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Thomas Gsell

November 2013
Reactive Power Compensation
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering
IIEE 38th Annual National Convention and 3E XPO
© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 2
Alstom Grid
Equipment & services for power generation
Alstom Thermal Power
Equipment & services for rail transport
Equipment & services for power transmission
Alstom Renewable Power
Alstom Transport
Three main activities in 4 sectors
© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 3
ALSTOM Grid Ltd. Tampere, Finland
 Employs around 300 people in Tampere and Vantaa
 Sales office of other Alstom Grid products in Vantaa
 Turnover of 68 million EUR year 2012-13
 Exports account for 95 % of the output
 Main market areas: Scandinavia, Europe, Asia, Russia, Alstom Grid
© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 4
Alstom Grid – Tampere offering
Reactive Power Compensation Power Electronics Activities
LV products up to 1kV
− LV capacitor units
− LV reactors
− Electronic products
− LV capacitor banks
− LV active filters
HV products up to 145kV
− HV capacitor units
− HV reactors
− Electronic products
− HV capacitor banks
Compensation systems
− Static Var Compensators
(SVC)
• Industrial SVCs
• Utility SVCs
− SVC MaxSine (STATCOM)
− Series capacitor banks
HV products over 145kV
− HV capacitor banks
© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 5
There are three kinds of reactive power:
Reactive Power
− Inductive Fundamental Reactive Power (Q
1L
)
=> Sinusoidal current, phase shifted from voltage to the right
− Capacitive Fundamental Reactive Power (Q
1C
)
=> Sinusoidal current, phase shifted from voltage to the left
− Harmonics Reactive Power (D)
=> Non-sinusoidal current
2 2
1
D Q Q + = ( )
2
1 1 1 C L
Q Q Q ÷ =
© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 6
Inductive Reactive Power
S
Uq
R
L
iL
uL
Uq uL
iL
L
uL;iL
t
iL
uL
© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 7
Capacitive Reactive Power
S
Uq
R
C
iC
u
Uq uC
iC
C
uC;iC
uC
iC
t
© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 8
Harmonics Reactive Power
uq, uL, iL
-400
0
400
uq, uL, iL
-400
0
400
uq, uL, iL
-400
0
400
uq, uL, iL
-400
0
400
Firing Angle: 140° Firing Angle: 120° Firing Angle: 90° (half power) Firing Angle: 30°
Dimmer
© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 9
Harmonics Reactive Power
t
I
L
Dimmer with smoothing reactor
© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 10
Harmonics Reactive Power
UL2-L3
UL1-N
UL2-N
N
UL3-L1
L3
UL3-N
L1
IL2
L2
UL1-L2
IL1
M
IL3
t
I
L1,2,3
3-phase dimmer; Thyristor-DC-Drive
© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 11
Harmonics Reactive Power
q
Iq
-
+
IR
C
R UR
1-phase B4 diode rectifier
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that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 12
Harmonics Reactive Power
3-phase B6 diode rectifier
t
I
L1,2,3
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that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 13
Harmonics power consumers are:
Non-Linear Loads
− etc.
− Drives (frequency converters, DC-drives)
− Dimmers
− Power supplies (computers)
− Furnaces (induction furnaces, arc furnaces)
− Lightings (gas-discharge lamps, fluorescent tubes)
− Diode Rectifiers
© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 14
Harmonics Theory
A harmonic is defined as a sinusoidal wave with a certain
amplitude and an integer (whole number) multiple of a
fundamental frequency. A harmonic is a component of a
periodical signal with a fundamental frequency.
If the fundamental frequency is f, the harmonics have
frequencies 2f, 3f, 4f, 5f, etc.
The mathematical procedure to calculate amplitudes and
frequencies of harmonics is the “Fourier Transformation”!
© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 15
Fourier Transformation
1
st
+3
rd
+5
th
+7
th
+9
th
+11
th
+13
th
1
st
1
st
+3
rd
1
st
+3
rd
+5
th
1
st
+3
rd
+5
th
+7
th
1
st
+3
rd
+5
th
+7
th
+9
th
1
st
+3
rd
+5
th
+7
th
+9
th
+11
th
1
st
+3
rd
+5
th
+7
th
+9
th
+11
th
+13
th
1
st
3
rd
5
th
7
th
9
th
11
th
13
th
© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 16
Fourier Transformation
= 1
st
+3
rd
+5
th
+7
th
+9
th
+11
th
+13
th
1
st
+3
rd
+5
th
+7
th
+9
th
+11
th
+13
th
© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 17
Harmonics Data-Demonstration
© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 18
Fundamental reactive current as well as harmonics reactive
currents cause stress to:
What’s up with Reactive Current?
What means “reactive” power?
− Lines
− Transformers
− Generators
− etc.
The product of a sinusoidal alternating voltage with a alternating current
contributes no power if that current is a reactive current. In this case only
reactive energy flows - there is no net transfer of energy to the load.
Also known as idle current; quadrature current; watt-less current.
© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 19
Active Power
Voltage
x
Current
=
Power
© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 20
Active Power
Voltage
x
Current
=
Power
© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 21
Inductive Reactive Power
Voltage
x
Current
=
Power
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that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 22
Capacitive Reactive Power
Voltage
x
Current
=
Power
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that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 23
Harmonics Reactive Power (5th)
Voltage
x
Current
=
Power
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that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 24
Voltage
x
Current
=
Power
Harmonics Reactive Power (7th)
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that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 25
Voltage
x
Current
=
Power
Harmonics Reactive Power (5th + 7th)
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that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 26
In contrast to fundamental reactive current, harmonics
currents cause harmonics voltages which cause disturbances
to consumers installed in the same electrical network:
Harmonics Consequences
Finally triple harmonics cumulate in the neutral wire which
causes overload and dramatic consequences:
− Reduction of the life span and thus premature failure of condensers and
electric motors due to thermal overloading
− Malfunctioning with electronics
− Malfunctioning of protection device
− Malfunctioning of ripple control systems
− Impairment of the ground fault deletion
− Cable fire
− Transformer breakdown
− Noise emission
© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 27
Why harmonics currents cause harmonics voltages
in electrical networks?
© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 28
- Active harmonics filters
Basically there are two possibilities to compensate
harmonics currents:
What to do against harmonics?
- Passive harmonics filters (tuned parallel resonance circuits)
© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 29
Passive harmonics compensation
(tuned parallel resonance circuit)
© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 30
Active harmonics compensation with MaxSine
© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 31
Active Filters: Pro and Contra
Active Filters Advantages:
Disadvantages:
− Direct compensation of harmonics currents
− Easy dimensioning
− Independent from the mains voltage quality
− Independent from the network impedance
− Excellent dynamics
− No influence to ripple control systems
− Electronic overload protection
− No capacitive reactive power injection
− Compensation possibility close to consumers
− More expensive (than passive filters)
− Higher power losses
− Ripple current
© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 32
To measure harmonics voltages and currents the following
equipment can be used:
Measuring Harmonics
Total harmonics distortion factor (THD)
Europe: THDR, USA: THDF
− Oscilloscope (the data can be analyzed after the measurement results
were stored)
− Power meter (“Fluke”, “Tektronix” etc.)
− Data logger (“TOPAS”, “Dranetz” etc.)
2
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
; ;
F
F
R F R
THD
THD
THD
I
I
THD
I
I
THD
+
= = =
¿ ¿
·
>
·
> v
v
v
v
2
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
; ;
F
F
R F R
THD
THD
THD
I
I
THD
I
I
THD
+
= = =
¿ ¿
·
>
·
> v
v
v
v
%-THD may not contain a sufficient informative value for currents. An absolute
harmonics THD-value in Amperes may be preferred instead!
© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 33
Power:
Calculating Power
Power factor:
¿
·
>
· = · · =
· · = · =
1
2
1 1 1
1 1
; sin
cos ;
v
v
¢
¢
I U D I U Q
I U P I U S
2 2
1
D Q Q + =
2 2
1
2
D Q P S + + =
1
2
cos 1 ¢ ì · ÷ = =
R
THD
S
P
© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 34
Slip-up’s with Harmonics
− No differentiation in between THDR and THDF
− No differentiation in between Q and Q1
− No differentiation in between γ and cosφ
− No differentiation in between RMS- and peak-values of Fourier
Transformation results
− Meaningless usage of current THD values
© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 35
Stand Alone MaxSine Compact Module
New Active Filter “MaxSine”
MaxSine100AV6C
MaxSine100AV6CE
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that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 36
MaxSine Compact Cubicle Version
New Active Filter “MaxSine”
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that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 37
Main Features
− Small size enables customized modular cabinet construction
− Ethernet connection and Web Server for monitoring, setting and control
• User interface: PC or optional HMI
− Several menu languages (also character languages)
− Relay output for run indication
− Standby in case of small load current
− Adjustable relay output for cubicle fan
− Selectable dual parameter page setting e.g. for emergency generator
supply
− Devices available for 3-wire as well as 3-wire + neutral (4-wire)
− Several overload protection algorithms:
• Output limiting factor by current peak
• Output limiting factor by temperature
• High temperature switch-off
New Active Filter “MaxSine”
© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 38
Compensation Features
− Two compensation modes:
• Fast mode, selectable harmonics, amplitude and phase, 1-50th
• Ultra fast mode, global compensation
− Adjustable output overall factors for amplitude and phase
− Total power factor can be forced to 1
− Possibility to balance line currents
− Ability to eliminate neutral current
− 6 current inputs for multiple circuits (open loop, closed loop, CT-additions, etc.)
− Excellent dynamics; Response time < 1ms in ultra fast mode and adjustable from
1 network period to 50 network periods in fast mode
− Selectable current input sensors:
• Rogowski coils
• Current transformers (CTs)
− Selectable compensation priorities:
1. Fundamental has priority
2. Harmonics have priority
3. Only fundamental
4. Only harmonics
New Active Filter “MaxSine”
© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 39
Extended Measurement and power meter functions
− Date/Time
− Load, network and compensation currents in phases and neutral
• RMS, fundamental, harmonics currents and crest factors
− Active, reactive, apparent and harmonics power, cosphi
− THD(u), THD(i), current and voltage harmonics spectrum
up to 50th harmonics
− Waveforms of currents
− Cabinet temperature and external temperature (e.g. heat sink) if
sensor connected
− Uploading of measurements for reporting
− Network mains voltages
− One set of measurement values is always saved to memory when
system stops
New Active Filter “MaxSine”
© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 40
Active Filter Applications
Frequency Converter
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that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 41
Active Filter Applications
Network current (frequency converter)
before and after compensation with MaxSine
© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 42
Fourier transformation of frequency converter current
before compensation
Active Filter Applications
Order: f / Hz I RMS / A THDr: THDf: Total-
values:
1 50 35,50 91,55% 100,00%
3 150 0,52 1,33% 1,45% I RMS / A:
5 250 14,57 37,57% 41,04% 38,77
7 350 5,25 13,55% 14,80%
9 450 0,08 0,20% 0,22% THDr:
11 550 1,93 4,98% 5,44% 40,51%
13 650 1,03 2,66% 2,91%
15 750 0,10 0,25% 0,27% THDf:
17 850 0,92 2,37% 2,59% 44,24%
19 950 0,52 1,33% 1,46%
21 1050 0,08 0,20% 0,22%
23 1150 0,51 1,31% 1,43%
25 1250 0,33 0,86% 0,94%

© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 43
Fourier transformation of frequency converter current
after compensation
Active Filter Applications
Order: f / Hz I RMS / A THDr: THDf: Total-
values:
1 50 36,91 99,49% 100,00%
3 150 0,16 0,44% 0,44% I RMS / A:
5 250 0,27 0,73% 0,73% 37,10
7 350 0,27 0,73% 0,73%
9 450 0,12 0,33% 0,34% THDr:
11 550 0,16 0,43% 0,43% 3,20%
13 650 0,16 0,43% 0,43%
15 750 0,17 0,46% 0,46% THDf:
17 850 0,34 0,91% 0,92% 3,22%
19 950 0,03 0,08% 0,09%
21 1050 0,12 0,33% 0,33%
23 1150 0,14 0,38% 0,38%
25 1250 0,26 0,69% 0,70%

© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 44
Personal Computers
Active Filter Applications
© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 45
Network current (Personal Computers) before and after
compensation with MaxSine
Active Filter Applications
© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 46
Dynamic DC-Drive
Active Filter Applications
© ALSTOM 2013. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on
that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. It is provided without
liability and is subject to change without notice. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Harmonics and Harmonics Filtering, IIEE, November 2013 – Slide 47
Network current (dynamic 3-phase load) before and after
compensation with MaxSine
Active Filter Applications
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