire discourse of the polyhedron -P, do,) is the corresponding MSG of the output U, ,
0,

Abstrucr - The paper presents a novel on-line tunable fuvy logic controller (FLC)for speed regulation of separately excited dc motor drives. FLC structure is implemented with linguistic classifications using a hybrid input of motor speed and current errors. The membership grade has been scaled ( weighted ) by a tuning factor (k) in the d e h i f i e r stage of FLC structure. The weighting factor k is determined using a dynamic on-line rule-based scaling criteria of minimum speed excursion. In the delkzification output stage, a modified ”weighted center of area” (WCOA) technique is use to produce a crisp effective output to control the duty cycle ratio of dc-dc chopper. The paper presents dynamic simulation results for a separately excited dc motor fed from a PKWdcdc chopper. These results are obtained using the tunable fuzzy logic controller with on-line adaptive variable defuzzifier structure and give good dynamic and robust response with minimum inrush motor current.
INTRODUCTION F u u y logic technique as one of Artificial Intelligence technologies is used to control the dc motor and provide a robust speed control strategy [1,2]. The advantages of using FLC to control dc motor are minimum overshoot in the motor speed, small settling time and limited inrush current during starting and acceleration periods. The use of a new method to implement the defuzzifier stage with weighted membership WCOA ensures better dynamic response for motor [2]. DC motor drives is highly controllable and are used in many industrial applications such as robotic manipulators, position control, steel, mining, paper and textile industries [3,4]. In some industrial applications the high dynamic response of drivers is bounded by certain limitations such as specified percentage over-shoot, settling time and the steady state error. To achieve these limitations, different control strategies have been implemented to regulate the dc motor drive including P I , optimal control, adaptive control, self tunable and nonlinear digital control. Figure (1) depicts the dc motor drive with the tunable fuzzy logic controller, dc supply, and load.
FUZZY LOGIC

is the number of sampling of the entire discourse of polyhedron map. k is the on-line adjustable power of MSG based on a given adaptation criteria. When k is equal to unity this defuzzifier is called COA and when it takes very large value it is called maxim MOM, which both are commonly used. So, the difference between them is the value of assigned power k.

N

SIMULATION
The state space model of separately excited dc motor is as follows:

x=A*x+B*u,
where,

y=C*x+D*u.

D=[O o],

Y=[a,( t)1 ,
Where, om(t) rotor speed in rads,

i, (t) armature current Amp.,
B

CONTROLLER

J

inertia constant Nm’,

damping constant “Iradlsec

R.

The FLC controller compnses three stages namelyfuuijier, rule base assignment tables and the defuaiJier [SI. Figure (2) shows how the three stages are interconnected. The motor speed and current deviations are utilized as fuzzy inputs to the FLC. The FLC controller utilizes the motor speed and the motor current errors after scaling and normalization. The membership classes for e,, e, are shown in fig. (3). Fig. (4) depicts the output rule assignment table which represents the per unit value of the duty cycle on-time (rJ of the PWU chopper gating. In the k i f i e r stage the minimum intersect between the linguistic input variables (Lv)e, , e, and the corresponding N l e S is re-scaled and defuzzified. Fig. ( 5 ) depicts a simple configuration of the defuzzification stage. The defuzzifier weighted centre of area is done by using a new formula as follows[2,6]:
i-N

annature resistance Q L, motor armature inductance H V, dc supply voltage (const.), T.p chopping time, selected at 0.5 millisec back emf & torque constant (in pmdc motor ) Nm4’

lz.

TM is the load torque in N.M., can be, constant or function of the speed
w as for fadpump type load.,

Motor parameters are given in the appendix. By using the continuous/discrete “c2rf’ meta file in MATLAB package the discrete state equations of dc motor, or equivalent discrete state space model of dc motor w a s derived using a sampling frequency of 2-Khz, which is same as the chopper switching MOSFET switching frequency.

where
1,

is the on-time of the P W U d c d c chopper,

Simulation Results - Digital simulation studies for the FLC control validation with the on-line adaptive dehzification structure were performed for the following two cases: (1) The motor starts under no-load for unit step in the reference speed. (2) The motor starts under no-loud then suddenly applying thefill-load. The look-up table for case no. I is table 1 (a, b), while table 2 (a, b) contains the rules for case no. 2. For the same assignment tables and different loading and starting conditions the simulation was repeated for different selected values of k ( the power of MSG, in d e h i f i e r stage) to investigate the effect of any change k on dynamic response. For case no. 1, as can be seen in.Fig. (6), when the power k is greater than unity

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decreases and simultaneously the settling time decrease also. < zero WCOA Linearly increase if e. = 0. ovyrr Rr* N P S M B IC Negative.. TUNING CRITERIA Case number 2 :JLII-load- k= I I if e. It is obvious that initially decreasing the value of k reduces the overshoot in the motor speed and reduce both the rise and settling times. .0 after certain time and 4 rated. but the stator current I. the advantage . (7) shows the dynamic response of ak motor when it is started under no load then suddenly applied the full load with different selected values of k. Rated speed = 1150 rpm. On the other hand it increases the steady state error in speed w. CQ4 - Figures (8) and (9) depicts the dynamic performance under no-load and full load conditions. (3) Fuzzy membership set for the input errors ( e. and creates a sustained armature current oscillations . Rated power = 93. Rule o f e. starts to develop a sustained dynamic oscillation with the decreasing of weighting factor k. COA m - Lf Dcr*rr -* . Insignificant Change. change slope from -ve to +ve WCOA 1.o after last rules.*l for d. >= zero cy24 1.o decrease then constant-0. for the fust part of case no. < if = '( :near& increase if e.the overshoot in speed o . K . So.89 N. d A ) . = &= 1. in per unit Fs'g. 822 .0125 R. CONCLUSION A novel on-line adaptive filzzv logic controller to adjust the value of the power of the d e h $ e r member-ship grade for de motor drives is presented. < rated. settling time is offset by of decreasing the overshoot in w these sustained motor current oscillations. (2) Fuzzy logic coneoller with tunable change of k in defuzzzifier stage F"W &la Jar R. Small.m/ rad/ sec . motor start under no-load. KD4 10.83 Kg.3 Kw.78 ( volthad or N . CrlA > e. So. Fig.1 ). APPENDIX The on-line k adaptation is given by a set of simple rules: Case number I : No-load value. This result in minimizing the percentage overshoot in motor speed. Big. Positive. rise h e . The on-line control adaptation result in robust and effective controller with test dynamic response minimum overshoot and eliminated inrush current. change slope from -ve to +ve WCOA after certain time and J. e.m2. The overshoot in speed 0 ..a The look-up table. Fig. I . 1. J = 2. 1.pa*.1 if e. to overcome this problem an on-line tunable fuzzy logic controller is required. Medium. L DC motor parameters: Rated voltage = 210 volt.o if zero c m e. B = 1.pd Fig. ( 5 ) The composition between L V of tkc input and the cprresponding fuzy set. Fig. decreases with k reduction until the value ( k = 0. but when k is below unity the overshoot in 0 . Tunable fuzzy logic based control structures have the added advantage of tolerating system and load excursions. Iwr#& &. e. Linguistic Variable e. decreases and simultaneously the settling time also increases. . the steady state error and also limiting the motor inrush current during starting.2 mH. (I) Separately excited dc motor drive with tunable fwzy logic controller Rule o f e. La = 1. R .) Table 1. The defuzzifier output also becomes very sensitive to any changes in the system conditions.

. ) of dc-dc chopper 1. Ref. EiW ’ n’M S 1 8 M B .‘ e a \ Ns e. 104. I . g a 05. Ref Speed c ’ 3 083. k-0 1 f 0 0. (7) The dynamic response for dc motor starting under no-load then suddenly applyingfull-load for unit step in the reference speed and different selected values of k.95 ’ k-1. per unif value of duty-cycle on-time ( t . Sp. 2 * ci l ’ a 0.. K V .5 2 2. ? Ref. --- I 4- 15. : Time in (sec) Time in (Sec) Fig.- IC VB RAT RAT RAT RAT RAT RAT n VB n v r n n n m r .5 3 Time in (sec) Fig.9. . (4) Fuvy membership for the output. 11.. -.. (6) The dynamic response.0k=Ol P 0.. Sp.for dc motor starting under no-load for unit step in the reference speed and different selected values of k. M PM ?B Fig.5 1 1. ? 088.05 . 2. study case no. Tunable k - 823 . 1. study cwc no..

. k = 1.I e Rel. 4..O --- '0... $ Tunable k- 0 . 12 IO.2 1. 6. 2.4 0. 824 . 2. 1 t 4. study case no.6 0 0. 0 2. Sp. ? 1. .a The look-up table.5 1 Time in sec 1. .3 0. $ $ c a. 0. Fig. kTunable' k 1.5. (9) The dynamic response for tunable values of k.5.5 3 3 cn 5 L 1. ' i a 0. 4 - c g 3 4 0.k v) - I--k . . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS c3 E! n I T . for the first part of case no. Tunable k- . . ' - 1 5 0 0. motor start under no-load then suddenly applyingfull-load. .- Table 2.05. --k tunable Tunable kk-1 ..5 2 2.5 2..6.5. for the second group of rules. 0.0.