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Dynamic Improvement of Induction Generators
Connected to Distribution Systems Using a
DSTATCOM

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Walmir Freitas, Member, IEEE, Eduardo Asada, Student Member, IEEE, Andre Morelato, Member IEEE, and Wilsun Xu, Senior Member, IEEE

Abstract-- Recently, the usage of distributed generation and de-

to improve the voltage stability perfonnance of distribution systems with induction generators is investigated. Such invesvices based on power electronics have significantly increased in tigation is based on three-phase non-linear dynamic simulaelectric power distribution systems. In this context, induction tions utilizing the Power System Blockset for use with Matgenerators have received more attention. However, it is known lab/Simulink [4]. Two control strategies for a DSTATCOM that such machines draw very large reactive currents during are analyzed: voltage and power factor control. In such studfault occurrence, which depresses the network voltage further and can lead to voltage instability. A solution for this problem is ies, a DSTATCOM is represented by a model based on conto employ local dynamic reactive power compensation. There- trollable three-phase voltage sources and an algebraic model fore, in this work the behavior of a DSTATCOM to improve the of the dc link, which has shown to be suitable for stability voltage stability performance of distribution systems with induc- studies [5]. Various simulation results are presented, showing tion generators is investigated based on three-phase non-linear the dynamic behavior of an induction generator and a dynamic simulations. Two control strategies for a DSTATCOM are analyzed: voltage and power factor control. In such studies, a DSTATCOM in the presence of balanced and unbalanced DSTATCOM is simulated through a model based on controllable faults.

three-phase voltage sources, which has shown to be suitable for stability studies. Test results have indicated that a DSTATCOM with voltage control mode can improve the voltage stability margins.

Index Terms-

DSTATCOM, induction generator, voltage

stability.

I. INTRODUCTION HE operation of power distribution system worldwide has been greatly influenced by the increasing usage of distributed generation and devices based on power electronics driven by market deregulation [l], [2]. In t h i s context, induction generators have received more attention, which have been employed in thermal, small-hydro and wind generation plants. Induction generators have some technical advantages when compared with synchronous generators; for example: increased robustness, reduced size, decreased cost, greater electromechanical damping [l], [3]. However, it is well known that induction generators draw very large reactive currents during fault occurrence, depressing the network voltage further and leading the system to voltage instability. An alternative for solving thls problem is to adopt local dynamic reactive power compensation. Therefore, in t h i s work the usage of a DSTATCOM (Distribution Static Synchronous Compensator)

T

This work was supported by the FAPESP, Brazil. W. Freitas, E. Asada and A. Morelato are with the Department of Electrical Energy Systems, State University of Campinas, Brazil (e-mails: {walmir; asada; morelato}@dsee.fee.unicamp.br). W. Xu is with the Electrical Engineering Department, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada (e-mail: wxu@ee.ualberta.ca).

11. SYSTEM MODEL Distribution systems are inherently unbalanced due to factors such as occurrence of asymmetrical line spacing, combination of single, double and three-phase line sections and imbalance of customers load. In consequence, single-phase models cannot be used if accurate studies should be done during operation. Therefore, in this work all network components are represented by three-phase models. The loads are simulated using three parallel I U impedances wye-connected, with the neutral connected to the ground. The distribution feeders are modeled as series €U impedances, because these feeders can be considered short lines. On the other hand, the three-phase transformers are simulated taking into account the core losses, however, the saturation effects are neglected. The one-line diagram of the test network employed in this work is shown in Fig. 1, which is derived from [I]. Such network comprises a 133 kV, 60 Hz, sub-transmission system with short-circuit level of 100 MVA, represented by a Thivenin equivalent (Sub), which feeds a 33 kV distribution system through two 132/33 kV, NY, transformers. In this system there is one induction generator (IG) with capacity of 30 MVA connected to bus 6, whose mechanical power is considered constant, i.e. the primer mover and governor effects are neglected. Thls machine can represent one generator in a thermal generation plant, as well as, an equivalent of various generators in a wind or small-hydro generation plant. In some cases simulated, there is a DSTATCOM with capacity of 5 MVA connected to bus 5 through a 33/2 kV, Y/A, transformer. The induction generator and DSTATCOM models are presented in following sections.

0-7803-7459-2/02/$17.00 0 2002 I EEE

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h g h voltage of the transformer. ) . DSTATCOM devices can be represented by a controllable three-phase voltage source behind a transformer. Thus. The Power System Blockset diagram for this model is shown in Fig.g. 2. DSTATCOM structure.1 2 3 4 5 33/0. Moreover. consists of a voltage source converter connected in shunt to the distribution network through a coupling transformer [e]. = vdcV*a. Equation (1) can be iteratively solved by means of an algebraic loop. the employed switching element is the IGBT (Integrated Gate Bipolar Transistor). and v * represent ~ the reference instantaneous voltages to the converter in pu.e. Moreover. to the instantaneous power at the dc input terminal [6]. = vdcv*c. 111. vb = Vdcv’b and v. where vdc and Idc are the voltage and current in the dc link. The block diagram of the dc link model is shown in Fig. vdo Fig. if the concern is not harmonics or commutation failure. i. eliminating the harmonic components. i. 4. neglecting the converter losses. 1 . Test system.e. it can be easily implemented in various dynamic simulation programs. INDUCTION GENERATORS An induction generator can be seen as an induction motor that is dnven by one prime mover above the synchronous speed to produce electrical energy. due to its lower switching losses and reduced size. It has been recognized that this model is robust and suitable for stability studies. assuming convenient design. Q Fig. The energy conservation principle resides in the physical fact that the instantaneous power at the ac output terminals must always be equal.69kV (j I soidal in the fundamental frequency. VB and vc represent the instantaneous terminal voltage. vA. where c is the dc capacitance value. while v * ~ v*b . respectively. 5.a. . Such fact can be expressed mathematical1y. Moreover. which is schematically depicted in Fig. [6]. Indeed. v.174 - Vdc=-- 1 C JIdcdt . 2. Therefore. all electrical variables and parameters are referred to the stator [4]. the relation between v d c and is given by (2). the output voltage control can be executed through PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) switching pattern. Here. DSTATCOM A DSTATCOM (Distribution Static Synchronous Compensator). L - I L - I V. it is important to represent the dc link dynamics. Such configuration allows the device to absorb or generate controllable reactive power. I V . the dynamic behavior of the induction generator is represented for a sixth order three-phase model in the dq rotor reference frame. e. The electrical part of the machme is represented by a fourth-order state-space model and the mechanical part by a second-order system. as depicted in Fig. This can be built based on the energy conservation principle [5]. Generalized DSTATCOM model. which are determined from the control signals ( f a . which is not the scope of:this work. Indeed. 3.sfollows: Vd. Hence. three-phase transformer control signals I - I Fig. =vu io +vbib +vc i. In this figure. Power System Blockset [6]. 3. In [3] is presented a detailed comparative analysis between synchronous and induction generators. the output voltages of the converter in volts are dependent ofthe dc link voltage. the output three-phase voltages produced by a voltage source converter can be considered sinu. and iabc are the currents injected into the network by the DSTATCOM.I. In distribution voltage level devices.

It is important to mention that Vdcand iabc are given in pu and. One is responsible for controlling the terminal voltage through the reactive power exchange with the ac netvdc I work. withexchange controller. reference value. the DSTATCOM is responsible to provide the reactive power demand to the transformer 5-6. Therefore. The main difference comes from the reactive power Fig. which is generally regulated to provide out DSTATCOM.Other PI regulator is respon. when stallation. reference voltage components. only in the cases with power factor operation. Moreover. to avoid oscillations [6].cases simulated with a DSTATCOM. In the amount. (150 ms) through the tripping of the branch 2-4. Power Factor Controller Case (a): The induction generator is injecting 25 MW into The power factor controller adopted here is shown in Fig. after a dq0 to abc transformation. all reactive power sible to keep constant the dc voltage through a small active demand of the induction generator is provided from a threepower exchange with ac network. in all cases the simulated faults are applied at bus 4 at t = 0. It can be verified that all the three situations. Conse. the DSTATCOM power capacity is considered in an V.cases simulated without a DSTATCOM. DSTATCOM model using the Power System Blockset. Three cases are studied as follows. RESULTS approximate way. the network when a three-phase-ground short circuit occurs. the terminal voltage is power losses in the transformer and in the inverter. as well as. are stable. i. In this case. the simulation results are presented. are sent to the PWM 4000 V.Ol F and the reference dc voltage is which. This PI equal to 1 pu during steady state. VABC(p( vuIcw' x- VOLTAQE CONTROLLER I vd vdc I I DC LINK MODEL Fig. DC link model. in consequence. A.to bus 6. 6 . which allows the terminal voltage varies a small In this section. Thus. V. which is limited between + I pu capacitive and -1 pu inductive. is the measured three-phase RMS voltage in pu. Voltage Controller 1 In this section. 5. this regulator has one droop. Q is the reactive power flow from bus 5 DSTATCOM is controlled by power factor. which role is to synchronize the output three-phase voltage of the converter with the zero crossings of the fundamental component of the phase-A voltage.mately 1 pu after the fault elimination.ib. Voltage controller. Fig. Moreover. Q' is generally fixed equal to DSTATCOM the terminal voltage is recovered to approxizero and Q is the reactive power demand of the customer in. the pre-fault ter- -175- . in the regulator provides I. quently. 7. The controller block diagram is exhlbited in Fig 6 . 4. However. DSTACOM controlled by voltage and all reactive power consumption at the facility. 8. iabc = [ia. unitary power factor. compensating the active phase capacitor bank.e. 7. is adopted equal to 0. Moreover. the voltage controller analyzed in this work is Id presented. the dc capacitor value lators determine Vd and V. The others two PI regu.e. usually f 5%. This controller is very similar to that presented in previous The terminal voltage responses for this case are shown in section. Such controller consists of a Phase Locked Loop (PLL). There are also four PI regulators. reference value. B. This PI regulator provides Z .ic] Fig. the PLL provides the angle to abc-dq0 (dqO-abc)transformation.5 second and eliminated after 9 cycles controller of the converter. to the load and the induction generator at bus 6. On the other hand. Factor power controller.. i. Thus.Fig.

Such different behavior can explain distinct lmpacts on the system stability.DSTATCOM controlled by voltage.- time (s) Fig. where can be verified that such voltage is kept approximately constant for all the simulationperiod. Case (a): dc voltage response: . . 9.no DSTATCOM. -DSTATCOM controlled by power factor.. 3000 3500 t I time (s) 00 1 2 3 time (s) 4 5 Fig.DSTATCOM controlled by voltage. . -. 9. I time (s) Fig. Fig. Case (b): terminal voltage response: . -. 12.no DSTATCOM. .5 second.no DSTATCOM. . -. 10. The terminal voltage responses are presented in Fig. Case (b): reactive power injected into network . 11. the DSTATCOM acts as a reactive power source. Case (c): terminal voltage response: . Case (a): terminal voltage response‘ .’ mina1 voltage is greater than 1 pu. In the other situations. the reactive power injection of the DSTATCOM is completely different each other. DSTATCOM controlled by power factor. 8. Without a DSTATCOM. However. Case (b): This case is equal to the previous one. 4t time (s) Fig. DSTATCOM controlled by power factor.DSTATCOM controlled by voltage.DSTATCOM controlled by voltage. the only difference is that the induction generator is injecting 30 MW into the network at the fault moment. The behavior of the reactive power injected by DSTATCOM into the network in each case is shown in Fig.DSTATCOM controlled by power factor. The dc voltage behavior is exhlbited in Fig. 11 for the time interval up to 1. 10. It is observed that only the case in which the DSTATCOM is controlled by voltage is stable. because the controller goal is to keep the unitary power factor. the system becomes unstable due to reactive power lack.DSTATCOM controlled by power factor..DSTATCOM controlled by voltage.- - 176- .

J. where he is presently a Full Professor of Electrical Engineering. VII. D Xu’s research interests are power quality. pp.97 10” 4. INDUCTION GENERATOR PARAMETERS.2146 0. high performance computing and parallel and distributed computing applied to power system operation. the system is stable.5377 1-2 1-2 5-6 6-7 0. 1996. all in Brazil. His main interests are computer applications in power systems.. Ltd. E. D.0 5. he worked at Hitachi Research Laboratory. Moreover. Oxford: Newnes. all in Brazil. May/June 1984. vol. London: The Institute of Electrical Engineers. and received his Ph. from the University of British Columbia in 1989.. 13.0 0.IECON’OI.D. “Cogeneration Application of Induction Generators”. Allan.5 Q WVA) 12. pJTZTpZ1 0.2001. in 27” Annual Conference of IEEE/IES . degree at UNICAMP. pp. BIOGRAPHIES Walmir Freitas received his BS and MS degree from Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) in 1993 and 1996. (kv) I I 33.In all cases.DSTATCOM controlled by power factor.’ search interest are power systems stability and control. Gyugyi. The different behavior of the reactive power injected by DSTATCOM for each kind of controller is shown in Fig. AndrC Morelato graduated in Electronics Engineering from Instituto Tecnol6gico de Aeronautica (ITA) in 1970 and received his Ph.0 2.0 TBLE 1 1 . Embedded Generation. He is presently working toward his Ph. V. Z. 13. P. Understanding FACTS: Concepts and Technology of Flexible AC Transmission Systems.0 0. N. Anaya-Lara and T.0446 0. R. VI11. G. E. IX. distributed generation and power electronic applications in power system. Power System Blockset f o r use with Simulink. Brazil.00667pu. Hingorani and L.88x 10” 2. he was with B.0 0.D degree from Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP) in 2001.69 P (MW) 58. Simulation results show that such devices can increase the voltage stability limit. TABLE I. [I] [2] REFEWNCES Case (c): The induction generator is injecting 30 MW into the network when a phase-A-ground fault occurs at bus 4. Case (c): reactive power injected into network: controlled by voltage.Bus 2 3 4 6 IVoltageI Power V. Agelidis. Crossley. During late 1991-1992. From 1989 to 1996. TRANSFORMER PARAMETERS. I H I RS I ~r I XS I xr I ~m I 0 1 2 3 4 5 I time (s) DSTATCOM Fig. Strbac. LINEPARAMETERS. His general areas of research interest are transient stability.0 6.1 . 2000. the terminal voltage recovers faster to 1 pu. Hydro as an Electrical Engineer. P.. 20.0 33.D. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would llke to acknowledge Mr. Le-Huy. “Modeling and simulation of a distribution STATCOM using Simulink’s Power System Blockset”. SYSTEM DATA Source (Sub): 132 kV. IEEE Trans. [3] [4] [5] [6] VI. but with the DSTATCOM.1917 0.77 10” 2. He joined the University of Alberta as an Associated Professor in September r . Hitachi.0 33. = 0. June 2001. Sybille and H.C.9367 I Branch I S (MVA) I Rl=R2 (pu) I Ll=L2 (pu) I &=Xm (pu) ] I 100 100 30. X. in 1982 from Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP). Sbase = 100 MVA. 0. Gilbert Sybille from IREQ for his help in the development of the DSTATCOM model using the Power System Blockset. TEQSM International Inc. N. G.65 x 10” 2. 990-994. Wilsun Xu obtained the Ph. He is currently a Visiting Researcher at UNICAMP. New York: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.00~ I 2. Kischen and G. J. Jenkins.65 x lo” I 500 500 100 100 -177- . it can be verified that when the DSTATCOM is controlled by voltage its impact on stability is more effective than the control by power factor.D. Giroux. 497-503. Industry Application. Parsons.60x 10” 5. control & automation of electrical power systems and parallel processing applications. TABLE w.5 5. Miller.. Power Electronic Control in Electrical Systems. His areas of re. 2000. Eduardo Asada received his BS and MS degree from Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP) in 1997 and 2000 respectively.0 24. 2002.The terminal voltage responses are depicted in Fig. G. R.00x 10” 5. in Japan.3429 0. . Acha. I 4. where he is currently a Full Professor of Electrical Engineering. power system stability and distribution automation. respectively. 12. CONCLUSIONS Ths work presented a study about the behavior of a DSTATCOM to improve the voltage stability of distribution networks with induction generators.

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