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Journal of Management Practice

Volume 2, o !, "###

DEVELOPING LEARNING ORGANISATION: Acommitment CASE STUDY $hared Vision 5 A this in#ol#es indi#iduals buildin% a sense of (ithin

particular (ork%roups, de#elopin% shared ima%es of common and desirable futures, and the principles and %uidin% practices to support the & @ourney to such futures& Diana du Plessis, Michael du Plessis Bruce Millett

Team %earning 5 this in#ol#es rele#ant thinkin% skills that enable %roups of people to ABSTRACT de#elop intelli%ence and an ability that is %reater than the sum of indi#idual membersA This paper describes and discusses the practical steps taken by a medium sized talents& Australian company (referred to in this paper as ‘ !co" in order to preser#e confidentiality $ystem s Thin&ing of the 5 material$ this in#ol#es to e#ol#e a (ayinto of thinkin% a learnin% about, or%anisation& and a lan%ua%e The concept for of a learnin% or%anisation describin% and understandin% is defined, forces and and the applicability interrelationships of this that concept shape to the !co beha#iour is of e!plored This systems& throu%h discipline three different helps mana%ers areas of and strate%ic employees concern& alike 'irst, to see the ho( or%anisation"s to chan%e use of strate%y systems more as a effe learnin% cti#ely, process and tois act re#ie(ed& more in )econd, tune (ith the the or%anisational lar%er processes structures of the natural and systems and economic in place (orld& at !co are discussed in terms of (hether they support the attributes of a learnin% or%anisation& 'inally, the role of leadership and teams, in the learnin% The Mc9insey processes?: at) 'rame(ork !co are discussed pro#ides in terms a systems of their #ie( impact for describin% and influence the ma@or on positi#e differences bet(een learnin% a traditional outcomes& #ie(The of an data or%anisation informin%and thisapaper learnin% are the or%anisation result of the (*itt author -..B$& ,n the Mc9insey conductin% ?: ) 'rame(ork, a structured se#en inter#ie( key elements (ith the of!co an or%anisation, *+ Mana%er, namely, as (ellthe as a structure, literature measurement re#ie(& system, mana%ement style, staff characteristics, distincti#e staff skills, strate%yCaction plan, and shared #alues are identified& The first si! elements are or%anised INTRODUCTION around the or%anisations shared #alues& *o(e#er, *itt (-..B, p& -D$ adds an ei%hth element 5 syner%istic teams 5 that he describes as the ‘missin% link"& ,t is this element (hich *itt ,n his book re%ards as bein% The at Fifth the Discipline core of the ,learnin% Peter )en%e or%anisation& (-../, p& -$ )yner%istic defined ateams learnin% pro#ide or%anisation the means as 01the for a place members (here of people the or%anisation continually to e!pand learn to%ether, their capacity de#elopin% to create collecti#e results intelli%ence they truly desire, that is (here ne( %reater thanand the e!pansi#e sum of thepatterns intelli%ence of thinkin% of the indi#idual are nurtured, members& (here collecti#e Table - belo( aspiration illustrates is set freecharacteristics the and (here people of the are traditional continually #ie( learnin% of an or%anisation ho( to learn2 and (p& the -$& characteristics )en%e (-..3$ described of a the core of learnin% or%anisation& a learnin% or%anisation"s (ork as based upon fi#e learnin% disciplines (hich represented lifelon% pro%rams of both personal and or%anisational learnin% and practice& These include4Table 1: Eight Characteristics ! the Tra"iti #al Orga#isati # Vers$s the Lear#i#g Orga#isati # Personal Mastery 5 indi#iduals learn to e!pand their o(n personal capacity to create results that they most desire& mployees also create Ele%e#t Tra"iti #al Orga#isati # Lear#i#g Orga#isati # an or%anisational en#ironment that encoura%es all fello( employees to de#elop themsel#es to(ard the %oals and purposes )hared Ealues fficiency !cellence ffecti#eness Fr%anisational +ene(al that they desire&
Mana%ement )tyle 7ontrol 'acilitator 7oach upon, continually clarifyin%, Mental Models 5 this in#ol#es each indi#idual reflectin% )trate%yCAction Plan Top approach #eryone is consulted and impro#in% his do(n or her internal pictures of the (orld, and seein% ho( they shape +oad map Gearnin% map personal actions and decisions& )tructure *ierarchy 'lat structure )taff 7haracteristics People (ho kno( (e!perts$ 9no(led%e is po(er Diana du Plessis has de%rees politics, de#elopment administration, psycholo%y and is currently completin% a Distincti#e )taff )kills in Adapti#e learnin% Henerati#e learnin% thesis for a MBus in the area of recruitment and selection (ithin )M s in Australia& )he is an e!perienced Measurement )ystem 'inancial measures Both financial and non:financial academic researcher and or%anisational consultant& )he has (ritten numerous reports for companies, community %roups, presented at conferences, and published -/ papers in the open literature& measures *er areas of interest include Teams Iorkin% %roups 7ross functional teams human resource mana%ement and the effecti#e mana%ement of or%anisational de#elopment and chan%e6 Michael Departmental boundaries du Plessis, B)c (*ons$, M)c , PhD 5 7hemistry, 8ni#ersity of 7ape To(n& *e has (orked in industrial Dynamic ne t(orks People (ho learn Mistakes tolerated as part of learnin%

research and de#elopment in )outh Africa, 89 and Australia& *is current interests include technolo%y mana%ement, fast cycle time product de#elopment and commercialisation of ne( on technolo%y& *e has more than )ource4 *itt, I&D& -..B, ‘The Gearnin% Fr%anisation4 )ome +eflections Fr%anisational +ene(al", t(enty publications in the field of chemistry and technolo%y mana%ement6 Bruce Millett (e:mail4 %eadership & 'rganisation De(elopment Journal , Eol& -J, no& D, p&-D& millet;us<&edu&au $ is a lecturer in the 'aculty of Business, 8ni#ersity of )outhern =ueensland& Bruce lectures in or%anisational chan%e and de#elopment, or%anisational beha#iour Journal of Management Practice 3 (>$, ?-:.> © D duPlessis, M du Plessis & B Millett

, and strate%ic mana%ement

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De(eloping a %earning 'rganisation du Plessis, du Plessis & Millett

The concept of a learnin% or%anisation is an idealised model of copin% (ith or%anisational chan%e ()tarkey -..J6 +eddin% -..?$& This approach 0en%a%es employeesA hearts and minds in a continuous, harmonious, producti#e chan%e, desi%ned to achie#e results they %enuinely care about, and that the or%anisations stakeholders (ant2 (Kayak, Har#in, Maira & Bra%ar -..B$& The process of buildin% a learnin% or%anisation unleashes indi#idual creati#ity, and fosters collecti#e learnin% (hich is crucial for encoura%in%, and de#elopin% inno#ation and rapid responsi#eness to %lobal competition (Millett -..D$& ,n short, a learnin% or%anisation is continually %ettin% ‘smarter" because learnin% is planned, systematic and in ali%nment (ith the or%anisationAs strate%ic %oals& ,n order to %et smarter, the or%anisation needs to capture its or%anisational kno(led%e& Prahalad and *amel (-../$ ha#e described the process of ho( or%anisations learn, and identify the outcomes of the process as the de#elopment of core competencies (hich are ‘1 the collecti#e learnin% in the or%anisation" (p& D3$& This occurs at all le#els and functions (ithin the or%anisation& As (e (ill discuss belo(, it is not enou%h for !co to identify the company"s #ision as bein% the international leader in the manufacture and application of its products& ,n order to sustain market leadership, the company needs to strate%ically de#elop and ma!imise its market share in terms of its core products, and its staff and technolo%y& Fn the surface, de#elopin% core competencies has an intuiti#e appeal, but it is an e!tremely difficult process to maintain and mana%e, particularly as the or%anisation chan%es and adapts to its en#ironment& !co is attemptin% to de#elop a set of competencies consistent (ith the attributes of a learnin% or%anisation& Iith reference to the ei%ht characteristics of a learnin% or%anisation described by *itt (-..B$, and sho(n in table - abo#e, !co e!hibits many of the features of a learnin% or%anisation& Much of this has occurred durin% the past fi#e years& Durin% this period, !co e!perienced si%nificant transformational or%anisation chan%e aimed at ensurin% that the or%anisation is fle!ible and able to rapidly respond to the competiti#e market place& The or%anisation structure has been flattened (ith an emphasis on cross: functional teams (see Appendi! 3$& Much effort has %one into settin% up pro%rams that allo( people to make a %reater contribution to the success of the or%anisation& Table &: E'c as a Lear#i#g Orga#isati #
Ele%e#t Le ar#i#g Orga#isati # E(i"e#ce at E'c base" # )hared Ealues !cellence Fr%anisational rene(al Mana%ement )tyle 'acilitator 7oach )trate%yCAction Plan #eryone is consulted Gearnin% map )tructure 'lat structure Dynamic net(orks )taff 7haracteristics People (ho learn Mistakes tolerated as part of learnin% Distincti#e )taff )kills Henerati#e learnin% Gimited Measurement )ystem Both financial and non:financial measures Teams 7ross functional teams Les the )R %a#ager*s (ie+ Les Les Les Les M problematic 7onsultation %ro(in% #ol#in% Les #ol#in% Les Les Les

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./s& . they find themsel#es in a competiti#e en#ironment characterised by rapid chan%e& !co"s competiti#e ed%e depends on its ability to deal (ith chan%e more effecti#ely and more rapidly than its competitors (Millett -. and %ro(in% e!ports to )outh ast Asia& The company (as formed in the early -.t currently employs appro!imately NB/ people. and considers (hether these support the de#elopment of a learnin% or%anisation& Third.D$& .D/s and there are t(o manufacturin% sites in Australia& ./$ describes as ‘1 continually e!pandin% its capacity to create its future& .t is not enou%h to merely sur#i#e" (p& ->$& )trate%y is an inte%ral part of the learnin% process for a learnin% or%anisation because it focuses on the or%anisationAs de#elopment of core competencies..t also focuses the learnin% process on the desired future position that the or%anisation (ould like to be in& To this end./$& This has in#ol#ed transformational chan%e of the or%anisational structure. human resource practices. the or%anisation"s use of strate%y as a learnin% process is re#ie(ed& )econd..nformation about !co (as obtained throu%h company documents by a structured inter#ie( (ith the !co *+ Mana%er& The format of the inter#ie( is set out in Appendi! -& !co is a specialised manufacturer of products for minin%.n particular. as si%nificant le#ers that influence the learnin% processes at !co& .?$& +ather than focusin% on only one aspect of or%anisational chan%e.D$& .CO Many of the challen%es facin% !co are characteristic of most or%anisations in the -. o !. p& >. e<ually spread across the t(o manufacturin% sites STRATEGY AS A LEARNING PROCESS AT E. the paper looks at the or%anisational structures and systems in place at !co. in#ol#ed in the processes of transformation impro#ement& A %raphic representation of the !co plannin% process is in Appendi! N& The concept of plannin% as a learnin% process is emphasised by Arie de Heus (-.Journal of Management Practice Volume 2.t has a dominant market share in Australia. and technolo%y& This means that at all le#els of the or%anisation.J$& *e refers to the (ay ?> . both in the present and in the future (Millett -. the company has tried to de#elop a ‘1 dynamic and iterati#e process aimed at pro#idin% the or%anisation (ith a builtMin capacity to chan%e and redesi%n (itself$ continually as the circumstances demand" (7ummin%s & Iorley -.?. the paper e!plores the role of leadership and teams. <uarryin% and construction industries& .. !co has en%a%ed in a self: desi%n chan%e strate%y (7ummin%s & Iorley -. "### There is a considerable body of literature on the concept of the learnin% or%anisation.... employees ha#e been. but much of it is theoretical or prescripti#e& Gittle research has been undertaken about the practical impleme ntation of these ideas in firms& This paper defines the concept of the learnin% or%anisation and discusses the practical steps taken by a medium sized Australian company (referred to as !co$ to e#ol#e into a learnin% or%anisation& These steps are related to three main themes si%nificant to !coAs e#olution& 'irst. and are.t is no lon%er appropriate for mana%ers to take all the responsibility for implementin% or%anisational chan%e in response to rapid and comple! chan%es (ithin the en#ironment& ach indi#idual (ithin the or%anisation needs to be accountable and take responsibility for makin% the necessary chan%es (ithin their indi#idual (ork areas& They also need to share their kno(led%e (ith others in the or%anisation thus emphasisin% the notion of teams and team(o rk& These are ideals typical of an or%anisation aspirin% to de#elop a learnin% or%anisation& !co is a company that )en%e (-.

en#ironment. includin% a competition (ithin the company to find the best mission statement& There is particular emphasis on the or%anisationAs #alues& These (ere de#eloped in con@unction (ith the 7o#ey ?: *abits Pro%ram (7o#ey -. employees and suppliers thical and honest beha#iour in safety. health. )hell.s Visi #/ 0issi # a#" Val$es O$r Visi # (Ihere (e (ant to be$ . and a comprehensi#e trainin% pro%ram in (hich more than ei%hty percent of employees (ere e!posed to the 7o#ey principles& An mployee FpinionM7limate )ur#ey is conducted e#ery ei%hteen months to determine the e!tent to (hich people ‘buy in" to the #ision and mission. and to measure (hether there is con%ruence bet(een or%anisational #alues and the beliefs of indi#idual employees& The results of the most recent mployee FpinionM7limate )ur#ey are included in Appendi! >& 'urthermore. mission and #alues& A %raphic representation of these is included in Appendi! B& Table -: E'c .nternational leaders in the manufacture and application of ourproducts O$r 0issi # (*o( (e (ill %et there$ .D$& !co"s business strate%ies are stron%ly dri#en by its #ision and mission& The importance of the #ision is stron%ly emphasised in team meetin%s..De(eloping a %earning 'rganisation du Plessis.nno#ation : applyin% the creati#e talents of our people !cellence4 settin% hi%her standards in all our acti#ities )er#ice4 focusin% on the needs of our customers O$r Val$es 1G$i"i#g $r "ecisi #s a#" acti #s2 Trust and respect for people Personal %ro(th and leadership Team(ork (ith customers. used the corporate plannin% processes as a constructi#e and si%nificant (ay to promote learnin% at the strate%ic and operational le#els& The company"s #ision is central to definin% and de#elopin% the or%anisation& .. e#ery employee in the or%anisation has access to infor mation about the company"s performance #ia a centrally located noticeboard that is updated e#ery month& Table N belo( articulates the company"s #ision. du Plessis & Millett one of the (orldAs most successful companies. and business Profitability (ith all acti#ities addin% #alue !co"s mission emphasises learnin% principles of inno(ation and e)cellence* These concepts are reinforced in the or%anisation throu%h mission a(ards that aim to reco%nise e!ceptional contributions in the fields of inno#ation.>$. e!cellence and ser#ice& Particular emphasis is %i#en to team reco%nition& ?B .t is ‘an articulation of the core competence of the or%anisation" (Millett -. re%ular feedback sessions to staff and other types of communications& The #ision and mission (ere de#eloped after e!tensi#e consultation (ith employees.

D$. aimed at mo#in% the company to(ards its #ision..e do* )trate%ies supportin% this 7)' include4 the identification of impro#ement opportunities by measurin% and analysin% (ork processes6 ?J . usin% a ‘mana%ement for performance" pro%ram& The mission a(ard process that reco%nises indi#idual and team performance has (ide acceptance& The de#elopment of team purposes (mission statements$ is bein% e#ol#ed to obtain %reater in#ol#ement of all employees in continuous impro#ement. described by Dunphy & Hriffiths (-. profit$ and non: financial& !amples of non: financial measures are4 le#el of participation of people in continuous impro#ement pro@ects6 number of mission a(ards presented6 and le#el of employee satisfaction as measured in the employee culture sur#ey& T(o 7)'s in particular (. and as a launchin% point for team de#elopment& The 7o#ey pro%ram is seen as important in helpin% people to cope (ith si%nificant or%anisational chan%es that ha#e been implemented in recent years& 'or mana%ers. a coachin% skills pro%ram is bein% introduced to build on the learnin%.. fosterin% )en%e"s self mastery. "### A process of or%anisational rene(al. o !.Journal of Management Practice Volume 2.ho are committed to our (alues and (ision* )trate%ies supportin% the 7)' include4 the establishment of a (orkin% en#ironment attracti#e to employees6 takin% action to enable employees to de#elop their full potentia l6 and the commitment to de#elopin% effecti#e leadership& Pro%ress in this area has been positi#e& The 7o#ey ? *abits Pro%ram is bein% used as a foundation for de#elopin% people as indi#iduals. namely4 Critical S$ccess 3act r 1: Pe 4le +e must attract. and to achie#e a shared #ision& The mployee Fpinion M 7limate )ur#ey (ill pro#ide feedback on the abo#e& Critical S$ccess 3act r 5: C #ti#$ $s I%4r (e%e#t +e must entrench a culture of continuous impro(ement in e(erything . is mana%ed under the umbrella of 7ritical )uccess 'actors (7)'s$ and associated strate%ies& The 7)'s represent the core competencies of !co& ach 7)' is associated (ith a number of key performance measures& These measures are both financial (for e!ample. (as started in !co in -.and B$ are rele#ant to the e#olution of !co as a learnin% or%anisation. moti(ate and de(elop talented people .> (ith the implementation of a flatter or%anisational structure& The process continues throu%h ali%nment of the or%anisation to the !co #ision and mission by encoura%in% indi#idual teams to de#elop their o(n purpose (mission statements$ that ali%n (ith the company #ision& The implementation of business plans.

t is a ‘bottom: up process" in (hich indi#idual teams come to%ether to formulate future plans. in some instances.De(eloping a %earning 'rganisation du Plessis.t encoura%es people from different departments to (ork to%ether to sol#e specific problems& Teams are encoura%ed to take a systems approach to problem sol#in% and to use collecti#e thinkin% skills to build on the e!perience and creati#ity of indi#iduals& There are a number of cases (here cross: functional teams ha#e implemented inno#ati#e solutions to lon%: standin% problems pre#iously attempted on an indi#idual basis& The de#elopment of the !co business strate%y occurs on an annual basis& .uilding of a shared (ision. mission. based on their understandin% of the needs of the business& . refined and communicated back to indi#idual teams.or& 7han%e in the structure of the or%anisation has resulted in the de#elopment of a team:based structure& Team (ork is reinforced #ia the performance mana%ement system (hich assesses indi#idual and team performance& Members of all teams participate in an annual re#ie( process (here they complete a standardised <uestionnaire relatin% to their perceptions of each ?? .t also de#elops a collecti#e sense of identity (ith the or%anisation and its mission& !co has many of the characteristics of an e#ol#in% learnin% or%anisation& They appear to use strate%y effecti#ely as a learnin% process& This is illustrated by #arious initiati#es such as4 -ncouraging employees participation in the . du Plessis & Millett enablin% all employees to play an effecti#e role in continuous impro#ement6 and benchmarkin% key (ork processes& This 7)' is a dri#er for cross: functional team(ork in the or%anisation& . as (ell as in the (orkplace& The *+ Mana%er also felt that the pro%ram had influenced a number of indi#iduals (ho (ere pre#iously resistant to chan%e in (ork practices to support such chan%e and e#en.ndi#idual team plans are then consolidated by the mana%ement team.nformal feedback from employees to team leaders. the mana%ement team and the *+ Mana%er indicates that employees feel the 7o#ey pro%ram has helped them to cope (ith chan%e in their personal li#es. and #alues encoura%e a process of personal commitment on the part of the employees& . mission and (alue statement* mployees ‘buy: in" to this process #ia4 O O O the or%anisation of a competition to find the best mission statement supportin% the #ision6 e!tensi#e consultation (ith staff throu%h team meetin%s and feedback sessions durin% the #alues de#elopment process6 and the annual miss ion a(ard process reco%nisin% indi#idual and team effort in acti#ities contributin% to the achie#ement of the #ision. prior to bein% finalised at an annual mana%ement conference (hich takes place in Fctober& The strate%ic plannin% process is re#ie(ed annually and its effecti#eness is measured in a sur#ey& The !co #ision. mission and #alues& Facilitating Personal Mastery Much of this has centred around the use of the 7o#ey ?: *abits pro%ram to help employees achie#e personal mastery in their personal and (orkin% li#es& Measurin% the effecti#eness of this aspect of the 7o#ey pro%ram has not been easy& . to dri#e the chan%e& -ncouraging and de(eloping team .

employees need to share kno(led%e and information& Iithout the structure to support performance mana%ement and appropriate re(ard systems. cited in Millett -.. indi#iduals are more likely to compete (ith each other.D$& . therefore.. formal.Journal of Management Practice Volume 2. chan%e in the or%anisation"s systems such as the information systems. than share their kno(led%e& Fpenness ?D . and the decision makin% centralised. an or%anisational structure (hich is or%anic is more likely to de#elop an effecti#e open communication flo( bet(een mana%ement.f the structure of the or%anisation is hi%hly mechanistic.. human resource practices.. to help employees impro#e their team collaboration skills& Flattening the organisational structure The flatter or%anisational structure has allo(ed a lar%er number of employees to contribute to the de#elopment of the business strate%y& This is done on an annual basis usin% both a ‘bottom up" and ‘top do(n" process& .ndi#idual teams de#elop strate%ies and plans for functional areas (hich are then incorporated and formalised as an inte%ral part of the strate%ies and plans de#eloped by senior mana%ement& The flatter or%anisational structure has effecti#ely facilitated the communication process re<uired to ali%n business ob@ecti#es (ith functional team plans& /ritical $uccess Factors 0/$F1 and 2ey Performance Measures Apart from the o#erall 7)'s for the or%anisation. but includes many aspects of the or%anisation such as the or%anisational structure. affect the de#elopment of the or%anisation as a learnin% or%anisation (Millett -./$& At this sta%e they need to continue on their path of ‘continuous impro#ement" usin% the strate%ies they ha #e in place& LEARNING STRUCTURES AND SYSTE0S AT E.D$& *o(e#er. and technolo%y& !co has tried to use this process as ‘1 a dynamic and iterati#e process aimed at pro#idin% the or%anisation (ith a built Min capacity to chan%e and redesi%n themsel#es continually as the circumstances demand" (7ummin%s & Iorley -. and policies and production systems (ould all ha#e an impact on the or%anisation"s structure and this (ould. facilitated by the *+ mana%er and other members of the or%anisation. able to determine the impact of their acti#ities on the success of the team and hence the o#erall business& !co has already successfully implemented a selfMdesi%n chan%e strate%y& The stren%th of this approach is that it does not focus only on one aspect of the or%anisational transformation. then indi#idual learnin% and or%anisational learnin% (ill not be de#eloped (Burns & )talker -.D$& +ather than focussin% on indi#idualism. in turn. human resource practices. "### of their fello( team members" performanc e& 'eedback from other team members is %i#en to the team as a (hole. at their annual performance assessment inter#ie(& There is also an e!tensi#e trainin% pro%ram.N$& )harin% kno(led%e horizontally and #ertically is a fundamental aspect of the learnin% or%anisation (Millett -. employees. o !.. in place (ithin the or%anisation are linked& 'or e!ample.CO The or%anisation"s structure and systems are an inte%ral part of fosterin% the de#elopment of a learnin% or%anisation& . customers and competitors (McHill & )locum -. p& >. and the indi#idual.J-. each team has de#eloped a ‘sub: set" of financial and non: financial 7)'s applicable to their functional area& Team performance is assessed on the achie#ement of key performance measures supportin% their team 7)'s& 'unctional teams are. remuneration and re(ards procedure.t is not possible to chan%e one (ithout affectin% chan%e in the other& The structure and systems.?.

a learnin% process of continuous impro#ement is encoura%ed& 'ailure is part of the learnin% process if. treatin% them as skilled and competent6 listenin% to and #aluin% (hat employees say. rather than directs. should not feel isolated but part of the structure (Black & )ynan -.mpro#ement )ystem (FP. this need is increased& *o(e#er.. and the mana%er coaches. (hen it occurs.. in keepin% (ith the concept of a learnin% or%anisation.n a recent DD. inc ludin% those in the middle and lo(er le#els of the or%anisation.nno#ation .$ Mana%ers style 'acilitator 'acilitate cross:functional team 7oachin% style processes 7oachin% skills trainin% Gearnin% systems 7ontinual learnin% and double loop 7ontinual learnin% encoura%ed learnin% -3:step process for team (ork and shared (ision 7o#ey pro%ram supports )en%e"s B disciplines Gearnin% process de#e lopin% ?.nstead of reducin% the need fo r super#ision and control mechanisms. decentralised structure Dynamic net(orks E(i"e#ce ! characteristics ! a lear#i#g rga#isati # at E'c 'lat structure 7ross functional teams Autonomous team leaders Business computer system !tensi#e use of e:mail 7o#ey ?:habits practised A#ailability of )ystems in place to make information information freely a#ailable Trust culture *i%h le#el of trust $elf mastery practised 7ommunication Decentralised communication processes Fpen communication process 'lat structure .J.nno#ation and e!perimentation is also an inte%ral part of the learnin% or%anisation because instead of (aitin% for a problem to occur. e#aluation takes place and the same mistakes are not repeated (Iard & Eictor -. cited in Millett -. du Plessis & Millett and sharin% needs to be encoura%ed& ... it se#erely restricts indi#idual autonomy and decision makin%& . employees (Millett -. (ithout distortin% information6 sho(in% confidence in employees" abilities.D$ found that there (ere fi#e (ays of buildin% trust (ithin an or%anisation& These (ere4 communicatin% openly and honestly (ith employees.J$& Table 6: Characteristics ! the E'c Orga#isati #al Str$ct$re as a Lear#i#g Orga#isati # Ele%e#t Characteristics ! a lear#i#g rga#isati # Fr%anisational 'lat hierarchy..nno#ation and risk takin% encoura%ed .De(eloping a %earning 'rganisation du Plessis.D$& .D$& All employees. . the or%anisation structure is flatter. Hill (-. Asia Pacific sur#ey.f the or%anisational structure is formal and hi%hly bureaucratic. e#en thou%h mana%ement may not a%ree6 keepin% promises and commitments6 and cooperatin% (ith staff and lookin% for (ays that each could help the other (p& ->$& .nno#ation part of mission Mission a(ards process Dynamic cross:functional teams Fpportunity for .

.n the !co Geadership Model. "### As can be seen in the summary pro#ided by Table >. and encoura%in% and moti#atin% indi#iduals to learn themsel#es& The leader in a learnin% or%anisation also needs to be a team player. !co has many of the structural and system characteristics discussed abo#e (hich are supporti#e of the de#elopment of a learnin% or%anisation& This has not happened o#erni%ht.CO Millett (-. and a team: based structure has been established& 7ritical business functions like production.D$ identified t(o ma@or differences bet(een the traditional #ie( of leadership and the leader in a learnin% or%anisation& The traditional #ie( of leaders (as that indi#iduals (ere charismatic and had certain personality traits that promote follo(ship& The leader also made decisions for the or%anisation #ia their o(n learnin% e!periences. some of it of a sensiti#e business nature& A comprehensi#e trainin% pro%ram is currently under(ay to ensure that all !co employees are able to use the ne( information system effecti#ely& The effecti#eness of !co"s information and analysis processes is re#ie(ed annually usin% a process based on the Australian =uality 7ouncil A(ards (A=A$ methodolo%y& The ob@ecti#es include tryin% to continually impro#e the companyAs score in the process on the @ourney to best practice& LEADERS)IP/ TEA0S AND T)E LEARNING PROCESSES IN E. in a learnin% or%anisation the leader is seen to be more of a facilitator of learnin%. <uality assurance. (ho introduce. the !co or%anisational structure has been flattened. there is e#idence of !co de#e lopin% a community of leaders& The !co leadership model is based on 7o#ey"s Principle: 7entered Geadership (7o#ey -. rather than a plannin% and controllin% role& +ather than #ie(in% leadership bein% the ‘responsibility" of a sin%le indi#idual.Journal of Management Practice Volume 2. leadin% by e!ample. but it has been de#eloped o#er a period of appro!imately four years& Durin% this period. such as business unit mana%ers. o !. and implement ideas6 e)ecuti(e top4le(el leaders3managers (ho mentor the local: line leaders. and (ho influence cultural chan%e by settin% an e!ample by chan%in% their o(n beha#iour and that of the top: le#el teams6 and internal net. )en%e (-.or&ers 5 often these employees ha#e no formal authority.3$& This approach is one in (hich e#eryone in the or%anisation understands and acts accordin% to a consistent set of principles..J$& *o(e#er. and purchasin% are mana%ed by cross: functional teams led by nominated team leaders& A communication process has been established to ensure that all teams ha#e access to the information they need to do their @ob& A ne( business computer system has recently been installed& An e!tensi#e net(ork of computer terminals ensures that e#eryone has access to critical information& mployees at !co no( ha#e access to a #ast ran%e of information. ho(e#er. (hich they then used to influence other members in order to achie#e company %oals ()en%e -. they mo#e throu%h the or%anisation fosterin% commitment to ne( ideas and practices& . takin% on a mentorin% and coachin% role.?$ su%%ests that an or%anisation needs to build a community of leaders (ithin the company& The community of leaders comprises of4 local line leaders3managers (ith si%nificant bottom: line responsibility.. thus %i#in% the or%anisation a consistent sense of direction (ali%nment$& The Principle: 7entered Geadership model (P7G$ is sho(n in fi%ure -& D/ . as (ell as in the data collected..

Ke( Lork& The P7G Model states that the role of leaders is to4 create an e!citin% #ision for the or%anisation6 achie#e and maintain a (ise and rene(in% balance bet(een professional and personal areas of life6 empo(er and unify e#eryone in an or%anisation around a shared #ision6 create team spirit and harmony amon% disparate factions in the or%anisation6 maintain stability (hile encoura%in% chan%e.3$& McBain and 9usy (-.ILLS PEOPLE E0PO<ER0ENT TRUST SEL3 'ireside Press.ho see themsel(es and . S. Principle /entered %eadership.?$ define a team as4 a collection of indi(iduals .ho manage their relationships across organisational . fle!ibility.ho are seen . #iz& site based production teams.3. cross: functional business mana%ement teams and pro@ect mana%ement teams (particularly in the D- .ility for outcomes.oundaries (p& 3-$& There are three broad types of teams in !co. du Plessis & Millett 3ig$re 1: The C (e7 Pri#ci4le 8 Ce#tere" Lea"ershi4 0 "el C$st %er 9 Other Sta:eh l"er Nee"s STRATEGY STRUCTURE SYSTE0S PRINCIPLES ORGANISATIONAL Share" 0issi #/ Visi # a#" Val$es ALIGN0ENT STYLE RL 0A N A GE IA INTERPERSONAL S NAL TRUST<ORT)Y PER O )ource4 7o#ey. )&+& -.ho are interdependent in their tas&s. ...edded in one or more larger social systems 5 and .ho share responsi.De(eloping a %earning 'rganisation du Plessis. and continuous impro#ement6 turn a company mission statement into a collecti#e and personal constitution6 and culti#ate trust(orthiness / (hich is foundational to trust in business relationships (7o#ey -. ..y others as an intact social entity em.

D$& !co is tryin% to become a ‘kno(led%e:creatin%" company (hose business is continuous inno#ation (Konaka -.>. teams and functions in !co$& A core part of the 7o#ey pro%ram is to teach people to learn personal mastery . and to pro#ide on:%oin% trainin% in team(ork& Trainin% mentors ha#e been appointed (ithin the teams to assist the team leaders in occupational health and safety. but the indi#idual teams need on%oin% support& 7ross: functional business mana%ement teams ha#e only been in place for about ei%hteen months and senior and middle mana%ement are pro#idin% on%oin% support to ensure that team effecti#eness continues to impro#e& Pro@ect teams ha#e been particularly successful at !co (du Plessis -.?. learnin% ho( to learn5rather than simply recei#in% trainin% in a particular area (Prusal -.. and then disband at the end& Appendi! 3 illustrates the cross: functional teams operatin% across functions on the t(o sites& )elf: directed production (ork tea ms (ere established about fi#e years a%o (Iellins -..B$& At the end of each pro@ect a learnin% pro@ect is set up to re#ie( the effecti#eness of the pro@ect and to lock in the or%anisational learnin% (hich is used to impro#e the effecti#eness of the ne!t pro@ect (du Plessis -. indi#iduals and teams are able to participate in the on%oin% e#aluation and cha n%e of any aspect of the business& They are.J$& A pro@ect approach such as this has the effect of stimulatin% effecti#e learnin% (ithin the or%anisation (Millett -..J$& D3 ..D$& Production shifts ha#e been di#ided into a number of teams rotatin% around the #arious manufacturin% operations& The teams are multi: skilled to ensure that appropriately skilled operators are a#ailable to respond to a fle!ible production schedule& ach team has a team leader reportin% directly to the production mana%er& This approach eliminates a layer of mana%ement and empo(ers the operators& An e!ternal consultant (as hired to facilitate the implementation of the production teams& Trainin% sessions (ere held to teach people about ho( to (ork in teams& The proposal to chan%e to a team based structure (as not enthusiastically recei#ed by operators& Many (ere comfortable (ith e!istin% (orkin% arran%ements and felt threatened by the chan%es& . cited in Millett -.s$ )ystem.Journal of Management Practice Volume 2.D$& The process of establishin% a team: based culture at !co took place in parallel (ith the implementation of the 7o#ey ?: habits pro%ram& This (as aimed at buildin% trust bet(een people in the or%anisation ( mployee FpinionM7limate )ur#ey results had sho(n that there (as a relati#ely lo( le#el of trust bet(een indi#iduals.t has led to a more fle!ible (ork force. cited in Millett -. <uality system and (ork process trainin%& At this sta%e the production teams are considered a success& . system. "### area of ne( product de#elopment and en%ineerin%$& The production and business mana%ement teams are relati#ely stable in their composition& Pro@ect teams are dynamic and come to%ether for the duration of a pro@ect. is also a process encoura%in% e!perimentation and empo(erment of the indi#iduals and teams& Iith the F'.mpro#ement (F'..3$& .ndi#idual and %roup counsellin% sessions (ere arran%ed to assist people to embrace team(ork& A permanent facilitator assists the team leaders to plan their (ork.. therefore. o !..nno#ation is a core element of the !co mission and indi#iduals and teams are re(arded for these acti#ities throu%h mission a(ards (includes financial re(ards$& The Fpportunities for .. to take control of their (orkin% en#ironment and contribute in a meanin%ful (ay to the effecti#eness of !co& Personal mastery is an essential prere<uisite of buildin% trust in the or%anisation ()en%e -. deal (ith performance and conflict issues..

?$& The elements of the -3: step process are listed in Table B& The ob@ecti#e of the !co -3: )tep De#elopment Process is to ensure that teams ha#e4 clear.De(eloping a %earning 'rganisation du Plessis. Best Practices Pty& To ensure on%oin% support of both cross: functional business pro@ect and self:directed production teams. .?. The "24$tep Team De(elopment Process Gtd&. creati#ity.nerney -. has yet to de#elop& . decision makin%. dia%nosis.!amine e!ternal boundaries and ho( the team interacts (ith other teams )tep -3 De#elop (ays to monitor and measure team performance )ource4 Mc. )ydney& .D$ feels the term ‘action learnin%" most accurately describes mana%ement"s role in the process of linkin% action.. %oals and ali%nment.. the !co mana%ement team.t is in DN . p&-3 cited in Millett -. a coachin% skills pro%ram is bein% introduced& Table 5: The E'c 1&=Ste4 Tea% De(el 4%e#t Pr cess )tep . purposeCmission (a reason for bein% a team$6 clear. and do...D/. teams ha#e not been able to master team learnin% processes& Team learnin% processes like the -3: )tep De#elopment Process ha#e tended to be formal. Fr%anisational 7onsultants. learnin% ‘facts" about ho( teams should (ork to%ether& Team learnin% and inno#ation. and ne%otiatin% (Ieekes -. sprin%in% from collecti#e learnin%.D.Define the team"s boundaries )tep 3 Determine ho( the team (ill (ork (ithin the boundaries )tep N !p lore ho( the team (ill mana%e information )tep > 'ocus on team leadership issues )tep B . and (ell understood. p& -/&. e!perience and learnin%& The mana%ers need to be able to self:de#elop indi#idually and learn from their collea%ues (hile (orkin% on real pro@ects (ithin the or%anisation& The skills they de#elop include fact findin%. +& -. has recently implemented a -3:step team trainin% process facilitated by an e!ternal consultant (Mc. impro#e thin%s& !perience (ith the !co -3: )tep De#elopment Process sho(s that althou%h it has been effecti#e in establishin% team purposes. realistic and achie#able %oals6 hi%h performance standards set by the team6 ability to learn from e!perience6 effecti#e communications of ideas and feelin%s6 and the team takes control of their (ork <uality 5 they can. du Plessis & Millett The role of mana%ers in the team:based or%anisation has chan%ed from one of control to that of facilitation and coachin%& The role of middle and senior mana%ers is to facilitate the (ork of cross: functional teams and to act as coaches and mentors to indi#iduals& Millett (-.n#ent a team maturity matri! to plot team %ro(th )tep -/ Gearn ho( to hold team meetin%s )tep -.n#esti%ate indi#idual and team moti#ators )tep J stablish the skills M technical and team(ork re<uired for success )tep ? Iork out ho( the team (ill mana%e e<uipment and technolo%y )tep D Iork out ho( the team (ill mana%e confusion and tension )tep .nerney.$& To ensure that mana%ers ha#e the skills for these ne( roles.

. (hich can be used by either an e!ternal or internal consultant to determine the in#entory of an or%anisation"s or team"s use of specific learnin% practices& The resultin% profile. in turn. sho(n in Table J. becomes effecti#e action& Bohlin and Brenner (-. desi%ned to create kno(led%e and a learnin% climate (hich. o !.Journal of Management Practice Volume 2.n a spirit of openness measure and re#ie( pre#ious results and look for learnin% on ho( to do it better in the future6 conductin% collecti#e reflection& +eflect on past and present acti#ities and seek impro#ements in learnin% processes (p& J/$& Bohlin and Brenner (-. usin% common tools6 producin% ali%ned action& nsurin% that pla ns and actions are ali%ned (ith the or%anisation"s %oals6 performin% @oint re#ie(& .B$ ha#e identified practices (hich support the team learnin% process4 %eneratin% shared a(areness& 7ontinually assimilatin% internal and e!terna l information about problems and opportunities6 creatin% a common understandin%& 7on#er%e on a common understandin% of the key problems and opportunities and openly discuss options for action. "### the area of team learnin% that !co has the most (ork to do in order to become a hi%hly effecti#e learnin% or%anisation& )uccessful team learnin% is a purposeful approach. pro#ides a sense of assessin% (here the teams percei#e %aps bet(een the current position and the desired position& The size of the %ap indicates the priority for correcti#e action& Table J has only been used to illustrate the model.B$ ha#e also de#eloped a useful tool to summarise current learnin% practices& Table J sho(s the instrument.. and is not a reflection of priority areas for a specific team at !co& D> .

leadership. it is recommended that !co use the beha#ioural approach described by Bohlin and Brenner (-. as (ell as 7ummin%s and Iorley (-. team learnin% has three critical dimensions4 the need to think insi%htfully about comple! issues (many minds are more intelli%ent than a sin%le mind$6 the need for inno#ati#e coordinated action6 and understandin% that most outcomes are achie#ed in collaboration (ith other teams and a learnin% team fosters other learnin% teams and spreads the practices and skills of learnin% teams more (idely& Team learnin% does not occur in isolation& . decision:makin%. Ma&ing it +or&.ts ma@or stren%th is that it effecti#ely performs an analysis of the teamAs stren%ths and (eaknesses& This information %uides the de#elopment of strate%ies to impro#e the team learnin% processes& Accordin% to )en%e (-.t is in this area that !co needs an inter#ention strate%y& 'or this reason. indi#idual attitudes and the culture (ithin the or%anisation can either encoura%e or hinder learnin%& . 7ambrid%e. Third =uarter.?$. mana%er: subordinate. in Prism. ‘Measurin% Gearnin%4 Assessin% and Ealuin% Pro%ress". the support structures.B. 8)A& 8sin% this model (ith any team in the or%anisation pro#ides a #aluable snapshot of the perceptions of the team members of their team"s learnin% practice profile& . Arthur D& Gittle./$. and interdepartmentally& The same process is used to consider ho( si! mana%erial tasks are handled (ithin the or%anisation& These tasks include inno#atin%..B$. du Plessis & Millett Table >: The B hli# 9 Bre##er Lear#i#g Practice Pr !ile Lear#i#g 4ractice 4r !ile L + )igh Creati#g share" a+are#ess De(el 4i#g c %% # $#"ersta#"i#g Ta:i#g alig#e" acti # C #"$cti#g ? i#t re(ie+ C #"$cti#g c llecti(e re!lecti # Percei(e" Desire" !$t$re c$rre#t 4 siti # 4 siti # )ource4 Bohlin & Brenner -. The %earning 'rganisation6 Ma&ing it 7appen.. Presence of specific learnin% practices DB .De(eloping a %earning 'rganisation du Plessis...ndi#idual and %roup skills. peer. as the most practical inter#ention strate%y& This approach looks at ho( tasks are mana%ed and ho( the relationships are mana%ed (ithin the or%anisation& This includes holdin% a series of %roup and ind i#idual inter#ie(s to determine ho( four key relationships are mana%ed 5 company5(ide.

the team can be asked to illustrate. and in the case of ‘rein#entin% (heels" the or%anisation takes action. fire.D$ feels the term ‘action learnin%" most accurately describes mana%ement"s role in the process of linkin% action... usin% the information %athered.B. 7ambrid%e. Third =uarter.?$& The %roup inter#ie(s are conducted (ith team members (here the purpose of the inter#ie( is to recall incidents (here chan%e took place rapidly.. e!perience and learnin%& Mana%ers are able to self:de#elop indi#idually and learn from their collea%ues (hile (orkin% on real pro@ects (ithin the DJ . the mana%ers play an important linkin% and facilitatin% role& Millett (-. aim. but does not seem to learn from the results& This could be because the or%anisation does not ha#e the appropriate or ade<uate measurement. p& 3-? cited in Millett -. as (ell as the insi%hts %ained by the team member (ho under(ent the initial trainin%& The purpose of both the %roup inter#ie(s and the indi#idual inter#ie(s is to look for patterns of consistently broken learnin% cycles& Three possible patterns of learnin% could emer%e M ‘analysis paralysis". aim" and ‘rein#entin% the (heel" (Bohlin & Brenner -. "### communicatin%. p& JJ& A learnin% assessment e!ercise such as the beha#ioural approach described abo#e pro#ides a baseline of learnin% practices a%ainst (hich to e#aluate pro%ress& Iithout establishin% effecti#e team dialo%ue the team (ill continue to operate as indi#iduals and not e!plore the reasonin% of others to disco#er ne( possibilities (Ge#ine -. and appraisin%Cre(ardin% (7ummin%s & Iorley -. ‘Measurin% Gearnin%4 Assessin% and Ealuin% Pro%ress".. The %earning 'rganisation6 Ma&ing it 7appen. after they ha#e been trained in the principles of learnin%& These indi#iduals then conduct structured inter#ie(s (ith their other team members (ith the #ie( to identifyin% learnin% practices and climate factors& An action plan is de#eloped by the team members. Arthur D& Gittle. monitorin%.>.ac& action a(areness no common understanding understandin% understandin% )ource4 Bohlin & Brenner -. infers there is plenty of action. p& JJ$& . information is al(ays bein% %athered. and feedback systems& 3ig$re &: I#c %4lete Lear#i#g C7cles A#al7sis Paral7sis no action a(areness Rea"7/ 3ire/ Ai% Rei#(e#ti#g <heels action a(areness no feed. and the team (as able to master the ne( process& Alternati#ely. 8)A.n the case of the teams thou%h.B. Ma&ing it +or& .D$& *o(e#er.n the case of ‘analysis paralysis". (ith an e!ample. but nothin% actually happens (ith it& The ‘ready.Journal of Management Practice Volume 2. in Prism.. o !. re#ie(. the learnin% process should be an e#eryday acti#ity (ithin a learnin% or%anisation& . but little analysis and plannin%.. fire scenario". (hen best practice (as successfully diffused rapidly throu%hout the or%anisation& A sin%le member of each team conducts indi#idual inter#ie(s. ‘ready. or%anisin%.

and employee support is hi%h (confirmed in re%ular climate sur#eys$& Team %earning 5 an or%anisation structure (hich promotes team(ork and trainin% in team skills& Mental Models 5 this aspects is less de#eloped. rather than a directi#e style of leadership& The leadership in !co has been #ery effecti#e in unitin% the or%anisation around a shared #ision and enhancin% the spirit of team(ork in the company& These obser#ations are confirmed by the positi#e trends in the mployee Fpinion: 7limate )ur#ey (see Appendi! >$& !co does appear to be fosterin% the de#elopment of a community of leaders ()en%e -.?$& This approach looks at ho( tasks are mana%ed. decision:makin%. and ne%otiatin% (Ieekes -.De(eloping a %earning 'rganisation du Plessis. (ith each team to pro#ide a snapshot of each teams perceptions of the %aps in their use of specific learnin% practices& The size of the %ap (ill indicate a specific team"s priority for correcti#e action& The most practical inter#ention strate%y recommended for use by !co is the beha#ioural approach described by Bohlin and Brenner (-.B$.. and appraisin%Cre(ardin%& A learnin% assessment e!ercise such as the Beha#ioural Approach also pro#ides a baseline of learnin% practices a%ainst (hich to e#aluate pro%ress& SU00ARY@CONCLUSIONS !co e!hibits many of the attributes of a learnin% or%anisation.. but did not de#elop the team learnin% processes& 'or this reason it is su%%ested that !co use the Bohlin and Brenner Gearnin% Practice Profile (-. creati#ity. namely4 Personal mastery 5 pro#idin% people (ith ne( life skills throu%h the 7o#ey ?:habits pro%ram& $hared Vision 8 the deployment of the company #ision. (hich (as effecti#e in establishin% team purposes. but is bein% promoted throu%h trainin% in team skills D? .D$& Throu%h a process of coachin% and mentorin%. cited in Millett. they are then able to facilitate or%anisational and team learnin%& There is a stron% commitment to the P7G model in !co by all employees& Most mana%ers ha#e attended an e!ternal leadership course in (hich feedback is %i#en about their o(n leadership style& Mana%ers are encoura%ed to adopt a coachin% and mentorin% style.. %oals and ali%nment. mana%er: subordinate. monitorin%. peer.?$& *o(e#er. mission and #alues is enthusiastically promoted by mana%ement. and ho( the relationships are mana%e d (ithin the or%anisation& This includes holdin% a series of %roup and indi#idual inter#ie(s to determine ho( four key relationships are mana%ed M company5(ide..D/. -. du Plessis & Millett or%anisation& The skills they de#elop include fact findin%.B$ as (ell as 7ummin%s and Iorley (-. decision makin%. dia%nosis. and interdepartmentally& The same process is used to consider ho( si! mana%erial tasks are handled (ithin the or%anisation& These tasks include inno#atin%.. or%anisin%. communicatin%. the cross: functional mana%ement teams and self:directed teams ha#e needed more support& An e!ternal consultant (as employed by !co to assist (ith team trainin% and de#elopment& The consultant used the -3:)tep Team De#elopment Process.

its of 7ighly -ffecti(e People .J.Journal of Management Practice Volume 2. "### $ystems Thin&ing 5 this aspect is the least de#eloped of all the attributes& The !co mana%ement team has taken a practical. )&+& -.t is clear that !co has done a %reat deal to establish a structure.B& du Plessis. The Business Gibrary. 'rganisational De(elopment and /hange )outh:Iest Publishin% 7ompany. Ma&ing it +or&. Proceedin%s of the )econd Asia Pacific 7onference on +apid Product De#elopment..B. P& -. pp& . ‘Measurin% Gearnin%4 Assessin% and Ealuin% Pro%ress". and culture to encoura%e an on%oin% learnin% process& 'rom the data %athered it appears that the company has been less effecti#e at encoura%in% teams and indi#iduals to use team learning & The main reason for this is because there is %reat skill #ariability in terms of coachin% and mentorin% amon%st the middle and senior mana%ement %roup& The company is tryin% to address this issue. du Plessis.. Principle /entered %eadership. 8)A& 7o#ey. 'ireside Press. in 9& )tarkey& (ed&$. Jth edn&. system. ‘Gearnin% from Product De#elopment Pro@ects".. 7o.. D&*& & )ynan. Gondon.. The %earning 'rganisation6 Ma&ing it 7appen. Third =uarter. lon%: term approach to de#elop the company into a learnin% or%anisation& The or%anisation structure has been flattened and a team approach is encoura%ed& . ..J.t has an effecti#e business plannin% process based on clearly articulated 7ritical )uccess 'actors (7)'s$ (ith their associated key performance measures. Arthur D& Gittle. o !. 7incinnati& De Heus A& -. ‘The 7han%in% Practices of Fr%anisational De#elopment". ‘Plannin% as Gearnin%". 7&D& -. pp& N>:NB& Bohlin & Brenner -. M&P& -..J& DD . )&+& -.3: . Proceedin%s of the 'irst Asia Pacific 7onference on +apid Product De#elopment. includin% both financial and non: financial measures& 'urther (ork is re<uired to encoura%e teams and indi#iduals to use team learnin% to de#elop skills in systems thinkin%& The de#elopment of competencies in these t(o areas (ill allo( !co employees to make an e#en %reater contribution to fosterin% the de#elopment of a learnin% or%anisation and the future success of the company& ..>. T&H& & Iorley. The : 7a.. Australia )eptember -. M&P& -.. 'rganisations %earn. no& B. Ke( Lork& 7o#ey.J. 7ambrid %e. Melbourne& 7ummin%s. Eol& ?>. in Prism. Australia )eptember -. (ith the coachin% skills pro%ram& RE3ERENCES Black. ‘+een%ineerin% the Product De#elopment 'unction".?.3.& .. Brisbane. Management 9ccounting.nternational Thomson Business Press.B. Brisbane.

pp& -:-B& Hill.in The $ustaina.D. 7&9& & *amel. 'rganisations %earn. . Eol& -J. no& >. pp& ?. ‘8nlearnin% the Fr%anisation". ‘The Gearnin% Fr%anisation4 )ome +eflections on Fr%anisational +ene(al. Allen & 8n(in. Eol& . DoubledayC7urrency.: . Eol& ...B. Gondon& Prahalad. ‘Dri#e Fut the 'ear". .. no& N.D.e(ie.. The %earning 'rganisation6 Ma&ing it 7appen. +& & 9usy.?. . ‘7reatin% a Gearnin% Fr%anisation". Business . Gondon& D.?. Millett. B& -. P& -. in Prism. pp& N/:N3& 7ar(ard Business . The Fifth Discipline Field. Geadin% Gearnin% Fr%anisations.nternational Thomson Business Press.nerney./. Har#in./.N.. Eol& . . Ko#ember... Training and De(elopment . )ydney. The "24$tep Team De(elopment Process Fr%anisational 7onsultants. Australia. P& -. du Plessis & Millett Dunphy. in 7o. Team Gearnin% and Gearnin% Fr%anisations . ‘*ard(irin% the Gearnin% Fr%anisation". A&K& & Bra%ar. Melbourne.nternational Thomson Business Press.J. -. +& -. B-./.... D& & Hriffiths.-& +eddin%. 8ni#ersity of )outhern =ueensland& Kayak. Ma&ing it +or& Third =uarter.. P& -. A& -. . P&G& -. Ke( Lork& )tarkey& 9& -.3. The Australian *uman +esource .J. Best Practices Pty& Gtd&. Arthur D& Gittle. pp& -/: --& )en%e.D. pp& -?:3B& McBain. pp& 3/: N-& McHill. 7hapter .?.B. Monthly . 'rganisations %earn . ..De(eloping a %earning 'rganisation du Plessis.J. no& 3. 9& )tarkey (ed&$.. . A& -. P&+. Autumn& Mc.?.e(ie. ‘The Fr%anisational +ene(al Mo#ement4 'rom *eresies to Frthodo!ies and Beyond". H& -. 7. pp& J-:J?& 7ar(ard .. Manager <pdate . P&I& -. 7ambrid%e. %eadership & 'rganisation De(elopment Journal . )ydney& 'rganisation Dynamics.. 7o. ‘Fn Team ffecti#eness. )en%e. P& -. Ke( Lork& )en%e. ‘The 7ore 7ompetence of the 7orporation. I&D& -.. Maira. no& D. Managing the Processes of 'rganisational /hange and De(elopment6 $tudy Boo&. no& B. Eol& -N.nstitute. M& -. -)ecuti(e -)cellence ..le /orporation. pp&->:-B& *itt. P& -. )en%e. M& & & )locum. ‘The 9no(led%e :creatin% 7ompany". no& D. D&A&.. The Fifth Discipline6 The 9rt & Practice of the %earning 'rganisation DoubledayC7urrency.oo& . Eol& ?B. 8)A Konaka. ‘7ommunities of Geaders and Gearners".

s it effecti#eQ Does the or%anisation stick to its plansQ Do employees ha#e responsibility for their o(n learnin%Q Do they ha#e autonomy to make decisions re their o(n (ork processesQ As (ell as in other parts of the or%anisationQ Do you feel that the team structure in operation at !co (orks (ellQ IhyQ *o( (as the team structure de#elopedQ Do you use a system of mentorin% at !coQ *o( (ould you describe the or%anisational culture at !coQ Do you ha#e any means of measurin% this at !coQ Iould you characterise !co as ha#in% a hi%h trust culture encoura%in% employee e!perimentation (ith (ork processes & practicesQ IhyQ Do you belie#e !co is continually e#aluatin% ho( it does thin%s (ith respect to all parts of the or%anisation and its operationQ *o(Q Does it make a differenceQ Do you belie#e the or%anisational structures and systems at !co encoura%e effecti#e learnin% at !co at an indi#idual le#elQ A team le#elQ And the or%anisation as a (holeQ Do you belie#e !co effecti#ely accesses the kno(led%e and skills of all of its employeesQ *o(Q . o !./ .Journal of Management Practice Volume 2. "### A44e#"i' 1 Str$ct$re" i#ter(ie+ +ith the E'c )R 0a#ager Are you familiar (ith the concept of a learnin% or%anisationQ Ihat do you understand by the concept of a learnin% or%anisationQ Does !co ha#e a #isionQ Ihat is the or%anisation tryin% to achie#eQ Ihat sort of or%anisation is !co tryin% to buildQ *o( is !co tryin% to achie#e thisQ 7an you %i#e me some e!amplesQ Ihat role does plannin% play at !coQ .s this importantQ *o( (ould you characterise communication at !co bet(een Mana%ement mployees 7ustomers .

De(eloping a %earning 'rganisation du Plessis. du Plessis & Millett 7ompetitors *o( (ould you describe the leadership styles of mana%ers at !coQ 1AB )a(e the %a#agers $#"erg #e a#7 trai#i#g rece#tl7C A44e#"i' & The Cr ss=3$#cti #al Tea% Str$ct$re at E'c !co Mana%ement Team 7ross 'unctional Production Team .- .

Journal of Management Practice Volume 2.3 . o !. "### A44e#"i' The E'c Pla##i#g Pr cess 7)'s Pe 4le C$st %ers Gr +th Lea"ershi4 Be#ch%ar:i#g Tech# l g7 C #ti#$ $s I%4r (e%e#t Visi # Visi # Visi # SB)B 9 EB Val$e A""i#g Relati #s 0eas$res ! Per! r%a#ce .

N .De(eloping a %earning 'rganisation du Plessis. du Plessis & Millett A44e#"i' 6 Res$lts ! the E'c E%4l 7ee O4i#i #= Cli%ate S$r(e7 S$r(e7 3ee"bac: Lea"ershi4 I#( l(e%e#t < r: Per!B E#(ir #%e#t Re+ar" Tea%+ r: Lear#i#g D 1D &D -D 6D 5D >D ED FD AD Percenta%e (R$ Year 1 Year& .

> .Journal of Management Practice Volume 2. o !. "### A44e#"i' 5 E'c Visi #/ 0issi # a#" Val$es Ealues Eision 7)'As Ealues Plans I## (ati # E'celle#ce Ser(ice .