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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 33, NO. 4, JULY/AUGUST 1997

An Improved High-Resolution Hybrid Stepper Motor for Solar-Array Drive of Indian Remote-Sensing Satellite
K. R. Rajagopal, M. Krishnaswamy, Bhim Singh, and B. P. Singh, Senior Member, IEEE
Abstract— This paper presents the computer-aided design and development of an improved 720-steps hybrid stepper motor used as the drive motor for the solar array of the Indian remotesensing (IRS) satellite in the polar sun-synchronous orbit. The motor is of pancake type with coil redundancy, and the step angle is 0.5 . It is designed to deliver a constant holding torque of 1 N1m against a varying dc supply voltage of 28–42 V and in an operating temperature range from 010  C to +60  C. The authors introduce a phenomenon named as “torque saturation,” achievable in a hybrid stepper motor by properly choosing the operating point of the rotor permanent magnet and the stator winding configuration. Apart from the computer-aided design procedure, relevant details regarding fabrication and testing are also provided. The test results of the developed motor match fairly with the computed values and confirm the high performance of the developed hybrid stepper motor. Index Terms— Aerospace, design, motor, permanent magnet, step, stepper, stepping.

throughout the life span of ten years and also to avoid unpredictable and intolerable disturbances to the satellite, the stepper motor is required to deliver a constant torque. This is a necessity, irrespective of the fact that the permanent magnet and the copper windings used in the stepper motor are sensitive to both the varying temperature and dc supply voltage. The following sections describe the requirements of the solar-panel drive scheme and the methodology adopted for the design and development of the improved high-performance hybrid stepper motor. II. POWER SYSTEM
IN THE

IRS SATELLITE

I. INTRODUCTION HE Indian remote-sensing (IRS) satellite is provided with two solar panels, one on each side, for generation of power for onboard applications. These panels convert solar energy into electrical energy, which is stored in the Ni–Cd batteries. The orbital time of the IRS satellite is 102 min and, during one orbit travel, the drive system faces a wide temperature variation ranging from 10 C to 60 C. Apart from this, the satellite undergoes one eclipse in each orbital travel, during which the sun is not seen by the solar panels. When the temperature is maximum, the unregulated bus voltage is 42 V dc, and when the temperature is minimum, during the eclipse period, the bus voltage is 28 V dc, the nominal being 35 V. The sun tracking of the two solar panels is achieved by means of two high-resolution (0.5 , 720 steps) four-phase hybrid stepper motors having redundant windings driven by unipolar drive circuits. The solar panels are always kept normal to the sun direction with a tolerance of 2 , by using panel-mounted onboard sun sensors and suitable drive logic circuits. In order to achieve uniform performance
Paper IPCSD 97–22, approved by the Electric Machines Committee of the IEEE Industry Applications Society for presentation at the 1995 IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics and Drive Systems, Singapore, February 21–24. Manuscript released for publication March 10, 1997. K. R. Rajagopal and M. Krishnaswamy are with the ISRO Inertial Systems Unit, Indian Space Research Organisation, Trivandrum 695013, India. B. Singh and B. P. Singh are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016, India. Publisher Item Identifier S 0093-9994(97)05466-2.

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Functional requirements of the power system used in the IRS satellite include generation, storage, voltage limiting, controlling, and distribution of power for the satellite subsystems and payloads. Sun-tracking solar panels are the primary source of power. The electrical power thus generated is provided on two raw (unregulated) bus lines. The raw bus voltage varies from 28 to 42 V, with a nominal voltage around 35 V. The satellite loads are equidistributed on both the buses, which are supported by means of independent Ni–Cd batteries, each of 21-A h capacity. During the sunlit portion of the orbit, the power generated from the solar panels caters to the loads on the buses directly, and the excess power goes to the batteries. The Ni–Cd batteries, which act as the secondary source of power, take care of the power requirements during the eclipse period and also share the peak loads, which exceed the generated power of solar arrays during the sunlit period. The power distribution to the individual subsystems is obtained by means of dc/dc converters, which provide lowvoltage lines for the respective subsystems. The power system also incorporates suitable protection systems. III. SOLAR PANEL OPERATING MODES Both the sun-side (SS) and the anti-sun-side (ASS) solar panels are driven by independent drive control electronics (DCE). Redundancy is provided for the DCE, also. During normal working conditions, either the main or the redundant systems will be in the ON mode. Apart from this, a synchronized mode, in which both the main and the redundant systems will be kept ON simultaneously, is also provided for maneuvering any abnormal conditions. A block schematic of solar panels, drive mechanism, and electronics is presented in Fig. 1. The solar panels will be rotated by the solar-array

0093–9994/97$10.00 © 1997 IEEE

With the bifilar windings. It is better to have the minimum number of poles for ease of fabrication and winding. Selection of Number of Poles and Teeth and Configuration 1) Number of Phases and Drive Circuit: Using a twophase bipolar drive system is a universal practice in a hybrid stepper motor. according to the orbital requirements. considering the reliability aspects. different tooth pitch on stator and rotor. DESIGN METHODOLOGY OF THE IMPROVED MOTOR Rajagopal et al. A. the determination of the airgap permeance had been carried out as per the recommendations given by Rajagopal et al. also. with the exception that the tracking point is shifted to the off-set position. There are seven such modes available in the IRS satellite. and electronics. and the tooth geometry and. outer dimensions. after tracking the sun. due to the fact that the torque available for acceleration in succeeding steps will be different and. [1] had reported the design and development of a high-resolution hybrid stepper motor with pole redundancy for space application.5 provides access for winding of the stator poles. drive mechanism. The disable command in the ENABLE/DISABLE mode keeps the solar panel rotation inhibited during the payload-ON periods to avoid disturbances. and can be connected in a bifilar mode to be used with the four-phase redundant unipolar drive circuit. Block schematic of solar panels. The ACQUISITION mode is faster. On the other hand. this mode will be continuously active. there are 180 teeth on the stator. Magnitude of off-set is common to both the solar panels. 3) Number of Teeth on Stator Poles: The use of equal tooth pitch on stator and rotor structures provides nearly 10% more torque output from the motor. and the enable command resets the solar panel operation to the ACQUISITION mode once the payload operation is over. . theoretically. with negligible detent torque. 32 have been earmarked for the redundancy requirement. number of teeth on rotor and stator. as 16 numbers of poles. with a speed of 180 steps/min. Initialization and resetting of this mode is done from the ground station by telecommands. However. The OFF-SET mode is the normal mode. The analysis conducted by Kuo [4] predicted a better stiffness for a tooth geometry having the stator and rotor teeth of equal width and also of rectangular/dovetail shapes. 1. The requirements being maximum torque density and better positional accuracy. with normally longer tooth pitch on stator.5 N m on a regulated power supply of 28 V dc. The number of teeth on the rotor is calculated as 180. this mode will be active when the sun-sensor error is within 2 and. drive assembly (SADA) in different modes. INHIBIT mode can be activated from the ground station by telecommands. using the expression Fig. this has been worked out. The design logic given in that paper had been used as the basis for the development of the new motor. [3]. 11 teeth/pole with an offset of 1. Half-step mode of operation is normally not envisaged in step motors used in spacecraft.5 in between the poles is provided. hence. airgap dimensions. During the sunlit period. will cause different disturbance levels on the spacecraft. number of poles. Selection of number of phases. the solar panel is rotated at the orbital rate of 7 steps/min. equal pitch slotting had been adopted and. a pulse by the telecommand from the ground station initiates the ACQUISITION mode and. depending on the orbital requirements. also. during the eclipse period. In case a need arises to inhibit the rotation of the solar panels. This mode has overriding capability over previous modes. will provide a smooth static torque characteristics. Four windings can be provided on each pole. The switch-OFF of this mode is done by the onboard control system itself. because it gives maximum torque output for the given volume of copper. at least four poles are required on the stator. Out of the 64 numbers of coils. In the NORMAL mode. A delay of 7 min for the ACQUISITION mode is incorporated in the circuit considering the tracking conditions. In the ECONOMY mode. but with a corresponding increase in detent torque [2]. for space applications. The SAFE mode overrides all other modes of data command and puts the solar panels in the acquisition mode. However. The offset of 1. IV. a unipolar drive is desirable.: AN IMPROVED HIGH-RESOLUTION HYBRID STEPPER MOTOR 907 of 0.RAJAGOPAL et al. 2) Number of Poles: For the operation of any stepper motor. with two as prime and two as redundant. [1]. the eight poles/phase four-phase unipolar drive configuration is used separately for prime and redundant modes. immediately after the satellite’s injection into the orbit and also at times when the sun-sensor error exceeds 2 during the NORMAL mode of operation. even with allowing for slightly increased copper volume. and will be active during the initial acquiring of the sun. which delivers a holding torque (1) where is the number of teeth on the rotor and is the number of steps/revolution. depending upon the required step angle in full-step mode. However. it changes over to NORMAL mode automatically.

4.5. 33. and the negative torque is the result of having an unstable . Maximum axial length allowable is 30 mm. Agreeing with the comments of Ward et al. B. if the slot depth is 0. a 100. Lee [10] approximated the airgap permeance variation in a doubly slotted motor into a triangular form without much error and. The effect of airgap on the developed torque has been verified using the computer simulation. [2]. Using the computer simulation developed for the hybrid stepper motor.4. Bollee [8] had investigated in detail the effects of slot depth on the permeance and had suggested that. [7]. [13] had considered the hybrid stepper motor. 2) Slot Depth: Harris et al. This length has to be shared among the permanent magnet. etc. but. a slot depth of 1 mm has been adopted. not exceeding the limits allowed in the spacecraft.6 of the tooth pitch. Principle of torque saturation phenomena in hybrid stepper motor. where is the effective permanent magnet MMF under a stator pole side and is the stator excitation/pole. Even though the magnetic forces on rotor teeth depend only on the magnitude of the magnetic flux. Rajagopal et al. C. Since the mean airgap diameter is large compared to the length. Fig. [7] and Bollee [8]. it has a lower limit. [7] advocate a slot depth greater than the tooth thickness. NO. a minimum of 1 mm is taken up as the tooth width. 1) Selection of Airgap Dimensions: The airgap should be minimum to get maximum torque output of a given motor [5]. 1) Tooth-Width/Tooth-Pitch Ratio : The optimum ratio for a machine working in the linear region of a – curve is obtained by Mukherji et al. one with the torque developed in the positive direction. two rotor stacks. Using a ratio of 0. the optimum ratio is worked out to be 0. [11] used the same results in their analysis. instead of the optimum 0. As is evident. [6] as 0. Selection of Outer Dimensions Outer dimensions of the motor. the allowable length of 30 mm is actually lesser in proportion to the diameter of the machine. are finalized. Determination of Airgap Permeance The dominant component of airgap permeance are the dc and the first harmonic [9]. Mukherji et al. D.. Flux paths in hybrid stepper motor. as there is a limit on the length.42 for machines operating in the saturation region of a – curve. a supporting wheel can be inserted in between the rotor stacks and the shaft. iron. The stepped pattern of permeance variation has been used for the calculation of dc and fundamental airgap permeance.38. then the slot is within about 5% of being effectively infinitely deep. Principle of Torque Saturation Harris et al. Permeance under stator and rotor teeth aligned and unaligned conditions are worked out for the selected tooth geometry using the methods described by Ward et al. 2). the permissible value of 30 mm is considered. JULY/AUGUST 1997 Fig. 3. and the locking segment on the rotor side and. Ward et al.m airgap is provided. to get maximum torque output from the motor of the given dimensions utilizing minimum material. only. and the potting on the stator side. However. The inner diameter of the supporting wheel is fixed as the rotor shaft diameter. Considering the precise fabricational requirement. as two variable reluctance stepper motors. [1] approximated the permeance variation to a stepped pattern and have reported satisfactory results. stator winding. later on. Determination of Tooth Geometry Optimum tooth geometry. having MMF/pole across the airgap (see Fig.8 mm. having MMF/pole across the airgap and the other with the torque developed in the negative direction. copper.5 of the tooth pitch. [5] give the optimum ratio as 0. the constraint being the feasibility for fabrication and assembly.4. 148 mm is taken as the outer diameter for the stator. Olifirenko [12]. Hence. for analysis purposes.908 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS. After allowing for the pole height and yoke. and it is observed that reducing the airgap to 80 m would increase the torque by 20%. whereas increasing the airgap to 120 m would decrease the torque by 10%. This will necessitate a teeth of thickness 0. Harris et al. between the stator body.6 mm. but would allow for 1-mm-thick teeth causing better feasibility in fabrication. would reduce the developed torque by 10%. After giving enough depth for rotor stacks. similarly. the positive torque is the result of having a stable equilibrium point when stator and rotor teeth are aligned. keeping the airgap uniform is not an easy task. VOL. E. such as permanent magnet. 2. and Howe et al. [5] suggest a slot depth of 0. has been arrived at. and the mean airgap diameter has been worked out as 114.

unique to the hybrid stepper motors is obviously different from the magnetic saturation seen in the conventional electric machines. and the former is the effect of neutralizing the positive torque generated at one stack of the rotor by the negative torque generated at the other stack. increases. F3 and F2 F4 . [1]. F. on excitation of a phase. F3 and F2 F4 . the negative torque also gets increased. As increased. as the latter is the effect of overexciting the soft magnetic materials to saturable flux density levels. this condition is the ideal optimum operating is further condition of the hybrid stepper motor.” can be achieved in hybrid stepper motors. permeance of the permanent magnet. 4 gives the magnetic equivalent circuit of the developed 16-pole hybrid stepper motor. such that they get neutralized by each other. . Phase 4 F2 Following the procedure given by Chai [14] and Rajagopal et al. the positive torque. decreases. Phase 3 F1 . equilibrium point when stator and rotor teeth are unaligned. permanent magnet MMF. when rotor stacks cancel each other. As . which is a function of . The torque saturation. the torques developed at both the in Fig. Since. The optimum operating point of the permanent magnet is chosen to achieve the torque saturation for a supply voltage range of 28–42 V dc. permanent magnet flux. As shown . and torques developed under all poles of the motor contribute to positive torque only. F4 and F1 F3 . which satisfies the two necessary conditions. and the net fundamental torque is increased. P1 to P4 permeance under stator poles. At torque. It can be seen that there are eight identical magnetic circuits. both the main and the redundant stator windings act in phase to give nearly two times the nominal stator MMF/pole. by properly choosing the permanent magnet operating point and also the stator winding configuration. Detailed investigations on this logic revealed that. the expression for the holding torque in one-phase excited mode is worked out as (2) . the required torque saturation range and the enhanced torque capability in the synchronized mode. 4. The symbols used in the magnetic circuit are as follows: F1 to F4 MMF due-to-stator excitation. i. The stator coils are wound such that..” the incremental increases in the positive and negative torques at the respective rotor stacks are made nearly equal.e. hereafter termed the “torque saturation region. during the synchronized mode of operation. the optimum operating point of the permanent magnet is set at the stator excitation equivalent to that available in the synchronized mode at 28 V. eight alternative poles are energized in the following sequence: Phase 1 F1 . F4 and F1 F3 . Rajagopal et al. which is is zero. a performance region. In the “torque saturation region. 3. whereas the negative a function of .RAJAGOPAL et al. Optimum Dimensions of Permanent Magnet Fig. the negative torque becomes zero.: AN IMPROVED HIGH-RESOLUTION HYBRID STEPPER MOTOR 909 Fig. Phase 2 F2 . [1] confirmed the validity of this theory by experimental results. Magnetic equivalent circuit of 16-pole hybrid stepper motor. and the motor delivers a nearly constant torque.

also. 2) Motor Construction Data: outer diameter of stator 148 mm. The required offset of half the tooth pitch in between two rotor stacks is obtained by means of nonmagnetic stainless-steel dowel pins. resistance/phase 46 . relative permeability. would together enhance the holding torque by 6. holding torque in synchronized mode 1. 28 V. e. totaling to a reduction of 6.W. size of enameled copper wire 35 S. 10 C. Similarly.5 tooth pitch/airgap 20. The reduction in permanent magnet properties due to the increase in temperature will cause a reduction of nearly 1. 33.14 N m measured at 42 V and 25 C. number of teeth on stator/pole 11. also. length of magnet 7. . at the lowest temperature. will be reduced to only 1. redundancy stator coils. number of coils in series/phase 8. also. VI. Therefore. V. Hc 462 000 A/m. The rotor stacks are supported by means of a supporting wheel made out of titanium alloy having a high strength/weight ratio.6 T. NO. the raw bus voltage (fed from the Ni–Cd battery) will be the minimum. number of magnets 48. effective permanent magnet MMFunder a stator pole side 194 A. as described by Rajagopal [1]. VOL. Accepting the satisfactory results of using a number of cylindrical bar magnets instead of a ring-type magnet. This reveals that the holding torque available from the motor for the supply voltages ranging from 28 to 42 V dc and.g. the raw bus will have the maximum voltage of 42 V. based on the thermal rating considerations in the pulsed-mode operation of the motor.. i. 3) Permanent Magnet Data: type of magnet SmCo . diameter of magnet 5 mm. thereby. FABRICATION The fabrication envisaged highly precise computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) catered to meet the space environments. for the operating temperatures ranging from 10 C to 60 C remains well within the stipulated tolerance.5-mm length are used in this motor. type of winding bifilar. Stator Winding Design A stator winding is chosen in such a way that the alternate eight poles connected in series provide optimum stator excitation under these eight poles and.g. thus. number of teeth on rotor 180. Appropriate coefficients for the average flux induction in the airgap and also for the leakage and demagnetization are found out from the graphs provided by Olifirenko [12]. Olifirenko’s [12] formulation for the optimum permanent magnet dimensions had been adopted considering the proper stator excitation level and. the increase in permanent magnet properties. G. These are held between the rotor stacks in an aluminum holder. The Samarium–Cobalt permanent magnets are of the cylindrical bar type.3 N m 5%. Designed Data 1) Performance Data: holding torque in prime/redt. axial length of machine 30 mm. H. residual flux density. the torque value of 0.95 N m measured at 28 V and 25 C will be increased to a value of 1.e. Also. Four coils per pole are provided to make the configuration suitable for the redundant four-phase unipolar drive circuit. by ensuring that the phase current does not exceed the rating of the copper wire used for the entire range of the supply voltage from 28 to 42 V dc. maximum current at 42 V 955 mA. [1]. the holding torque value of 1. EFFECT OF 2 for 4 for TEMPERATUREVARIATION The designed data is based on an ambient temperature of 25 C. Br 0. 4..910 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS.11 W. a decrease in developed torque by another 5%. number of coils/pole 4 (2 for main redt.07 N m at a higher temperature of 60 C. temperature coefficient for Br 0. by satisfying the condition that the permanent magnet MMF/pole is equal to the stator excitation per pole.01 N m at a reduced temperature of 10 C. also.). as well as the increase in the stator excitation due to the reduction of stator phase resistance. also. peak power at 42 V 40. JULY/AUGUST 1997 where is the fundamental permeance in airgap and is the average permeance in airgap.5 mm. number of steps per revolution 720. inner diameter of rotor stack 90 mm.. number of poles 16.5% in the holding torque.5 . 5-mm-diameter bar magnets of 7. In this case. 1. during the eclipse. as reported by Rajagopal et al.5%. mode 1. number of phases 8 (4 for main redt. At higher temperatures. 60 C. drive circuit unipolar. tooth width/tooth pitch 0..04%/ C. above which a variation of 35 C will be experienced by the SADA in the actual space environment.5% in the developed torque. The proper multiplication coefficient had been worked out as 2. 4) Stator Winding Data: supply voltage 28–42 V dc. airgap 0.1 mm.).0 N m 10%.0. e.G. Similar effects will follow in the synchronized mode. number of turns/coil 160. step angle 0. (3) Samarium–Cobalt (SmCo ) permanent magnets having the following properties had been used: coercive force. the increase in stator phase resistance will cause a reduction in stator excitation and.

General arrangement of 16-pole 720-steps hybrid stepper motor.0 292. 6 is a photograph of the wound stator before potting. and 42 V dc in the prime/redundant as well as synchronized modes have been obtained using a very accurate test setup comprised of a microcontroller. 35. piezoelectric torque transducer. Measured and computed static torque curves at 42 V dc in both modes are given in Fig. Mode Computed 1. using enameled copper wires of polyimide insulation. Fig.860 Fig. 8. and an – plotter.80 40. Fig.3000 65% 1910. Fig.200 Actual 1. TESTING Static torque characteristics of the developed hybrid stepper motor for various supply voltages of 28.0000 610% 955. Fig. The stator windings are of the concentrated type.00 152.00 40.2750 63% 1830. 8.: AN IMPROVED HIGH-RESOLUTION HYBRID STEPPER MOTOR 911 COMPARISON Quantity Holding torque (N1m) (28-42 V) Peak stator current (mA) Peak stator MMF/pole (A) Peak power input (W) OF COMPUTED AND TABLE I ACTUAL PERFORMANCE OF THE DEVELOPED HYBRID STEPPER MOTOR.110 Actual 1. Photograph of the wound stator before potting. VII. It is observed that the holding torque does not increase with voltage in direct proportion from 28 to 42 V excitation. Table I gives a comparison of the actual motor performance and the corresponding computed values obtained using the simulation package developed for this motor. 6. 7 is a photograph of the complete hybrid stepper motor assembly. and Fig.0 305. Synchronized Mode Prime/Redt. . and are potted with space-qualified potting compound and cured.00 156. 7. Fig. Static torque characteristics of the developed 720-steps hybrid stepper motor.0450 610% 975. 5 shows the arrangement in the developed 720-steps hybrid stepper motor. index head. 9 shows the variation of actual holding torque with the stator MMF/pole. Photograph of the developed hybrid stepper motor. 5. charge amplifier.80 76.RAJAGOPAL et al.950 Computed 1. which is equivalent to 106–156 A/pole in the prime/redundant mode and 200–293 A/pole in the synchronized-dual mode. Fig.60 80.

Trivandrum. as in the case of other electrical machines. Oct. of the order of less than 3%. Kannan. Singh. India. Kuo. 1983. Hughes. A. 1975. pp. The developed motor had yielded a very high performance. Actual static torque curves revealed that the developed motor is capable of providing better positional accuracy. and only in. “Unifying approach to the static torque of stepping motor structures. “Design equations for tooth distribution of stepping motors. These results confirm the high performance of the developed motor and also the existence of the phenomenon of “torque saturation” in hybrid stepper motors.. Apr. Dec. P. of designing and developing a motor which delivers nearly a constant torque in varying temperature conditions and varying dc supply voltages would contribute to the development of higher performance drives for use in all of the above areas. Krishnaswamy. REFERENCES [1] K. reported in this paper. A. The holding torque developed by the motor in both the prime/redundant and the synchronized modes for the voltage range of 28–42 V dc is well within the acceptable limits of tolerance and matches fairly with the computed values. The motor has been developed to meet the requirements of space environments. space. as indicated by the computed ones based on (2). Harris. however. Lawrenson. 37. 10. vol. [2] M. M. no. in an operating temperature range from 10 C to 60 C.. The step response of the motor in different onboard operating modes is also quite satisfactory. Dr. Singh. Ind.912 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS. The test results match fairly well with the computed values. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors are extremely thankful to N. The work. pp. for the support provided for this work. CONCLUSION The methodology for the design and development of a 720steps hybrid stepper motor having coil redundancy. thereby increasing the positional accuracy of the motor. VOL. Vedachalam. 12th Annu. Holding torque characteristics of the developed 720-steps hybrid stepper motor. This phenomenon in this motor is the result of choosing 194 A as the MMF under a stator pole side. R. pp.” Proc. the “torque saturation. due to the permanent magnet. 10. and C. Stator excitation higher than this 194 A/pole had not given any appreciable increase in the developed torque. 1990. IMCSD. and N. Ertan. 1977. This result satisfies the analysis [4]. Director. the hybrid stepper motor. Harmonic spectrum of the actual static torque pattern in prime mode. 33. Hughes. used as the drive motor of the solar array of the IRS satellite was presented in this paper.. Elect. of rectangular/dovetail shape. Bhatia. Inst.” in Proc. and P. Harris. Fig. provide better stiffness for the static torque characteristic around the stable equilibrium point. Magnitudes of other higher order harmonics are found to be very low. [4] B. and the military. R. J. 505–510. de Silva. P. in agreement with the conclusions of Kuo et al.” achievable only in the hybrid stepper motor. IEE Conf. C. also. 1121–1127. “Effect of tooth shapes on the position accuracy of step motors. This is not due to magnetic saturation. Elect. “Static torque production in saturated doubly salient machines. The actual static torque characteristic is not purely sinusoidal. pp. NO. 1215–1224. containing various harmonics. JULY/AUGUST 1997 Fig. W. These harmonics in the developed motor. Rajagopal. V. 184–186. 12. R. but to the phenomenon identified as the “torque saturation” in.. The developed motor provides nearly a constant torque for varying supply voltages of 28–42 V and. the airgap permeance is nonsinusoidal.” Proc. accountable harmonics up to the fifth order. 149–158.” IEEE Trans. vol. whereas the design logic incorporates the fundamental alone. 9. Hybrid stepper motors are used for a wide range of applications in industry. V. namely. M. J. “High resolution hybrid stepper motor with pole redundancy for space application. rather than tapered ones. Eng. Electron. 10. and B. Head of the Satellite Inertial Elements Division. B. 122. apart from the fundamental. This is due to the fact that. The step response of the developed motor for various modes was also quite satisfactory. in reality. pp. Krishnan. B. and the test results revealed that the developed torque remained the same (but with a tolerance of 3%) for stator excitation ranging from 194 to 340 A/pole. Eng. [3] C. 8. also. Spectrum analysis of the actual static torque curve revealed that it contains. no. VIII. Inst. with magnitudes of around 10%. The authors have introduced a new phenomenon. as shown in Fig. Lawrenson. [15] on tooth geometry having equal tooth widths. . Andjargholi. of the ISRO Inertial Systems Unit.” in Proc. 124. [5] M. 4. as seen in Fig. Symp. vol. which predicted a better stiffness for a tooth geometry having the stator and rotor teeth of equal width and. 1993. Head of the Instrument Bearing and Space Tribology Division.

” Proc. “Electrostatic motors. development. Chen. Bihar. He received the B. K. where he is currently an Associate Professor. From 1980 to 1983.D. Inst. 178–194. 1508–1517. Chai. Indian Institute of Technology. Calcutta. 1257–1268. Lee. Roorkee. 1983.” in Proc. Madras. 121. He was a Visiting Professor at California State University. from 1966 to 1978. . he joined the Indian Institute of Technology. vol./Oct. and the M. pp. [13] D. vol. Olifirenko. N. [7] P. [11] K. Bhim Singh was born in Rahamapur. Singh (M’88–SM’90) was born in Singhiya. Power App. India. vol. pp. H. J. C. degree in electrical engineering from the College of Engineering. 343–349. degree from the Indian Institute of Technology. University of Roorkee. 118.D. 10. degree from the Bihar Institute of Technology. Bollee.. IMCSD. Elect. 1971. His research interests are in analysis and design of electronics for inertial systems for satellite launch vehicles and spacecrafts. in 1979 and 1983. 1974. “Magnetic permeance of identical double slotting. 1987.E. pp. pp. Inst. Eng. Mukherji and S. Trivandrum. design.” IEEE Trans. Trivandrum. he was with Aluminum Industries Ltd. U. vol. Trivandrum. PM BLDC motors.. In 1978. pp. India. June 1977. His research interests are in design.. [10] C. From 1983 to 1990. respectively. New Delhi.” in Proc. pp. M. He has been with the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). “Permeance model and reluctance force between toothed structures. Sept. Tamilnadu. 159–168. Howe. Alappuzha. Birch. the B. B.” Philips Tech. 1969. Ward and P. in 1966. Kerala. PAS-82. no. in 1977 and the M. India.” Proc. He received the Diploma degree in electrical engineering from Carmel Polytechnic. and magnetic suspension systems. in 1974.. pp. India. Inst. vol. [12] Y.RAJAGOPAL et al. design and control of stepper motors. in 1956.E. India. He is the author of more than 150 papers. “Vernier reluctance motor. Syst. during 1988–1990. and drives in 1991 from the Indian Institute of Technology. in 1988. and P. He received the B. all in electrical engineering. (Hons. “The potential for Nd-Fe-B in electrical machines. C. Long Beach.. 2nd Annu.P. His research interests are in the areas of power electronics. 124. Krishnaswamy was born in Tiruppur. no. (ALIND). Gray. degree in power electronics. India. in 1979. Since 1983. since 1972 and was responsible for the research and development of electronics required for the inertial navigation systems for satellite launch vehicles and inertial sensors for the spacecraft programs of ISRO. where he is currently a Research Scholar working towards the Ph. no. all in electrical engineering. C. in 1963. He received the B. Kuo and Y. “Magnetic permeance of doubly salient airgaps. Chai. 65–83. [14] H. Trivandrum.” Electromekhanica. he has been with the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). CAD. Since 1990. India. the M. Bombay. India. 1975.” Proc. India. Symp. Rajagopal was born in Alappuzha.” IEEE Trans. His research interests are in analysis. from 1963 to 1966 and a Faculty Member at Muzaffarpur Institute of Technology. 9th Int. Rev. in 1947. 30.Tech.” in Proc. and the Ph. Howrah. India. Neville. vol. 141–153. as an Application Engineer (Relays). R. 1973. pp. he has been with the Department of Electrical Engineering. Power App. hysteresis synchronous motors. He was a Senior Fellow at Bengal Engineering College. 9. A. he was a Faculty Member in the Department of Electrical Engineering. “Vernier motor and its design. 1963. he is Project Director for Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS)-P5 of ISRO. India. [9] H. and control of electrical machines. in 1971 and the Post Graduate degree in electronics engineering from Babha Atomic Research Centre. Muzaffarpur. India. pp.D. 542–544. India. India. Lawrenson. 1117–1124. J.Tech. 12th Annu. Elect. Elect. degree from Calcutta University. in 1961. India. and analysis and control of electrical machines. D. India. [15] B. IMCSD. New Delhi. degree from the University of Roorkee. Syst. 6/7. no. D. electrical machines. in 1972. and control of special electrical machines/devices used in space applications. degrees from the Indian Institute of Technology. India. where he is engaged in analysis. 1977. India. At present. pp. Symp. S.Tech.. New Delhi. Eng. “Permeance model of low-resolution variable reluctance step motors.: AN IMPROVED HIGH-RESOLUTION HYBRID STEPPER MOTOR 913 [6] K. “A mathematical model for single stack step motors. in 1940. Tustin. T. 965–974. Mukherji and A. and Ph. “Determination of optimum dimensions of permanent magnets in designing electromagnetic induction coil step motors. analysis. [8] B.. PAS-94. India. 6. Eng. where he is currently a Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering.) degree in electronics and telecommunication engineering from Madras University. P. degree in electrical engineering.Sc. Workshop Rare-Earth Magnets.E. Sindri.