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A Detailed Study of Losses in the Reduced Voltage Resonant DC
Link Inverter Topology

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Vijay Deshpande and S . R. Doradla Electrical Engineering Department Indian Institute of Technology KANPUR 208 016 (UP) INDIA

A new reduced voltage resonant link [4],[5]. A etaile study of the effect of various parameters Such as the characteristic impedance, Q factors, input dc and the frequency On the link losses IS presented. The voltage and current stresses on various link components are also given. The losses are determined and then cornpared with those of the actively clamped resonant dc link. The RVRL toPolof3' duces the link losses by 25 ?%* The new being truely resonant offers less EM1 and requires less number of power devices. It is particularly suitable at high resonant frequencies of control.

6 4

Abstract-

RVRL topology was reported earlier

A . ACRL

Figure 1 shows the ACRL circuit and the associated link voltage and clamping current waveforms. S,, D, and C,constitute the clamping circuit. The clamping voltage Vcc is maintained within a range of 1.3 to 1.8 times vdc [3]. The link voltage U ' , is clamped to V,, with the help of the clamping diode D,. The clamping switch S, helps in recovering the charge dumped in C, so that the average link voltage remains equal to Vdc. Thus, by introducing an active clamping circuit, the device voltage stresses are reduced. Apart from limiting the device stresses, the

I. INTRODUCTION

The soft switching inverters are being actively considered for ac motor drives and power supplies. The resonant dc link provides soft switching of devices. The parallel resonant dc link as put forth by Divan [l],when compared with other resonant links, offers many advantages such as simple power circuit, ease of implementation and cOntro1, small VA ratings of resonant components etc. However, the main drawback of the earlier PRDCL is that it produces voltage stresses as high as twice the input voltage to the inverter. At times, when the link current reverses, the voltage stresses may be still higher. The voltage stresses are limited by using actively clamped resonant link (ACRL) [2],[3]. In an attempt to reduce the peak voltage stresses without using clamping circuit,.the basic PRDCL was modified with the addition of two more resonant components. Such a topology was well covered earlier [4],[5]. Since this topology reduces the peak stresses, it is hereafter referred to as reduced voltage resonant link (RVRL). The objective of the present study is to determine various losses of RVRL-fed inverter and compare them with those of ACRL-fed inverter. Furthermore, the stresses of all components at different resonant frequencies are presented for RVRL. This information is useful for proper selection of link components.

1

Dc conducts

**Fig. 1. (a) ACRL circuit (b) The link voltage and claqping
**

current wavefoims.

0-7803-2795-0

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+ S2LhChh+l SL (2) 0 30 Time (microsec) Fig. and R is normally dormant. This eliminates the need for shorting of the bus at the end of the zero crossing... The clamping circuit consisting of De. A detailed comparison with those of ACRL is presented. Q factors of inductors and the resonant frequency for RVRL is presented...2’ are shorted is given by B = [--]&=I3 = SL. A .5V& instead of 2V&. Also. the clamping circuit) limits the link voltage to the safe value V. 2. The simulation waveforms of an inverter with the RL load are given. the control of the clamping device becomes difficult since the ‘on’ time interval becomes comparable with the device turn-off time. 14 . without needing any auxiliary supply. The device S. 3 using A. V.. First the B and C parameters of the circuit are obtained as follows. the introduction of clamping circuit increases the complexity of the power circuit and the control circuit becomes quite involved.. 3 Equivalent circuit used for finding characteristic impedance. The RVRL of Fig..C. The circulating currents in the resonant components. the switching losses in the inverter devices..5 the peak link voltage is reduced to 1.clamping circuit also helps in the establishment of proper initial current in the resonant inductor L. 2 eliminates the drawbacks of ACRL. (a) RVRL topology (b) Various link voltage waveforms. (1) -1 2 The transfer admittance ratio when the terminals 2 2’ are open circuited is given by E l c=[--]ia=o E 2 I 1 1 = sc. (which are of very low power rating) are needed to stabilize the operation of the a circuit. and the losses in the link are largely dependent on the characteristic impedance of the resonant link. CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE The characteristic impedance of a link is an important quantity. C. Derivation of Characterislac Impedance The characteristic impedance of the resonant circuit can be found out from the equivalent circuit shown in Fig. In this topology two additional components L h and c h are added in series with C. . Therefore. The transfer impedance ratio when the terminals 2 . At high values of resonant frequencies approaching 100 kHz. and Lh = L.. of -1 11. This is achieved by accurately controlling the instant of turn-off of the Clamping device S. The stresses on the various link components and inverter devices is also given. also helps in regulation of voltage V.B. For c b = 2C. in case the voltage due to reversal of Io increases. B. A detailed study of the effect of parameters such as the characteristic impedance. and D. it is important to study its effect on the link parameters..D parameters [6]. RVRL The ACRL suffers from few drawbacks such as variation in the link frequency with variation in V. However. large curirent jumps with high di/dt twice every resonant cycle and increased losses due to the introduction of clamping circuit../4. Fig. The devices a ...

. From Fig. The Q factors for both the inductors are selected to be 150 at the resonant frequency. and i L h increase linearly with Vd.300 From (4) it is observed that &h is a function of frequency.3/2 (7) 111.. &h is varied from 1.5 and c h = 2C. Substituting the expression for the resonant frequency given by S2 = O’.. losses etc. and C.5.h on the link parameters (fo = 18. Ia is the load current. and C. The reduction in Z r h reduces the voltage overshoot of the link voltage whenever the link current Io changes from a positive to a negative value.. where as the losses in the link PL at no load i. .054I. VARIATION OF Vdc The effect of variation in Vdc on the various parameters of the link is studied. the characteristic impedance given by Zrh is 700 600 n Substituting Lh = L. thereby consisting of C. 8 6 6 / a in (6) we get B.5 kHz. It is observed that both the capacitors are charged with a voltage of equal and opposite polarity.. The higher value of the resonant cirpacitor offer large snubber action. The various quantities such as i L . It is observed that the additional elements reduce the resonant frequency fo to a value O. 5 (ohm) 6 7 8 Fig. The reduction of Z r h results in an increased value of the resonant capacitor. D. 4 Effect of Z. i L h . It is observed that the losses in the link PL increase significantly with reduction in &h. only.4 to 8. The supply voltage Vdc is varied from 50 v to 600 V in steps of 50 V. the simulation study is carried out for a resonant frequency o f 18. The damping current I d (which is required to overcome losses in the resonant link) is adjusted for each value of Vde such that there is neither overshoot of voltage nor is there any zero crossing failure.From (1) and (2). where. The component values are designed for a resonant link frequency of 18.5kHz). . This reduces the switching losses in the inverter devices. shows a significant increase with V d c as noted from Fig./2c. and fo = 0 . The results of simulation for V. . and I reducing the associated power loss [5]. are determined..5 kHz. ( PL is calculated by multiplying v d c with average dc current drawn by the link at no load. the resonant frequency fr is obtained by considering the components L. 4. 5 (a) it is seen that the circulating currents iL./4. 5 (a) V.Cr [4] in (4) we get 5 L _I 200 100 0 1 2 3 4 Zrh Where 2.2t. If the voltage overshoot is within the acceptable limit then the clamping circuit & can be eliminated.866fr. When the devices are switched ‘on’ the capacitors effectively come in parallel. Substituting C=$ . Variation of &h In order to study the effect of variation in Z r h . = 150 V and 600 V are shown in Fig. is turned ’on’. 6 (a). The average device switching losses aqr? given by 0. = -fo 24C 15 . From (5) it is seen that the introduction of additional elements L h and c h results in a slight increase in the characteristic impedance. = L. An equivalent circuit at the zero crossing is shown in Fig.75/L. The loss Pres due to the discharge o f these capacitors is given by Io“$ P*. c is equivalent to C. where..) These losses are mainly due to the circulating currents iLr and i L h .e.and c h in series. by reducing the area enclosed by the turn-off switching device loci 131.. Io = 0. is the residual voltage in the capacitors at the zero crossing just before the device S.. . is the characteristic impedance with only L . we get 5 a _I 500 400 -.. t j is the device turn-off time. v 6 (4) f .

The losses are observed to be very small.180 150 120 / 1 3 W _1 90 60 30 0 e o j I I I I I Vdc (V) Fig. However.84 w for V frequency is varied from 5 kHz to 100 kHz. The Q factors are varied from 30 to 650 for a resonant frequency of18. 6 (b). The Q value for each inductor is chosen to be about 150. iLh and PL remain constant throughout the frequency range. The simulation study is carried out for the frequency ranging from 5 kHz The results indicate that the parameters such as i~~ . The Q value is varied by varying the equivalent series resistor (ESR) in the simulation study.5 kHz.. This indicates that the device S. The Qr and Q h of the inductors L r and L h respectively are kept identical.. 7 (b). This is because the circulating currents and the power loss depend only on Z r h . VARIATION O F f.VARIATION OF Q In the resonant link type inverters. and Pres against V& is shown in Fig. of residual voltage and loss is also plotted shown in Fig. 6 (a) Quivalent circuit at the zero crossing. and i L h with Q . Since the losses are dependent on the Q factors of the inductors. VI. (b) Variation of V. The losses at no load. the losses in the resonant inductors cannot be neglected. The performance of the resonant link on load is also determined and is included in Sec. with vdc. and the loss R e .. 7 (a)shows the variation of i~. The damping current I d for each value of Q is determined so that there is no overshoot of voltage and no zero crossing failure. it is necessary to vary the Q values to study the performance of the resonant link on no load. These remain constant with a variation in Q. The effect of variation of reson nk frequency for a given Zrh is studied.. N. Fig. The variation of Vre. depend on the Q factors. .5 mW to 1. In this case be reasonably high to reduce 10s V.. the losses in S r vary d c = 150V as the resonant from 56. is of negligible power rating. Q must be high enough to reduce the loss. however.

Vdc = SOOV). The stresses on the devices are found out for I. Sigma delta modulation (SDM) technique is used to synthesize the output of desired frequency and amplitude [7]. This rise in voltage has to be discharged in & over one period at the maximum invefter output frequency.0 I 0. RMS (PEAK) (A) Cr [fiFI RMS (PEAK) (A) c h [Uk \ RMS (PEAK) (A) Cc(@ RMS (PEAL) (A) D C AV. and vdc = 300V. iLr and i L h (b) Vre. These waveforms are simulated for a resonant link frequency of 10 kHz. The value of Ra is determined by noting the rise in the voltage VC.52 54 (281) 41 (271) 48 (210) lo00 loo0 lo00 12 (119) 15 (130) 12 (136) I 1 I I I ~~ I I I I 300 400 Q factor 500 600 700 Fig.6 (130) I 1. are neglected becuase these are very small.5 (136) I I I I lOO(152) I 99(147) I W(144) I lo000 I 10000 I loo00 VI. = 55pH. (fiI.lrt. 9 (a) to (d) for one half cycle at the output frequency of 50 Hz. device losses and losses in the clamping circuit. Cr = l p F . A lower resonant frequency is chosen for the sake of clarity of waveforms.n.Where.5 (119) I 1. These losses are calculated by first finding the rms 512 512 512 inductor currents. Single-phase bridge circuit. (a) PL. These are shown in the Table I. The number of clampings depend upon the type of modulation strategy used and the power factor of the load. 8. The total losses in the drive are found by adding link losses. 7 Variation in (2 ( L . KIc = Vcc Vdc.COMPONENT STRESSES Freq.This tise in Vlc is found out by measuring the rise in the voltage Vlc due to one clamping and then multiplying by the number of clampings per output cycle.. Then by knowing the ESR’s of the inductors these losses could be found out.0 I 1..11 __ 75 (160) 57 (120) 68 (146) I 3. I 1.The dc link voltage and current. The losses in the devices are divided into two types. The circuit for simulation is shown in Fig.8 I 2.. = 60A. and Pres. TABLE 1. 8. (PEAK) (A) Loadcurrent RMS (PEAK) (A) Filter Cap. This is necessary to reduce stresses on the inverter d e vices [3].Hl -. the inductor current iLr and the capacitor current icr waveforms are shown in Fig.11 I 5. The losses in the device S. The conduction losses are determined by finding the current flow in the device and the forward voltage drop across the device.I 1 Fig. The losses in:he resonant inductors dominate the link losses.r--.4 1 1. (kHz) Current Stresses LrffiH) RMS (PEAK) (A) T. conduction losses and switching losses.’) 10 25 40 . The switching losses of which turn-off loss com- 17 .77 I 3.. The transitions from +1 to -1 or -1 to +1 in the output voltage are modified by introducing freewheeling action. COMPONENT STRESSES AND LOSSES for Ch(V) In order to find out the stresses on various components in the link. 0 100 200 14 50 26 96 (213) 92 (194) 95 (202) I 11. namely. a single-phase H-bridge configuration is considered. The presence of bleeder resistor h!b in the clamping circuit introduces clamping circuit loss.76 36 (151) 43(156) 47(162) I 6.

500 > 0 400 300 200 100 > 0 250 200 150 100 50 =' L 0 -50 -100 -150 -150 -200 ' I ) I I I I I I " 18 .

” IEEE Trans.5Vdc. + A comparison of Tables I11 and IV reveals that the resonant frequency fo is nearly the same in both the topologies. the losses in the link increase. The comparison is carried out for v d c = 300V and for an RL load with the current I. The clamping circuit can be dispensed Yith altogether. However. on Ind. Mar/April 1989. the low value of &. the single-phase H-bridge of Fig.. “A current prediction scheme for the PRDCL inverter-fed Induction Motor drive. “The resonant dc link converter. For the same component values. Loss W 24 212 436 Link Loss W 184 I I Loss in R h W1 I 225 169 1 225 153 I 225 I Total Losses W 755 925 1133 REFERENCES D.M. The introduction of additional elements increases the characteristic impedance Z r h and reduces the resonant link frequency. 1995. Therefore. ILrO = Io Id. USA. G Venkataramanan and W. V. 1994.J.Divan. The losses in Table 1 1 1 are calculated for the resonant component values as reported in [3]. App. The results of simulation are shown in Tables I11 and IV for ACRL and RVRL respectively. “Theory of networks and lines.A new concept in static power conversicm.R. The proposed topology limits the link voltage to about 1. 2 . However. VIII.L. Also. 8 is considered. Here. the devices wlll turnoff without any loss. Rec. pH C.A. Kheraluwala and D. all the turn-offs may not contribute t o switching loss under certain conditions.. L. A comparison of the losses of ACRL and RVRL shows that the losses are almost the same. D./Feb. Under this condition the losses in the proposed topology will be less by about 25 %. the circulating currents increase. vol.” in Conf. pp. pp. App. M. This will happen if the inductor O the zero current iLr is less than the initial current I L ~ at crossing where. Divan.DeDoncker. Loss W I 322 319 319 I Swit. no. p p 126135.. SUMMARY OF LOSSES IN THE DRIVE (Vdc = 300V. Divan. the proposed RVRL topology is attractive for use in the ac drives and power supplies. Power Electron. The summary of various losses is given in Table 11. S. 22CL228. for granting research associateship to carry out this work. Thus. As a result. ”Design methodologies for soft switched inverters.” Prentice hall Inc. VII. “Delta modulation strategies for resonant linkinverters. D. 5 ..h has some benificial effects. July/Aug 1989. S. if the antiparallel diodes conduct at the zero crossing. For example. the losses are calculated assuming that for 50 % switchings the turn-off takes place with losses [3]. The losses in the resonant link are reduced due to improved switching loci. Divan. rec. the clamping voltage is chosen to be 1. 25.M. = 15kW. 4. 1993. Whenever i~~ > I L ~ O the switching loss takes place because the antiparallel diodes do not conduct under this condition.Deshpande and S. TABLE 1 1 .H.” IEEE Trans.Doradla and D. la = lOOA r m ~Po . Divan and G.Fi&. IA-29.V. no.Doradla. pp 1151-1157. COMPARISON WITH ACRL In order to compare the performance of the proposed topology with that of ACRL.M. 19 . Skibinski.5vdc. 1. “A new topology for parallel resonant dc link withreduced peak voltage. Potter and. “Zero-switching-loss inverters for high power applications. no. under certain conditons the losses can be reduced by almost 25 % in the RVRL topology. J.R.M. pp 260-266.A. Applied Power Electronics conference held at Orlando.” IEEE Trans.4 fo 50 26 14 I 1. IA-25. the losses are almost the same.ponents dominate are found out from (7). The SDM is used for both the resonant link inverters. pp 317-325. Florida. power electronics specialist conference held at Atlanta USA. 1963. The study of RVRL topology reveals successful operation of the link even when the dc link current is changing fast. However. 2. Englewook Cliff N. If a bidirectional dc-dc converter operating on the inverter input 8 c voltage V d c is used then the resistor Rb can be eliminated. no. = 30A. in the case of ACRL too. [51 Vijay Deshpande. April 1990. For resonant links of lower Z r h . 634-643. Ind.M.00 0.” in cod. vol. the losses are calculated for RVRL (Table IV).” IEEE Trans on Industry Applications. It is possible to choose proper component ratings based on the current and voltage stresses of various link components and devices presented here. Jan. vol.J. CONCLUSION A detailed study of losses in the reduced voltage resonant link is presented.76 I kHz 10 25 40 Cond. vol. Qr = Q h = 150 Rb = loon) ACKNOWLEDGMENT Vijay Deshpande would like to thank Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) New Delhi. pF 3.

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