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Post Graduate Diploma in Piping Design

Semester I

Layout Designing

This book is a part of the course by uts, Pune. This book contains the course content for Layout Designing.

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Index
Content................................................................................................................................................................... II List of Figures.......................................................................................................................................................VI List of Tables. ..................................................................................................................................................... VIII Abbreviations........................................................................................................................................................IX Case Study.......................................................................................................................................................... 127 Bibliography....................................................................................................................................................... 132 Self Assessment Answers. ................................................................................................................................... 133 Book at a Glance

............ 1 Aim.............................2... 10 Summary................3..................................................................................................... 33 3............ .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 26 Chapter III......................................................................................................1 Plan View Layout........................3....................................2 Layout Designer................................................................3..... 2 1.....................................................................................................................................................................................................3...... . 4 1....................................................................1 Introduction............................................................................................3................Contents Chapter I....................................... 29 3................................................................................1 Introduction....................... 33 3................. ...................................................................................3 Welded Tracer and Heat Conducting Paste.................................................................4 Insulation......................... 29 3...................................................................................................2 Dynamic Compressor...........................................3. 25 Self Assessment......................... 22 2....................... 16 2.....................................................................1 Capacity of a Compressor............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 25 Recommended Reading................................. 1 1........................4.................... 31 3........................................ 5 1.................. ... 20 2........... .............................. 28 Learning outcome......................1 Introduction ................... 4 1............................................... 15 Traced and Jacketed Piping.........1 Positive Displacement Compressor............................................3 Diagonal Piping Runs .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1 Objectives....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12 References.................................... 15 Aim ................................................................. 33 II/uts ...........................2 Jacketed Piping....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3 1................................................................................. 6 1......4.3 Assessment of Compressor and Compressed Air System......................................................................................................................................4 Major Considerations in Plant Layout..................................................... 1 Learning outcome.......................................................................................................................................................... 12 Recommended Reading.............................................................................................. 28 Objectives........................................................4 External Tracers .............................................................................................................................. 15 2........................................ 1 Process Plat Layout and Plot Plan.......................... 24 Summary.............................................................. 28 3......................................................................................................................4 Valve Manifolds ..................................................6 Major Categories of Process Plant Layout......4..................................... 12 Self Assessment........................................................5 Buildings........... 7 1............................................................................................................................................................... 23 2.................. 21 2........4........... 16 2.........1 External Tracer Lines...........................................................3..................... 8 1.........................................................................2 Compressor Efficiency Definitions............................................................................................................................................................... 2 1............................................................................................. ....................................................................................... 13 Chapter II.......2 Clips on Tracers.................................................................................................5 Sizing of External Tracers........................................................................................... 17 2...............................3 Jacketed Lines.............................. .....1 Types of Jacketed Piping.........................2 Elevation Layout ...........................7 Plot Plans..........2........................ .......................................................................................... 20 2..... 28 Aim............................................................................................................... 15 Learning outcome....................................................................................................................................................................................... 17 2.. 30 3... 25 References............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3 1..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3 Basic Layout Philosophy .............................................................................................................................................. 28 Compressor and the Compressed Air System.........4.........................................................................................2 Compressor Types..................................................................................... 15 Objectives ...........................

...................................... 34 3.......................................................................................................10................................. 62 References................3..................................................................................................................... ....................4.................................................11 Compressor Controls..................................................................................................................................4 Carbon Tetrachloride................................................................................................................................................. 53 4.... 37 3..........5.....4.................................................................. 54 4.......... 37 3........ 53 4................3 Class C............................................................. 58 4................ 62 Self Assessment................... 41 Self Assessment....................................2 Cooling Tower................................................................................................... 54 4...................1 Introduction. 49 4......................................................................................................................................................................................4 Components of Compressed Air System........7 Assessment of Cooling Tower.......................................... 44 Objectives..... 41 References...............................................................................3 Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing System..........................................................................................................3 Air Intake Temperature.9 Condensate Removal.........................................................................1 Inspection and Maintenance.............................................. ........4 Pressure Drops in Air Filter.......4....................9 Classification of Fire........9......................... 39 3................... ............................................. 44 Learning outcome................................ 41 Recommended Reading.................6 Cooling System Process..........1 Compressor House and Piping Layout.. 59 4..............................................4............................................................................................... 62 Recommended Reading............................................................................4............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 35 3...................... 47 4..........................4......................................................................................................................................................... 55 4........ 39 3.................................................................................................................................................................................................5.................. 46 4......................................................................................................................................................... 45 4........................2 Fundamentals of Fire............................................................... 56 4...................................................................................3 The Fire Triangle.....................12 Maintenance Practice....................................................4 Class D.............................................4 Tower Material................. 51 4............................................................................... 44 Aim....................9.....................................................................................................................................................2 Location of Compressor............................................................ 52 4........................... 40 Summary...............................1 Natural Draft Cooling Tower..............4............2 Foam Extinguishing System........ 48 4............................................. 63 III/uts ...................6 Inter and After Coolers.......................................5 Elevation...... 35 3........ 44 4.......................................................1 Class A........................................ ...................................... ..............11......................................................8......................3 Components of a Cooling Tower......................... 34 3......................................2 Class B.................................................................................................................................... 52 4.........................11......................4................... 50 4.....................8 Minimising Leakage...........4......................................................................................................................................................................................8................................................................................................8 Fire Fighting System........................................................... 54 4........................................................................................................8................................................................................... 36 3.........10 Portable Fire Extinguishers.... 56 4.......................9............. Chlorobromomethane and Inverting-type Extinguisher.....................1 Water Extinguishing System............................................................................. 39 3........................ 36 3..............1 Chemistry of Fire....................................................................................................................................................2 Mechanical Draft Cooling Tower.......................................................................... 47 4.................................................................5 Cooling Tower Types.................................................................................................................................. 39 3.........9................11..................................................................................10 Controlled Usage of Compressed Air......................................................11 Application of Fire Fighting Equipments (Portable and Fixed)...... 44 Cooling Water System and Fire Fighting System................... ........................................................... 48 4..................................................................... 55 4...............................................................4.....4.............................................................................................................................................................................7 Pressure Settings...... 54 4... 42 Chapter IV...... 61 Summary......................11...........4........................ ..................... 48 4....................................................... ...............................................................

....................... 87 6........................................................................................................................ ...................................................................................... ............. 85 6.........8................................................. ............................................ 79 6................................................................................................................................................................................................... 65 Learning outcome.................................3 Advantages of Gas Turbines........................................... ...........................1 Perimeter............................................................ 81 6.......................2 Base Plate Welding......................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................. 91 References.....................4 Economic Velocity for Deciding Line Size..........1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................. .............................................. 86 6........................................................................ 73 Summary............................................................................... 65 5............................. 89 6................................3.... 65 Piping for Steam Distribution..........................................................................................................3 Pipes...................................................................................................................................................1 Base Plate Laying............................................. 66 5.......................................................................................................................................................2 Gas Turbine Usage........................ 90 Summary........................................................................................................................... 79 6............................................................ 72 5................................................5 Types of Tank Farm and Roof Structure ...................8..... 75 Recommended Reading....................... 78 Aim............................................................................................................................................................ 73 5............................................................................................................... .............. 78 Turbines and Design Consideration for Tank Farm.............4 Vacuum box test and Radiography............................ 67 5......................................................................................................... 85 6...................................................................................... 30 of 1934)............................................................................................................................................................... 90 6.....................................................Chapter V............................................. 66 5........................................................................... 78 Objectives....... 81 6..................................................................................................................................................................... 89 6.....................................................................................8........................... 75 Self Assessment. 75 References.................................................................................................................................9 Planning and Design of Tank Farm...........................................5 Resistance of Valves and Fittings to Flow of Fluids.....................2 Components................................................11 Storage of Petroleum Products............................. Drainage.....................................................3.................................................................................................................................................... 85 6................................................................... 80 6.......................................................... 76 Chapter VI.......................... ............................... 1934 (Act No........................................................................................................1 The Process.........................................................................................8....................................... 85 6..........8...................................................................................................... 67 5......................................... 65 Aim.......2 Pipeline Sizing.........12 The Petroleum Act...........................................................................................3............................................................................. ........................... 78 Learning outcome................ 89 6.... 84 6......................................................4.......................2 Steam Distribution System.5 Types of Gas Turbines........ 78 6................4 The Gas Turbine .............................................................................................................................................................................3 Shell Erection.......................................................................4........... 67 5...................... 86 6...................... ................................................................. 91 Recommended Reading........................8 Tank Foundation...........................................7 Tank Farm............................................................................................................................1 Introduction to Gas Turbines........... 83 6........13 Licence for Storage of Petroleum Products........................................... 81 6.................... 86 6.......1 Piping Material....... 91 Self Assessment....................................9.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................6 Applications of Gas Turbines........ 92 IV/uts ............................................................................................................................................ ..................................................................................................................................10 Tank and Protective Clearance....3 Piping Layout....................................................... 65 Objectives..............

...............................................................................................................................................................3 Types of Towers.......................................... ....................................................................................................... 94 Learning outcome....................................................................................................... .................................. 124 Self Assessment.......................................................................................................... 94 Towers... 121 Summary...........................................................................2 The Distillation Process.2..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Batch Shell....... 96 7...................................................................................................8 Tower Piping........................................... 101 7....................................1 Introduction......... 94 7................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Chapter VII..................................................4 Design Consideration for Towers................ 95 7........................ ....7 Platform Arrangements..................114 7.............................................................................................................3 Fractional Distillation...................................................... 96 7......................... 98 7. 108 7......................................................................................................................................... 95 7.......................................................................................................................... 124 Recommended Reading.........................5 Tower Elevation and Support............................................................................................................. 95 7..........10 Maintenance........................................................................................................................2 Continuous Shell................... 94 Aim ................................................................................................................................... 94 Objectives ......................................................................................................... 100 7................................................................................................................................................. 125 V/uts ....................6 Nozzle Elevation and Orientation........................................................................................2............................................ 124 References.........................119 7........2..................................................... 104 7..........................................................9 Tower Instruments.............................................

.................. 80 Fig................... 1...................... 23 Fig. 46 Fig...................................................................... 4....2 A modern jet engine........ 23 Fig............................................................................. 4.................................. 4.......................1 Schematic for a) an aircraft jet engine............. 68 Fig............................................... 6........................ 4...........4 Screw compressor............................................................................................................................................. 4 Fig.......................................................... 59 Fig.... 3....... .....................................3 Combustion area...9 Packed tower.................................................. 87 Fig............................ 7....................................................................... 6.............4 High-pressure jacketed piping............................................... 34 Fig..7 Vacuum tower and stripper....................................8 Trayed tower.......................................4 Turbine stage......................................................... 96 Fig.......................................................................................... 7.......................1 Once thorough system..... 4...2 Elevation layout................ 19 Fig............................................ 2... 4 Fig.................2 Batch shell still distillation process.....3 Steam pipeline sizing chart – pressure drop approach...................... 29 Fig.......... 4........................................................................... 3.......................... 4...........................................11 Consideration for tower elevation and support......................................................................................................................3 Schematic diagram of a cooling water system.................... ..........................................5 Fractionator tower.................. 3............................................................................5 Simplest form of combustion turbine plant with reaction type gas............................. 72 Fig............ 7.....1 Plan view layout.......... 88 Fig......................... 70 Fig............................. 2.....................6 The fire triangle...................................... 45 Fig........1 Crude distillation of products across temperature range...........................................................4 Value manifolds............................................... 7.......................... 5...... 17 Fig............. 66 Fig.................................. 98 Fig.......................................................4 (a) Cross flow natural draft cooling tower (b) Counter flow natural draft cooling tower..............................................4 Steam pipeline sizing chart – velocity approach................................... ................ 95 Fig. 30 Fig...................................................... 99 Fig.................... 20 Fig................................................................................................................. 1........ 2..........................5 Range and approach of cooling towers....................... 79 Fig.......................................................................................... 6....................................................................................................... 32 Fig... 2......1 Types of compressor............................................ 6...........................................................................................5 Typical correct and incorrect arrangement.....................5 Centrifugal compressor.................. 5........................ and b) a land-based gas turbine..............................................1 A Typical steam distribution circuit....................... 46 Fig...................... 5........... 21 Fig............ 3....................2 Insert-flanged jacketed piping....... 6.............. 7.............................................3 Swaged jacketed piping............................ 5...................................................................................................3 Reciprocating compressor............ 89 Fig............................................................ .......................................................................................................................... 2........................................2 Categorisation of pipeline sizing........................ 2.................... 97 Fig......................................................................4 Multiunit Fractional still distillation process.................................................. 1.. 22 Fig....... 82 Fig...................... 3................................... 74 Fig........................................................................................................................8 Insulating tracer and product lines..................... (c) external floating roof tank............6 Traces line around the pump casing.............. 98 Fig.....5 Resistance of valves and fittings to flow of fluids..... 29 Fig..................................... 7........... 53 Fig......2 Classification of compressor........................... 2........3 Continuous shell still distillation process................................................. 7................................. 19 Fig...................................7 Coiling for hose................. 5..........6 A Typical Compressed Air System Components and Network.... 7............................................................6 (  a) Internal floating roof tank........................... 3......................................... 6................ 6............... 2...................................................................... 48 Fig.9 Typical trace line and jacketed line...........8 Types of foam extinguishing systems................................... 56 Fig........10 Tower area.............................................. 84 Fig..8 Tank inside the tank field (shadow zone) ....... 82 Fig........................................................................................................ 18 Fig......... 3..................... 101 VI/uts ................................................................ 100 Fig................... 101 Fig................................... 5 Fig......... 96 Fig........... ................... (b) domed external floating roof tank....................................1 Standard jacketed piping..................7 (a) Tank farm accessibility from two sides (b) Tank farm accessibility from one side.......................................................... ............................................................... 7..............................................List of Figures Fig............................. 1. 97 Fig........................................... 7........ 7...3 Diagonal piping runs................................................... 4. 2............................................................................................... ...... 50 Fig... 31 Fig..................................2 Recirculation or closed system...... 35 Fig.......7 Installation of three tracers..................... 5 Fig...................................6 Vapour liquid flow....................................... 6.....................7 Schematic arrangement of compressed air equipment.................

....36 A Typical tower davit arrangement....22 Tower platform and ladder elevation requirements................... 7.............. 7......................116 Fig................ 7............................ 7.........................................26 Common platform.....113 Fig............ 7.......................... 7.......................12 Tower elevation requirement...............................31 Overhead arrangement........................................................24 Maintenance access arrangements...... 7...........................35 Arrangement of level instruments........................ 7........33 Relief valve system............. 7...............................................................32 Pump suction arrangement................................................................... 103 Fig... ...................... 104 Fig...... 104 Fig.............................................................................119 Fig............................................................................................... 7......................... Typical tower trolley beam arrangement........15 Elevation and Orientation requirements for maintenance access................................. 7...................................... 107 Fig...................................... 7.................20 Temperature and pressure locations.............................................................................. ................................................................. 123 VII/uts .......... 7..... 107 Fig.........19 Bottom head arrangement........ 120 Fig.............. 106 Fig.........................................110 Fig................... ..................13 Tower skirt. 102 Fig..... 122 Fig. ...................................................28 Ladder rung spacing....................................................... .................................... 7........................... 7...30 Tower piping supports...............37 Planned drop zone......18 Top head arrangement...........................................................................112 Fig...17 Reboiler connections.....................................................................25 Typical top head platform arrangement........117 Fig..............................................................................14 Tower elevation sketch.......... 7............................................................ 7.................112 Fig................................................................................. 121 Fig.......................................................... 109 Fig...... ................................................................... . 7........................ 108 Fig...........23 Platform width requirement......................114 Fig........................21 Typical platform arrangement........................115 Fig............ 7...........................118 Fig................................113 Fig...........................................Fig..................................................... B................... 7..................................................................................... 7................................................................... 7.......................................27 Bracket spacing..........................................111 Fig.......... ..................................... 105 Fig........ ..................................................... 7.....34 Instrument vessel sketch..................................................................... ......29 Tower areas of division............................... 7....................................... 7...........................................16 Options for internal feed piping........ 7.............

..................................... 37 Table 3......................3 Effect of pressure drop across the filter on increase in power consumption.......................................................... 36 Table 3...................................................................................................2 Effect of change in pipe size.................................... 69 Table 5...................................................................................................................................................................................1 Major considerations in plant layout............2 Effect of CO2 on lungs.............List of Tables Table 1.... 10 Table 2........................................................ 73 VIII/uts ...........1 Steam connection size for jacketed lines...................................................... 39 Table 4........ 60 Table 5......................................3 Chart of process plant layout..............................................................................................................6 Typical pressure drop in compressed air line for different pipe size......................... 49 Table 4......... 17 Table 2...2 Major categories of plant design........2 Number of 15mm ½” tracers used with different product line sizes.......................................................5 Effect of reduction in delivery pressure on power consumption......................................................................................................................................1 Pipeline size............1 General selection criteria of compressors..4 Effect of altitude on compressor volumetric efficiency....... 24 Table 3....................1 Types of mechanical draft towers............................................................... 36 Table 3.................. 7 Table 1................ 32 Table 3.............. ........................ 37 Table 3................................ 9 Table 1...............2 Effect of intake air temperature on compressor power consumption................

Abbreviations NPSH ANSI VJ Km/h Mph C F Cfm Hp kW FAD Psi mmWC HVAC PVC ABS CT CW kCal L/G CO2 kV ft m kg lb ID IC CT NOx MW LHV Ppm SCR Gal Mm - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Net Positive Suction Head American National Standards Institute Vacuum-jacketed pipe Kilometres per hour Metres per hour Celsius Fahrenheit Cubic feet per meter Horse power kilo watt Free Air Delivery Per square inches Mili Meter Water Column Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Polyvinyl Chloride Antilock Braking System Cooling tower Cooling water kilo calories Liquid/Gas Carbon Dioxide Kilo Volt Feet Metre Kilogram pounds Pipe diameter Internal Combustion Combustion Turbine Oxides of nitrogen Molecular weight Lower Heating Value Parts per million Selective Catalytic Reduction Gallon Millimetre IX/uts .

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Chapter I Process Plat Layout and Plot Plan Aim The aim of this chapter is to: • • • elucidate basic layout philosophy explain the role of layout designer categorise process plant layout Objectives The objectives of this chapter are to: • • • introduce diagonal piping runs highlight the importance of conceptualisation of any process plant layout explain plot plans Learning outcome At the end of this chapter. the students will be able to: • • • comprehend plant view layout and elevation layout identify the skills that any layout designer must possess understand the importance of the layout of valve manifolds 1/uts .

Hardware items need space to locate them in process plant building. The future entry of equipment requires dismantling of the existing equipment structure. High rainwater causes operational inconvenience process plant equipment located in an open area causes inconvenience to the plant operators during rainy days and thus plant operations are badly affected.Layout Designing 1. converting gravity flow to pump flow adds one more step of pump operation. Space not provided for insulation over equipment or pipeline which causes trouble during erection work. It provides a soothing effect and encourages us towards better performance. Different processes require different types of hardware like equipment. the 3 M’s.. Important facts. civil and structural requirements.1 Introduction Chemical process industries involve multiple unit processes and unit operations to convert raw materials into products. Equipment positioning influences operating steps. Smooth material movements ensure higher process plant productivity. which generates more errors.. the design must take constructability. Haphazardly placed equipment causes confusion in regular plant operations. pipelines. Process facilities must be designed and engineered within extremely short schedules while adhering to maintenance. Conceptualisation of any process plant layout at the early stage is very important. increases the hardware cost in terms of larger amount of piping. materials machine and man are involved in any production process and their smooth movement’s arte critical for better process plant operations. viz. • • • • • • • Plant layout design plays an important role in the design and engineering phases of any industrial facility. may lead to major troubles at a later stage. The position offers an opportunity to demonstrate technical ability along with creative talent and common-sense approach. etc. High cost of land and hardware: If the plant space used is more than the actual required though provides more movement and space. The troubles discussed above are some representative cases applicable to any typical chemical process industry. Discomfort in reaching the faculty equipment causes trouble for taking up any maintenance work. For example. Thus. the proper operating man movement is equally critical for plant performance. Insufficient space in the existing plant building may be because of erected equipment and piping or building structures like wall. Unsafe handling of hazardous chemicals may harm the plant as well as the operating persons. if not considered at the appropriate time. The plant layout designer must develop layout documents during the conceptual and study phases of a project. There being a large number of operating steps involved. moreover.2 Layout Designer The plant layout designer is skilled primarily in the development of equipment arrangements and piping layouts for process industries. Haphazardly placed equipment and other hardware generates as unhealthy working environment. leads to high production losses. Poor accessibility if equipment delays plant operations. 1. This may either be due to insufficient available gaps between two hardware parts or no approach available for laying insulation over these parts. Hazardous chemical handling requires special attention as they could be harmful to the life of plant personnel and a danger is plant hardware. Following industrial examples elaborates problems caused due to improper process plant layout. causes difficulty for the entry of any new equipment in the future. instruments etc. and quality standards. Although the tools to achieve these goals are changing from pencil and paper to computer graphics terminals. safety. The skills needed are: 2/uts . door. It many times delays plant operations and thus. The expected plant modifications or expansion needs should be considered at the conceptual stage of the process plant layout preparation. the responsibilities of the plant layout design remain the same. economics. Insufficient space for insulation. Everyone likes an aesthetic look to our surroundings. • • Improper location of equipment increase operational steps. and operations into account.

B. a project will never recover during the detail phase. client specifications. The design in plan A is the one-line-at-a-time approach. 1. but if it is over done. routing a line from one piece of equipment to another before thinking about the next one. Lines running to the nozzles on drums D and E are on the outside of the pipe rack and peel off first with flat piping turns. Working out of sequence is acceptable within reason. all designs are finalised. An overview of all the piping within a given area should be completed before the designer proceeds with the final arrangement. study and detail. The alternative to accommodate future piping running north at the same elevation is to change elevation for the piping running east and west to the drums. the result is a lack of consistency. This can be achieved through close review of the piping and instrumentation diagrams and free hand sketching of major piping configurations to ensure that the piping will be routed in an orderly manner. Along with requiring more pipe fittings and steel in support. The ideal situation for speed and quality is to do the job right the first time. it is intended to be an optimum condition for the most effective use of staff time. Plan B was developed as a whole unit. the designer’s style remains consistent. hydraulics and certified vendor drawings for equipment. Although project schedules often dictate variations in this approach.• • • • • • • • • • • Common sense and the ability to reason Thorough knowledge of a particular plant design A general understanding of how process equipment is maintained and operated The ability to generate a safe. it lacks consistency. The designs use such checked data as steel and concrete drawings. Although it is possible to complete an area design using this approach. The major activities of the plant layout designer to achieve an optimum plant configuration take place during the study phase of a project. 1. it can often be done with very little additional effort and cost. schedule constraints. Conceptual designs are made when sketchy or minimal information is used to prepare an abstract arrangement of a plot plan or equipment and piping layout. Each area should be thought through on a case-by-case basis. One basic rule to remember is to avoid designing one line at a time that is. The study phase can make or break a project. This approach saves fittings and requires a shorter steel beam to support the piping. and the purchase of bulk materials.1 Plan View Layout Both arrangements shown in the below figure are workable piping layouts for the given equipment. The lines to exchangers A. Although it is not always necessary to plan for future expansion. Preliminary designs are made with unchecked or uncertified data to design a facility in sufficient detail so that the documents produced can be used for detail design. In the detail phase. and instruments.3 Basic Layout Philosophy Each plant layout designer develops an individual layout philosophy. valves.3. confirmation of purchased equipment. It should be noted that the use of flat turns in piping is not recommended if there is a likelihood of future expansion in an area. Although conditions (For instance. comprehensive layout within a specified time and with consideration toward constructability and cost-effectiveness Creativity Sufficient experience to avoid reinventing the wheel Knowledge of the principal roles of other design and engineering groups and the ability to use input from these other disciplines The ability to resolve unclear or questionable data Willingness to compromise in the best interest of the project The ability to generate clear and concise documents The ability to defend designs when challenged The Logic Diagram The design of any processing plant is usually accomplished in three phases: conceptual. and availability of information) may change significantly among projects. 3/uts . and Care located to the centre of the rack and can also peel off in most cases.

Seven Elevations Three Elevations Excessive Elevations Preferred Design/Minimum Elevations Fig. X.scribd. The view on the left.3. With a little effort. as shown in the right-hand view. this can be corrected. 1.2 Elevation layout (Source: www.3 Diagonal Piping Runs When lines run in a congested area.1 Plan view layout (Source: www. however.2 Elevation Layout The below figure shows two workable piping layouts. Adding support steel for this preferred design would require only minimal effort.3. a basic rule to allow is to change the elevation to avoid interference with other lines when lines are to be routed perpendicular to most adjacent piping.com) 1. The arrangement shown in plan A of the below figure has a minimal offset dimension. 1. Running the line at the same elevation is acceptable if it does not 4/uts . would require additional engineering time and additional steel cost.com) 1. The key difference is that the arrangement on the left shows piping running at too many elevations.Layout Designing A B C N A B C Possible Future Expansion D D Support E Support F Alternative for Future Lines E Support Support Future Lines 4 Plan A 5 4 Plan B 5 Fig.scribd.

Inconsistent Design Excessive Fittings 6” 6” 6” 10”x6” Reducers 4” 3” 10”x6” Reducers 10” D 6” Weld Cap Preferred Design Minimum Fittings 6” 4” 6” 3” 10” 6”x4” Reducers 6”x3” Reducers Layout A Branch Connections Layout B Fig.4 Value manifolds (Source: www.4 ” EL. except that judgment should be used to produce a neat and orderly layout as well as to occasionally save pipe fittings when possible.4 Valve Manifolds The layout of valve manifolds is another opportunity to exercise consistency of design. as shown in layout B. a less expensive and more practical design can be generated. 112’. In plan B. EL. 5/6.0” LA. With a little thought and extra effort. Layout A of the below figure uses an excessive number of fittings and indicates a lack of proper planning.110’.block the passage of a large number of other lines. Certain piping specifications may restrict the use of branch connections in lieu of reducers.com) 1.3 Diagonal piping runs (Source: www.scribd.4” LA.scribd. 1. 1. 112’.0” Plan A Plan B Fig.0” 5/6. N “X” “Y” EL. dimension Y would interfere with too many lines and should run at a different.com) 5/uts .3. There is no absolute rule. but this option should be considered if at all possible.

more consideration has to be paid to the ergonomics of the layout.e. Mechanical equipment handling flammable or volatile liquids which could easily leak or spill out of the equipment thus causing flammable conditions.. matters of operational convenience. safety. equipment should be laid out in sequence to suit the process flow but exception to this arises from the desirability to group certain tanks. furnaces. so that they are easily accessible and the indicators are easily readable. Thought should be given to the location of equipment requiring frequent attendance by operation personnel and the relative position of the control room to obtain the shortest and most direct route for operator. insulation thickness. the control room should be placed. ease of erection and maintenance which calls for expiries of critical judgment on the experience and the study of existing and know limitation. however. It should be grouped together and where possible located separately from other areas of the plant. However. or frequent internal cleaning has to be carefully considered.Layout Designing 1. When on routine operation. such consideration should not override considerations of cost. economic consideration means installing the unit in the smallest possible space. retuning or replacements. The position of items needing replacement of internal spent catalyst etc.4 Major Considerations in Plant Layout The most economical plant layout is the one in which the spacing of the main equipment is such that it minimises interconnecting pipe work and structural steel work. i. Layout may be needed to isolate a section of the plan equipment. consistent with the operability ease of piping material. reactors and columns. The major variables affecting the final layout are interconnected pipe sizes. structural sheets and concrete with the proper layout considering further economies which can be achieved in way of pumping and utilities. The indivisible plant will dictate their location when access for cranes is called for regular or rotating and other machinery calling for dismantling. Process considerations may require some items be elevated to provide gravity flow of materials to accommodate pump suction requirement for NPSH. pumps or perhaps to isolate hazardous operations according to statutory rules and regulations. where toxic and hazardous materials are handled. steel work spacing. Economic Safety Process Operational Maintenance 6/uts . This often makes their grouping within the machine house desirable. The use of the single stream or multiple stream flow pattern will affect the layout. Generally. Normally. The need to remove for servicing. The other process consideration could be the limitation of pressure or temperature drop in the transfer lines deciding the proximity of the furnace. the heavy. flare stacks or other equipment containing naked flares. servicing equipment. a batch or semi batch process needs more attention by the operator and therefore. Consideration Explanation Basically.

so that additions can be erected and tested with the minimum interference to plant operations. food. symmetrical balanced layout consistent with keeping the pipe run to a minimum and allowing proper access for maintenance. may be safely installed in the open.Equipment. heat exchanger boilers. Nature of process.Protection approval by the local fire authority must be obtained on fire fighting equipment and layout. may well arrive fairly late in the construction programme and therefore have to be fitted into place after most of the surrounding equipment has already been installed. Thought should be given to the likely expansion of both equipment and pipe work. At least 30 m distance from flame proof plant area is needed for safe welding where no special precautions are needed. then consideration must be given to the following factors. The tower and large vertical vessels should be arranged in rows with a common centreline. but if the diameter varies. The philosophy should be that the plant is supported on an open steel structure unless there is good reason not to do so. Factors which determine the selection of enclosed buildings are: • • • • • • Nature and frequency of the operator’s work.5 Buildings Plant buildings should be kept to a minimum on the basis that most of equipment including pumps. it is desirable to leave 30% space.Extreme climate conditions may determine that the plant is to be kept in a building. Climate. 7/uts . Thus. it is to be installed in the open with centralised control facilities housed in buildings. that adequate access is available to lift the large items of equipment or columns into place. ‚‚ Fire protection/explosion. which requires frequent maintenance in adverse weather conditions. Such equipment is positioned close to the boundary limits so that erection must take place from outside these limits. Type of equipment. They should be of similar size. Table 1.1 Major considerations in plant layout Appearance Future expansion 1.To prevent the possible spread of fire and explosion. Proximity of hazards. due note must be taken of the building line manholes on the adjacent tower should be at a similar elevation and orientation to streams. a building may be desirable. On main pipe runs. A careful check must be undertaken to ascertain whether space will be available at the time of erection for positioning the crane or lifting the deliver y equipment which is known.Plants handling dust explosive and combustible solid materials require a building . etc.Constructional The plot should be so designed. The building structure and groups of equipment should form a neat.To prevent contamination. Such arrangement for parallel streams or similar groups of process equipment require much the design work and also for construction and subsequently operation but help in reducing the amount of standby equipment. pharmaceutical and bio-chemical plants require to be in a building. These as far as possible should be made identical. If enclosed buildings are planned. It is important that the insulation requirement be considered during the layout of the plant.Expensive equipment and complex machinery should have some degree of weatherproofing. cyclones. An attractively laid out plant with the equipment in rows also economically laid out gives an aesthetic appearance.

are considered during the preparation of the process plant layout. Thus the necessary provisions in the plant layout are considered during the conceptualisation of layouts. Maintenance Safety 8/uts . ‚‚ Access. the plant erection contractor is provided with the necessary access to carry out the fabrication and erection work properly. while emergency maintenance work can’t be avoided. which undergoes maintenance as per the type of equipment and operations. Fire safety measures.6 Major Categories of Process Plant Layout During the preparation of any process plant layout. They demand safety norms.Natural illumination may be obtained by the use of patent glazing windows or translucent sheets in the sidewalls or the roof. Chemical process industries involve multiple operations for the conversion of raw materials to finished products using various types of equipment and other hardware. are highly prone to maintenance work as compared to static equipment. high pressure. Rotary equipment like pumps. etc. Exhaust may be required for treatment of filter washer. Poor facilities delay maintenance work. monorails forklifts etc. manual involvement is required to control their operation. ‚‚ Heating ‚‚ Roofing 1. used in the process industries are either pre-fabricated/procured directly from the market or fabricated at site. Routine maintenance work is preferred to minimise trouble. are critical examples which require safe distances between two-equipment. Run away type reactions. Process plants handle various hazardous chemicals and operations. The process plant layout is also critically viewed in terms of maintenance requirements. The process plant handles both static and dynamic equipment. agitators etc. Finished or unfinished fabricated materials are moved in position by various Fabrication and available manual or mechanised devices like cranes. Erection Likewise along with the material movement and placement. Insufficient elevation differences disturb material flows and cause drying or flooding of the processing system. normal plant operation and plant shut down. ‚‚ Fireproofing. either for equipment to be fitted in the existing plant building as part of modification or expansion. Operations Hardware equipment like piping instruments. separation. Though most of the equipment may be operating on its own. etc. these points needs to be critically viewed. The operational points are usually viewed on a priority basic as any trouble in the plant operations directly effects the production. Artificial lighting must be arranged to give adequate illumination where physical and chemical hazard exists.Determines the plant arrangement and switch room. blowers. The overall plant operations are divided into three categories viz.Air intake should be positioned in such a way that it should avoid the risk of drawing toxic or hazardous fumes. due to their moving parts. Poor access to hardware parts also delays the maintenance work. governed by statutory rules and regulations.Layout Designing ‚‚ Illumination.Proper access for maintenance and operation purposes to be considered. and temperature operations etc. ‚‚ Ventilation. plant start up.

which leads to poor plant performance. Continuation of new plant expansion with the existing hardware is critical in terms of material flow. and gases for raw materials. Operations Start up • Material Equipment charging • Machine Equipment cleaning and testing Start-up of equipment Operating and standby units • • • • • Process monitoring Measurement Inspection Sampling Control • Man Operator movements for multiple operation • Normal • • Flow of materials Material inventory • 9/uts . seismically prone areas require more equipment and building foundation space. Addition of hardware requires space in process plant as it is built in multiple phases due to various reasons like low market demand for product. High rainfall regions are provided with better drainage facility. Table 1. liquids. available capital funds. and final product streams. For example. the plant is also installed in phases. Haphazardly placed equipment gives a bad appearance to the process plant and causes confusion in plant operations. government clearances. etc. Geographical factors indirectly affect the process plant layout. Accordingly. Investment is minimised in the initial phase but necessary provisions are made to minimise cost in terms of hardware and reduced plant stoppages in the later stages. increasing the land requirements. Chemical process industries handle different types of materials in the forms of solids. Too many pipeline crossings due to improper equipment placement and pipe routings make pipeline tracing difficult and takes away the aesthetic look of the cess plant. pumps.2 Major categories of plant design Aesthetic Expansion Geographical factors Material Movement Material movement starts from its entry at the factory gate in the form of raw material. Incorrect identification of operating valves leads to wrong operation and even sometimes disaster too. intermediates. Capital and operating costs play a major role in plant economics. A rotary unit like a pump adds up to utility cost in the form of electricity every moment. etc. movement/ maintenance space. Various points related to materials movements in the process plant layouts are shown in the following table. low availability of raw material. Increase in the process plant capacity requires expansion in terms of its hardware like reactors. pipeline instruments. It passes through various unit processes and operations before its final conversion to the product. elevated plinth levels and covered plant buildings. test product launching.Economic Addition of hardware or land adds up to the cost of the process plant. For process plant layout conceptualisation is a major proper concern in minimising the capital as well as operating costs.

porches. parking space Bad weather protection Fabrication and Erection • • • • Loading and unloading Material storage Fabrication Material movement • • • Lifting devices Insulation Instrumentation requirements Equipment replacement Lifting Cut-outs In-place Projections Safe distances • • Maintenance • Draining/ disposing • of materials • • • • • Safety • • Flammable materials Toxic chemicals • • • • • Economics • Material transportation cost Closed storage Closed internal transportation Material flow Future connectivity • Reduced cost of piping. humidity. structure. Most plot plans will also show the plot lines marking the boundaries of the property along with a brief description of adjacent properties. • • • Wind direction Soil strength Earthquake zones • Table 1. The plan may also include swimming pools and landscaping features. etc.Layout Designing Shut down • Material recovery • Cleaning operation • Operator movements for system cleaning Cutting and welding works High elevation works Maintenance bays/ space In-place maintenance facilities Safety escapes Minimum safe distances Body protection from high temperature Combined operations Good appearance Comfortable operations New facilities like canteen. rest rooms. 10/uts . but will generally include the location of all buildings. as well as underground and aboveground utilities. decks.3 Chart of process plant layout 1. materials Systematic equipment laid down Pipeline routing Hardware addition Entry of new units • Aesthetic • • • • • • • • Expansion operations • • • Geographical factors • Instrumental factors like temperature. The information included on a plot plan can vary by project and region. civil.7 Plot Plans A plot plan is an architectural drawing that shows all the major features and structures on a piece of property. and sheds.

the person creating the plan must start from scratch by taking measurements or surveying the land. Once the plan is approved. architects. pictorial elevations may be required to illustrate how the lines will be protected. In instances where trees or building features may interfere with overhead utility lines. it may be used by the builder when laying out the property. The plot plan helps the reviewing agency check for conflicts with neighbours. engineers. the plan must be drawn to scale so that features are shown in relation to one another.Plot plans are typically required with all permit and zoning applications submitted to local permitting agencies. it is easiest to start with an existing plot plan or plat. If this plan is not available. building codes. Once the plot plan is submitted to the local permit agency. Depending on the complexity of the project. 11/uts . which require the work of a surveyor. This may include simple elevation changes or items such as driveway slopes or curb cuts. Local permit or zoning agencies issue their own specific requirements for plot plans. When developing a plot plan. The location of existing structures as well as all proposed changes or additions should be included on the plot plan. The plot plan can also be used to plan landscaping designs or special outdoor features like decks or pools. a copy is often kept on record for future use or reference. plot plans may be drawn by surveyors. Dimensions are often required as well. They may be used during zoning reviews or as part of the construction permit review process. or homeowners. which can often be found at the local land records office. or surrounding utility lines before a permit is issued. only building or overall dimensions need to be shown. In many cases. A directional arrow or compass should be shown that indicates how the property is oriented. though in some cases. More complex plot plans may require elevations and land contours.

The design of any processing plant is usually accomplished in three phases: conceptual. pipelines. Hunt. and detail. 2009. Nayyar. a basic rule to allow is to change the elevation to avoid interference with other lines when lines are to be routed perpendicular to most adjacent piping. A plot plan is an architectural drawing that shows all the major features and structures on a piece of property.. A. Different processes require different types of hardware like equipment. Gulf Professional Publishing.L. Rhea. E. cyclones. The Fundamentals of Piping Design: Drafting and Design Methods for Process Applications. Gulf Pub. Piping Systems Manual.. 2007. A.. etc. J. Plant buildings should be kept to a minimum on the basis that most of equipment including pumps. McGraw Hill Professional... Process plant layout and piping design.. Conceptualisation of any process plant layout at the early stage is very important. 2001. The layout of valve manifolds is another opportunity to exercise consistency of design. Piping engineering leadership for process plant projects. R. Parisher. B. 2000.. Pipe Drafting and Design. P. McGraw-Hill. The most economical plant layout is that in which the spacing of the main equipment is such that it minimises interconnecting pipe work and structural steel work. Recommended Reading • • • Pennock. study. 7th ed. The plant layout designer is skilled primarily in the development of equipment arrangements and piping layouts for process industries. M. R. Smith. instruments etc. 1993. 12/uts .Layout Designing Summary • • • • • • • • • • • Chemical process industries involve multiple unit processes and unit operations to convert raw materials into products. may be safely installed in the open. 2nd ed. R. PTR Prentice Hall. heat exchanger boilers. O.. Gulf Professional Publishing Silowash. Each plant layout designer develops an individual layout philosophy. When lines run in a congested area. Piping Handbook.. Material movement starts from its entry at the factory gate in the form of raw material. Important facts. References • • • Bausbacher. if not considered at the appropriate time may lead to major troubles at a later stage. 2001.

Layout 13/uts . a. layout philosophy d. d. a. Which statement is true? a. Plant layout design b. Basically. _____________ plays an important part in the design and engineering phases of any industrial facility. What should be kept to a minimum on the basis that most of equipment including pumps. Material d. Machine b. diagonal piping runs b. plot plan c. cyclones. Value manifolds 7. plant layout designer c. Plot plan d. Plant layout b. b. 6. The plant layout is another opportunity to exercise consistency of design. The most economical plant layout is that in which the spacing of the main equipment is such that it minimises interconnecting pipe work and structural steel work. etc. Man c. The layout of ________is another opportunity to exercise consistency of design. a. Each plant layout designer develops an individual _____________. The ________________ is skilled primarily in the development of equipment arrangements and piping layouts for process industries. value manifolds 5. Plant building c. plot plan d. a. Gas turbines 2.Self Assessment 1. layout document 3. heat exchanger boilers. elevation layout c. consistent with the operability ease of piping material. process plan design 4. may be safely installed in the open? a. gas turbine operator b. safety consideration means installing the unit in the smallest possible space. plant layout d. The use of the single stream or multiple stream flow pattern will affect the plot plan. Compressor d. plant layout b. Plot plan c. c. __________________ movement starts from its entry at the factory gate in the form of raw material. a.

plant layout c. Plot plan 9. Layout designer d. layout design 14/uts . Plant building d. Plant layout c. Plant building c. a. Plot plan b. Process plant layout b. Once the ______ is submitted to the local permit agency. a. a copy is often kept on record for future use or reference. a.Layout Designing 8. plant building d. _______________ is an architectural drawing that shows all the major features and structures on a piece of property. plot plan b. Layout design 10. _____________ are typically required with all permit and zoning applications submitted to local permitting agencies.

the students will be able to: • • • enlist the types of jacketed piping understand external tracer lines comprehend the importance of clips on tracers 15/uts .Chapter II Traced and Jacketed Piping Aim The aim of this chapter is to: • • • explain the advantages of pipe tracing systems introduce jacketed piping explain external tracer Objectives The objectives of this chapter are to: • • • explain Swaged jacketed piping introduce vacuum jacketed piping elucidate high pressure jacketed piping Learning outcome At the end of this chapter.

2. to meet the requirements of a process. This is achieved by the use of jacketed pipes. but the following guide-lines may be useful in other cases. The steam usage may be relatively small.2 Jacketed Piping A jacketed pipe is a pipe protected by an insulating cover. the compressors and evaporators are not worked as hard in order to maintain the cold setting of the refrigeration units. The fibreglass insulation is often coated with a foil-like material in order to enhance the heat retention properties of the insulation. any contact with skin could result in a cold burn that would require immediate medical attention. In large buildings. If not for the insulation covering the pipe. In the largest form.S. but the tracing system is often a major part of the steam installation.Layout Designing 2. Alaskan oil pipeline. Typically used for the transportation of hot steam or hot water. an extremely cold material that is often used aboard ships. In an effort to prevent the pipes carrying the cold liquid from becoming frost and ice covered. or by attaching to the product line one or more separate tracer lines carrying a heating medium such as steam or hot water. and the source of many of the problems. or simply as an anti-frost measure. commercial and industrial consumers alike. such as the U. Pipe tracing products are the most effective means of combating property damage caused by frozen. The jacketed pipe used in such large pipelines prevents the harsh elements outside from turning the oil inside from becoming so thick that it can no longer flow through the pipeline. to prevent thickening and solidification. oil flowing through the massive pipeline could become too thick to pump and could virtually stop flowing. By covering the pipes with insulation. Without the insulation. prevents material such as crude oil from becoming cold and thick.1 Introduction Preventing pipes from freezing during winter is essential for residential. a jacketed pipe is often used to carry super-heated steam from heating units located in the basement of the building to heating units in the uppermost floors. The advantages of the pipe tracing systems are: • • • • • • Ice-free pipes Constant flow in pipes Depth reduction for underground pipes No repair costs after a hard winter No hardening of fatty products in pipe systems Efficient hot water supply The temperature of the process liquids being transferred through pipelines must be maintained regularly. the jacketed pipe is manufactured with very heavy fibre glass insulation. used in cold climates. 16/uts . This reduces the risk of slip-and-fall accidents in areas where the pipeline passes through walk ways and passenger corridors. a jacketed pipe is often created by applying spray-on insulating foam to large pipelines. Not only heated pipes but jacketed pipes are also used to insulate very cold pipes. Many large users and plant contractors have their own in-house rules for tracer lines. In order to maintain the heat. This type of insulation-covered pipeline. Often found in buildings and ships. The use of a jacketed pipe also aids in the reduction of condensation-based water dripping from the supercold pipeline. the heavily insulated cover keeps the cold inside the pipe. jacketed pipes also can be found in very large-scale pipelines that carry oil in severely cold areas. a jacketed pipe maintains the temperature of the material flowing through it. Pipes carrying refrigeration materials are also covered with thick insulation. One example is a pipe transporting liquid oxygen. as they snake through the ship. This would hinder any attempts at loading the crude onto ships or trucks for transportation to refineries. Seams and joints in the covered pipe are taped with an insulating tape to create a seamless cover. damaged pipes.

com) 17/uts . The core pipe is welded to the front and back of a slip-on flange. but in extremely cold parts of the world.8“ 250 mm . 20 ft lengths and the condensate removed from each section.1 Steam connection size for jacketed lines 2. Standard jacketed piping is used most frequently with processes that have a narrow temperature range. 12 m (40 ft) should be maximum.) must also utilize oversized flanges or special flange adapters. all equipment (valves.4“ 150 mm .2. thus preventing cold flanges from disrupting the process. When it is considered impractical to trap each length. Flanges can be a large heat sink for the process. a number of lengths up to a total of 24-30m (80-100 ft) approximately may be formed together in moderate climates. and this construction allows the heating medium to heat the flanges as well as the process piping. Oversized flanges are required to allow sufficient room for bolting up the flanges during pipe installation.1 Types of Jacketed Piping Jacketed piping can be classified into four main types which are explained below.csiheat. meters.6“ 200 mm . and/or must have maximum heat input for melt-out or heat exchanger service.3. etc.3 Jacketed Lines Ideally.10“ Jacket Size 100 mm 4“ 150 mm 6“ 150 mm 6“ 200 mm 10“ 250 mm 10“ 300 mm 12“ Table 2.3“ 100 mm . jacketed lines should be constructed in no more than 6m.21/2“ 80 mm . Steam Connection 15 mm 1/2“ 20 mm 3/4“ 20 mm 3/4“ 25 mm 3/4“ 25 mm 1“ 25 mm 1“ Heating Fluid Process Jacket-Size Flange Fig. Steam should enter at the highest end.1 Standard jacketed piping (Source: http://www. pumps. This can only handle the condensate and baulks the free of steam as. Product Line Size 65 mm . require very uniform temperature maintenance. 2. Standard Jacketed Piping Standard jacketed piping provides the most uniform application of heat to the process and maintains the most uniform process temperatures. so that there is a natural fall to the condensate out let. and the jacket pipe is welded to the back of the flange. Consequently. Always avoid connecting solely through the bottom loop.

Due to its smaller size. Because swaged jacketed piping does not directly provide heat to the back of the flange. an insert flange is utilised. Swaged Jacketed Piping In swaged jacketed piping. core-size flanges favourably impacts the cost of a piping system. non-reducing insert-flanged jacketed piping is similar to swaged jacketed piping. 2. This is accomplished via a jacket-sized pipe cap which is welded to the core pipe a short distance from the back of the flange. In this regard. Rather than a standard slip-on flange. piping and mating equipment. Using equipment with standard. non-reducing insert flanges enable back-of-flange heating for more uniform temperature control.2 Insert-flanged jacketed piping (Source: http://www.csiheat. The principal benefit of this construction is the ability to use core-size flanges on both. the jacket is terminated prior to the flange. Non-reducing insert flanges are sized to match the core pipe and allow the use of core-sized equipment. 18/uts . the backing flange size matches the nominal size of the jacket pipe. the non-reducing insert flange demands more dexterity of installation personnel than does a reducing insert flange. but unlike swaged construction. For this reason. In order to fit the reducing insert flange. This flange is comprised of an insert (or hub) and a backing flange which is free to rotate on the insert (to ensure bolt hole alignment during installation). Reducing insert flanges have the same size requirements as standard jacketed piping.com) There are two types of insert flanges: reducing and non-reducing. equipment must have oversized flanges. many designers specify reducing flanges on pipe-to-pipe connections and non-reducing flanges on pipe-to-equipment connections. The core and jacket pipes are welded to the insert in the same manner as in standard jacketed piping. its usage is limited to processes which can accommodate a broader temperature range and colder flanges.Layout Designing Insert-flanged Jacketed Piping Insert-Flanged jacketed piping features all the thermal benefits of standard jacketed piping with improved bolt-up flexibility. Heating Fluid Process Core-Size Flange Jacket-Size Flange Process Heating Fluid Fig. Another benefit is the ability to significantly limit the potential for cross contamination by avoiding concealed welds.

In standard hubtype designs. 2. But. hub-type connectors are also available in flow-through designs which allow the heating medium to be directly transferred from one pipe spool to another. The hubs save both.4 High-pressure jacketed piping (Source: http://www.com) High-pressure Jacketed Piping In many high-pressure applications. 2. the heating medium must be transferred across the connector via external jumpovers.3 Swaged jacketed piping (Source: http://www. weight and space compared to ANSI Class 1500 or 2500 flanges.Heating Fluid Process Core-Size Flange Heating Fluid Process Core-Size Flange Core-Size Flange Process Heating Fluid Fig.csiheat. Hub Process Heating Fluid Fig.csiheat.com) 19/uts . designers often prefer to use hub-type (Grayloc) connectors for pipe-to-pipe connections.

Layout Designing

Vacuum Jacketed Piping Vacuum-jacketed pipe (VJ) is an efficient, safe, cost-saving piping solution for flowing liquid nitrogen and carbon dioxide from your storage vessel(s) to the places within your facility in which the liquefied gas is to be used. This specially-designed piping is actually a combination of an inner pipe (through which the liquid gas flows), an outer pipe and the space between the two which creates the vacuum jacket. By creating a vacuum between the two pipes, you are able to greatly reduce the effects of heat loss that is created through radiation, convection, and conduction, thus minimising product loss during transfer from your bulk vessel to your need point within the facility.

2.4 External Tracers
In horizontal runs, the steam will generally flow parallel to the product line but as far as possible, steam should enter from the high end to allow free flow of the condensate to the low end, i.e., it should always be self-draining. It is generally considered preferable to fit one tracer on the bottom of the line as two tracers at 300, as three tracers at 450. In vertical lines, the tracers would be spaced uniformly. The maximum permissible length of tracer will depend to some extent of the size and initial steam pressure. 2.4.1 External Tracer Lines One or more heat carrying lines of sizes ranging from 10 mm (3/8)” up to 25 mm (1”) nominal bore are attached to the main product pipe. Transfer of heat to the product line may be done in three ways; by conduction through direct contact, by convection currents in the air pocket formed inside the insulating jacket, and by radiation. The tracer lines may be of carbon steel or copper, or sometimes stainless steel. The product line is of a particular material should be chosen so as to suit the fluid it is carrying. The material for the tracer line must avoid electrolytic corrosion at any contact points.
Steam Fall

Steam Trap Steam Fall

Steam Trap

Incorrect arrangement Steam Trap Correct arrangement Incorrect arrangement

(a)

(b)

(c)

Correct arrangement

Incorrect arrangement

Fig. 2.5 Typical correct and incorrect arrangement (Source: http://www.pipingguide.net)
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For short runs of tracer, such as around short vertical pipes, or valves and fittings, small bore copper pipes perhaps 6 mm (1/4”) bore may be wound around the product lines. The layout should be arranged to give a continuous fall along the tracers.
Steam Grayscale Steam Grayscale Incorrect arrangement Steam trap Steam Steam Grayscale Steam trap Grayscale Steam trap Steam

Grayscale Steam trap

3/8 (10mm) OD 15/4 (6mm) bore

Tracers

Steam Steam trap Steam 3/6/10 mm OD 1/4(6mm) bore Steam trap

Headers

Steam trap

Tracers

Steam trap

Fig. 2.6 Traces line around the pump casing (Source: http://www.pipingguide.net) 2.4.2 Clips on Tracers The simplest form of tracer is one that is clipped or wired on to the main product line. The maximum heat flow is achieved when the tracer is in tight contact with the product line. The securing clips should be no further apart than 0.3 to 0.45m (12” to 18”) on 10 mm (3/8”) tracers, 0.45 to 0.6 to 0.9m (24” to 36”) on 20 mm (3.4”) and larger. The tracer pipes can be literally wired on, but to maintain close contact it is better to use either galvanised or stainless steel bands, about 15mm (1/2”) wide and 1.25mm or 0.9mm (18 to 20 SEG) thickness. One very practical method is to use a packing case banding machine. Where tracers are carried around bends particular care should be taken to ensure that good contact is maintained by using three or more bands.

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Layout Designing
¾ x ½ Reducer coupling ¾ x ½ Reducer coupling Traced pipe Tracer dia. ½” NB tracer Traced pipe
½” NB tracer

450

Top entry Installation of two tracers

Side entry Arrangement of distributors

360 1NB steam supply Lead 80 100 100 80 80 100

460 100 100 80

½ NB tracers

½ NB tracers Tracers Min Tracers

450

Side entry

Top entry

Fig. 2.7 Installation of three tracers (Source: http://www.pipingguide.net) 2.4.3 Welded Tracer and Heat Conducting Paste The tracer may be welded to the product line when the temperature difference between the tracer and the product is low. This can be done either by short run welds as in figure 2.8a or by a continuous weld as in figure 2.5b for maximum heat transfer. In these cases, the tracer is sometimes laid along the top of the pipe rather than at the bottom, which greatly simplifies the welding procedure. The product being carried in the line can be sensitive to temperature in some cases and it is then important to avoid any local not spots on the pipe. This is done by introducing a strip of insulating material between the tracer and the product pipe using gals fibre or mineral wool or sometimes packing blocks of inert material as distance pieces.

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a small mesh galvanised wire netting can be used in the same way as metal sheet. 2.pipingguide.net) 2. or by galvanized steel sheet.net/2010/02/traced-and-jacketed-piping.4 Insulation The insulation must cover both.8 Insulating tracer and product lines (Source: http://www. 2.pipingguide.9 Typical trace line and jacketed line (Source: http://www. Process line Internal guide flat bar L=50mm 300 Jacket line D 300 Internal guide flat bar L=50mm 300 D 300 Jacket line Jacket line E A B Detail process line dia 1/z to 20 A B Detail process line dia 1 and bigger Fig. foil.4. • The product line and tracer can first be wrapped with aluminium. held on by wiring and the insulation is then applied outside this sheet.Lagging Product Air space Tracer attached to product line (a) Lagging (b) Continuous fall on wrap around tracer Heat conducting paste Product Heat conducting paste Lagging Lagging Product Lagging Product Product (a) (b) (c) Fig.html) 23/uts . Alternatively. the product line and the tracer but it is important that the air space remains clear. This can be achieved in many ways.

5 Sizing of External Tracers The tracing or jacketing of any line normally aims at maintaining the contents of the line at a satisfactory working temperature under all conditions of low ambient temperature with adequate reserve to meet extreme conditions. water and some other chemicals but in some cases spacer tracing would be employed.pipingguide. C (75-150 deg. 2. C (75 deg. the insulation should properly cover all parts otherwise it becomes useless as heat conserving material if mechanical damage is allowed. phenol. Rule of thumb practices are generally based on the experiences of a certain company on a particular process and do not necessarily apply elsewhere. F) Product Line Size 25mm 1” 40mm 11/2” 50mm 2” 80mm 3” 100mm 4” 150mm 6” 200mm 8” 250-350mm 10” 12” 450-400mm 14”-16” 450-500mm 18”-20” 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 No.net/2010/02/traced-and-jacketed-piping. Most of the sizing of external tracers is done by rule of thumb. The steam pressure is important and must be chosen according to the product temperature required. Such circumstances must be taken into consideration when studying the tracer line requirements. C (150-300 deg. Even 00C (320 F) in still air can be lowered to an effective-160C (40 F) with a 30 km/h (20 mph) wind.4. with an ambient still air temperature of say-180C (0F).Layout Designing • • Sectional insulation. On some exposed sites.html) 24/uts . small mesh galvanised wire netting can be used in the same way as metal sheet. F) Type B Where solidification may occur at temps between 24-66 deg. It retains its thickness and efficiency better. Of 15mm ½” Tracers 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 6 8 10 Table 2. In all cases. F) Type C Where solidification may occur at temps between 66-149 deg. Alternatively. the effect of a 24 km/h (15 mph) wind will lower the temperature to an equivalent of-380 C (360 F). Preformed sectional insulation is usually preferred to plastic material because being rigid. preformed to one or two sizes larger than the insulation is then applied outside this sheet. Type A Where solidification may occur at temps below 24 deg. Type A would suffice for most fuel oil requirements and would also meet the requirement of those lines carrying acid. There are also widely differing opinions on the layout: some say that multiple tracers should all be below the centre line of the product line whilst others say with equal conviction that it is perfectly satisfactory to space the tracers equally around the line.2 Number of 15mm ½” tracers used with different product line sizes (Source: http://www.

25/uts .. McGraw-Hill. by conduction through direct contact. R. PTR Prentice Hall. 2007. piping. and by radiation. commercial and industrial consumers alike.. 7th ed.. A jacketed pipe is a pipe protected by an insulating cover. 2000. 2002. Typically used for the transportation of hot steam or hot water.L. Transfer of heat to the product line may be done in three ways.. E. 1993. and the source of many of the problems. but the tracing system is often a major part of the steam installation. Gulf Professional Publishing Nayyar. The steam usage may be relatively small. M. C. Smith. and pipelines handbook.. P. T.. by convection currents in the air pocket formed inside the insulating jacket.Summary • Preventing pipes from freezing during winter is essential for residential. Gulf Pub. P. M. Process plant layout and piping design. McGraw Hill Professional. Boyce. Valves. The tracer may be welded to the product line when the temperature difference between the tracer and the product is low. B. Elsevier Silowash. Hunt. 2nd ed. The tracing or jacketing of any line normally aims at maintaining the contents of the line at a satisfactory working temperature under all conditions of low ambient temperature with adequate reserve to meet extreme conditions. Piping Systems Manual.. 1999. Piping Handbook. Gas turbine engineering handbook. Pipe tracing products are the most effective means of combating property damage caused by frozen. • • • • • • References • • • Bausbacher. 2009. a jacketed pipe maintains the temperature of the material flowing through it. The simplest form of tracer is one that is clipped or wired on to the main product line.. 3rd ed.. The Fundamentals of Piping Design: Drafting and Design Methods for Process Applications. damaged pipes. Recommended Reading • • • Dickenson.

The maximum heat flow is achieved when the tracer is not in contact with the product line. 4. Jacketed pipe b. Steam tracing pipes d. High-pressure jacketed piping 7. b. Standard jacketed piping c.Layout Designing Self Assessment 1. c. a. one 6. Swaged jacketed piping d. Insert-flanged jacketed piping b. Traced pipe c. d. Process pipe d. In large buildings. Designers often prefer to use hub-type (Grayloc) connectors for pipe-to-pipe connections in which of these type of piping? a. jacketed pipe c. four b. The hardest form of tracer is one that is clipped or wired on to the main product line. a. a. Jacketed lines 5. High-pressure jacketed piping d. The material for the tracer line must have electrolytic corrosion at any contact points. ___________ is a pipe protected by an insulating cover. ________________ provides the most uniform application of heat to the process and maintains the most uniform process temperatures. The tracer pipes can be literally wired on. 20 ft lengths and the condensate removed from each section. three c. two d. Steam traced pipe 2. Tracers b. a. Insert-flanged jacketed piping b. Standard jacketed piping c. Which statement is true? a. Jacketed piping is categorised in ___________ types. heat tracing pipe d. but to maintain close contact it is better to use either galvanised or stainless steel bands. Tracing pipes c. traced pipe b. ______________ should be constructed in no more than 6m. Swaged jacketed piping 26/uts . a ____________ is often used to carry super-heated steam from heating units located in the basement of the building to heating units in the uppermost floors. steam tracing pipe 3. a.

High-pressure jacketed piping 27/uts . three parts c. Insert flanges are divided in___________. a. standard jacketed piping c. a. swaged jacketed piping 9. two parts b. four parts d. insert-flanged jacketed piping b. In ____________. high-pressure jacketed piping d.8. Insert-flanged jacketed piping b. five parts 10. _________________ features all the thermal benefits of standard jacketed piping with improved bolt-up flexibility. a. the jacket is terminated prior to the flange. Standard jacketed piping c. Swaged jacketed piping d.

the students will be able to: • • • understand maintenance practice enlist the different types compressors infer components of a compressor 28/uts .Layout Designing Chapter III Compressor and the Compressed Air System Aim The aim of this chapter is to: • • • introduce compressor and compressed air system explain the assessment of compressor and compressed air system elucidate pressure settings Objectives The objectives of this chapter are to: • • • explicate compressor house and piping layout introduce the pressure drops in air filter explain the inter and after coolers Learning outcome At the end of this chapter.

Dynamic compressors increase the air velocity. 3. Dynamic compressors are basically centrifugal compressors and are further classified as radial and axial flow types. It is simple to use. Positive displacement compressors are further classified as reciprocating and rotary compressors. Air compressors are used in a variety of industries to supply process requirements.org) 29/uts . and to meet instrumentation needs.3.2 Classification of compressor (Source: www. The flow and pressure requirements of a given application determine the suitability of a particulars type of compressor. 3.1 Introduction Air compressors account for significant amount of electricity used in Indian industries. which is then converted to increased pressure at the outlet. 3.1 Types of compressor • • Positive displacement compressors increase the pressure of the gas by reducing the volume. to operate pneumatic tools and equipment.2 Compressor Types Compressors are broadly classified as follows: Compressor Positive Displacement Compressor Dynamic Co mpressor Fig. Compressor is further classified as Compressor Positive Displacement Dynamic Reciprocating Rotary Centrifugal Axial Single-Acting Double-Acting Helical-Screw Liquid –Ring Scroll Sliding-Vane Lobe Fig. but complicated and costly to create.em-ea.

000 cfm in single stage designs. the compressor capacity is directly proportional to the speed. Two stage machines are used for high pressures and are characterised by lower discharge temperature (140 to 1600C) compared to single-stage machines (205 to 240o C). 3. They work on the principles of a bicycle pump and are characterised by a flow output that remains nearly constant over a range of discharge pressures.2.Layout Designing 3. The output. Horizontal balance opposed compressors are used in the capacity range of 200 – 5000 cfm in multi-stage design and up to 10. is a pulsating one.lubricated configurations. Vertical type reciprocating compressors are used in the capacity range of 50 – 150 cfm. 30/uts . Also.org) Reciprocating compressors are available in many configurations. The reciprocating air compressor is considered single acting when the compressing is accomplished using only one side of the piston.energyefficiencyasia. and horizontal balance-opposed and tandem. reciprocating compressors are the most widely used types for both. Fig. the four most widely used of which are horizontal. The air is normally cooled between the stages to reduce the temperature and volume entering the following stage.1 Positive Displacement Compressor These compressors are available in two types: reciprocating and rotary.3 Reciprocating compressor (Source: http://www. For practical purposes most plant air reciprocating air compressors over 100 horsepower are built as multi-stage units in which two or more steps of compression are grouped in series. Reciprocating air compressors are available either as air-cooled or water-cooled in lubricated and non. Reciprocating compressor In industry. may be packaged. however. A compressor using both sides of the piston is considered double acting. air and refrigerant compression. Many applications involve conditions beyond the practical capability of a single compression stage. and provide a wide range of pressure and capacity selections. A compressor is considered to be single stage when the entire compression is accomplished with a single cylinder or a group of cylinders in parallel. vertical.

This momentum is converted to useful pressure by slowing the air down in a stationary diffuser. The centrifugal air compressor is an oil free compressor by design. These compressors have appreciably different characteristics as compared to reciprocating machines. Because of the simple design and few wearing parts.Rotary compressor Rotary compressors have rotors in place of pistons and give a continuous pulsation free discharge. and is particularly suited to high volume applications. rotary screw air compressors are easy to maintain.vane. Since the cooling takes place right inside the compressor. 3. and provide great installation flexibility. and are easy to maintain. they have gained popularity. therefore. The rotary compressor.org) Types of rotary compressors include: • • • Lobe compressor (roots blower) Screw compressor (rotary screw of helical-lobe. Rotary air compressors can be installed on any surface that will support the static weight. They are most commonly used in sizes from about 30 to 200 hp or 22 to 150 kW.2. air cooled or water cooled compressor package. especially where oil free air is required. The oil-lubricated running gear is separated from the air by shaft seals and atmospheric vents. with few moving parts.4 Screw compressor (Source: http://www.000 cfm. Centrifugal machines are better suited for applications requiring very high capacities. 3. The rotor accomplishes this by changing the momentum and pressure of the air. The centrifugal is a continuous duty compressor. is a continuous duty. the working parts never experience extreme operating temperatures.2 Dynamic Compressor Dynamic compressors are mainly centrifugal compressors and operate on similar principles to centrifugal pump.energyefficiencyasia. liquid-ring. typically above 12. have low weight. For this reason. A small change in compression ratio produces a marked change in compressor output and efficiency. Fig. where mail and female screw rotors moving in opposite directions and trap air.They operate at high speed and generally provide higher throughput than reciprocating compressors. 31/uts . Their capital costs are low. and scroll-type Rotary screw compressors may be air or water-cooled. operate. The centrifugal air compressor depends on transfer of energy from a rotating impeller to the air. they are compact in size. which is compressed as it moves forward) Rotary vane / sliding.

1 General selection criteria of compressors (Source: http://www. Axial compressors typically are multi-stage machines. Machines with either axial or radial flow impellers are available. 3. Axial flow compressors are suitable for higher compression ratios and are generally more efficient than radial compressors.8 0.org) 32/uts .5 Centrifugal compressor (Source: http://www. The following table shows the general selection criteria for compressor.org) A single-stage centrifugal machine can provide the same capacity as a multi-stage reciprocating compressor.8 0.1 12 700 13 24 450 Table 3.0 0. while radial machines are usually single-stage designs.1 To 1 Roots blower compressor single stage Reciprocating -Single/Two stage -Multi stage Screw -Single stage -Two stage Centrifugal 100 100 100 100 100 600 12000 12000 2400 2200 300000 0. Types of Compressor Capacity (m3/h) From To 30000 Pressure (bar) From 0.energyefficiencyasia.Layout Designing Housing Air out Air thrown off at rim of impeller Air Impeller Air enters in center Fig.energyefficiencyasia.8 12.

i. Pf cylinders For practical purposes.. 3. metre S = Compressor speed rpm χ = 1 for single acting and 2 for double acting cylinder n = No.7 Where. air at atmospheric conditions at any specific location. 33/uts .3. total pressure and composition prevailing at the compressor inlet.e. This also termed as Free Air Delivery (FAD).2 Compressor Efficiency Definitions Several different measures of compressor efficiency are commonly used: volumetric efficiency. Because the altitude.3. barometer. Isothermal Efficiency Isothermal efficiency = Isothermal power(kW) = P1 X Q1 X logcr/36. adiabatic efficiency. kW/volume flow rate. This is an important consideration when selecting compressors based on reported values of efficiency. metre L = Cylinder stroke. Adiabatic and isothermal efficiencies are computed as the isothermal or adiabatic power divided by the actual power consumption.1 Capacity of a Compressor Capacity of a compressor is the full rated volume of flow of gas compressed and delivered at conditions of total temperature. Volumetric Efficiency Volumetric Efficiency = Compressor Displacement = D = Cylinder bore. The figure obtained indicates the overall efficiency of compressor and drive motor.3. 3.. the most effective guide in comparing compressor efficiencies is the specific power consumption. rather than rated volume of flow. isothermal efficiency and mechanical efficiency. it follows that this term does not mean air under identical or standard conditions. The reported value of efficiency is normally the isothermal efficiency. i.e. P1 = Absolute intake pressure kg/cm2 Q1 = Free air delivered m3/hr r = Pressure ratio P2/P1 The calculation of isothermal power does not include power needed to overcome friction and generally gives an efficiency that is lower than adiabatic efficiency. for different compressors that would provide identical duty. It sometimes means actual flow rate.3 Assessment of Compressor and Compressed Air System Compressor performance is measured on the following basis. and temperature may vary at different localities and at different times.

timer based / automatic drain valves etc. if a compressor takes air from within a compressor house or other building. Various types of traps used are manual drain cocks.6 A Typical Compressed Air System Components and Network (Source: www. • • 3. or heat of compression dryers. They are normally water-cooled. receivers. air dryers.4 Components of Compressed Air System Compressed air systems consist of following major components: Intake air filters. Supplemental Aftercooler Dryer Air Receiver Distribution system Air Inlet Filter Compressor Package Enclosure Air Filter Aftercooler and Lubricant Cooler Pneumatic Tool Control Panel Motor Compressor Air End Lubricant Air Separator Filter. or refrigerant dryers.4.em-ea. Additional access may be required for installation. Provide air entry louvers. filters. Inter-stage Coolers: Reduce the temperature of the air before it enters the next stage to reduce the work of compression and increase efficiency.Layout Designing 3. Receivers: Air receivers are provided as storage and smoothening pulsating air output . including a lifting rail or access for mobile lifting equipment. The moisture is removed by using adsorbents like silica gel /activated carbon. Regulator and Lubricator Fig. eliminate pits or trenches in the compressor house to avoid a suffocation or explosion risk. After Coolers: The objective is to remove the moisture in the air by reducing the temperature in a water-cooled heat exchanger. and lubricators. inter-stage coolers. excessive wear etc. after coolers.1 Compressor House and Piping Layout • • • If the compressor is handling a gas heavier than air. as air for instrument and pneumatic equipment has to be relatively free of any moisture. moisture drain traps. Allow adequate floor space for use during maintenance. Moisture Drain Traps: Moisture drain traps are used for removal of moisture in the compressed air.org) • • • • Intake Air Filters: Prevent dust from entering compressor. regulators. 3. scoured cylinders.reducing pressure variations from the compressor. These traps resemble steam traps. piping network. 34/uts . Dust causes sticking valves. Air-dryers: The remaining traces of moisture after after-cooler are removed using air dryers. Provide maintenance facilities.

Do not pipe different pressure stages through separate check valves to a common trap. then to the intercooler (for a two stage machine). separate from the compressorhouse foundation.2 Location of Compressor The location of air compressors and the quality of air drawn by the compressors will have a significant influence on the amount of energy consumed. vent possible shaft seal leakage to the suction line to avoid a dangerous atmosphere forming around the compressor. Use long-radius elbows or bends.scribd.4. If a toxic or otherwise hazardous gas is to be compressed. Consider the use of noise-absorbing materials and construction for a compressor house. Arrange an air compressor. dry air at intake.• • • • Prevent transmission of vibration by providing a foundation for the compressor. Compressor performance as a breathing machine improves with cool. The vendor’s drawings should be examined to determine what auxiliary piping. valves and equipment covered in the design points are to be supplied with the compressor by the vendor. route cooling water first to the after cooler. Do not overlook substantial space required for lube oil and seal oil control consoles for compressors. Keep piping clear of cylinders of reciprocating compressors and provide withdrawal space at cylinder heads. if present. Provide a platform for operation and maintenance of such an installation. dust. clean. If the compressor and the pressurised gas are cooled with water. Large reciprocating compressors are often installed on an elevated structure to allow access to valves and provide space for piping. such contaminants can build up on the internal components of the compressor.3 Air Intake Temperature The effect of intake air on compressor performance should not be underestimated. Piling is often a necessary part of the foundation. and vanes. • • • • • • • Silencer Filter Separator PI PI PI TI After Cooler TI Separator PI Receiver TI To Users 1st stage Driver Inter Cooler 2st stage To Drain Fig. 35/uts . associated equipment. not short-radius elbows or mitres. Such build-up can cause premature wear and reduce compressor capacity. impellers. such as valves.com/doc/31596482/Compressor-and-Copmressed-Air-Systems) 3. or other contaminants are present in the intake air. and lastly to the cylinder jackets (or casing jacket. Intake air that is contaminated or hot can impair compressor performance and result in excess energy and maintenance costs. If moisture.4. in other types of compressor). Pipe a separate trapped drain for each pressure stage. 3.7 Schematic arrangement of compressed air equipment (Source: http://www. and piping so that water is able to drain continuously from the system. 3. rotors. Install the compressor on a concrete pad or elevated structure. Ensure that the pressure into which any trap discharges will be lower than that of the system being drained—less the pressure drop over the trap and its associated piping.

5 21. it is advisable to clean inlet air filters at regular intervals to minimize pressure drops.8 Table 3. or have air brought to it from a clean.org) When an intake air filter is located at the compressor.0 15.0 Table 3.4 Pressure Drops in Air Filter A compressor intake air filter should be installed in.1 96.” Hence. the pressure drop across the intake air filter should be kept at a minimum (by size and by maintenance) to prevent a throttling effect and a reduction in compressor capacity.4. WC pressure drop increase across at the suction path due to choked filters etc. When the intake air filter is located outside the building.3 Relative Air Delivery (%) 102.7 43.5 -4.1 92. Manometers or differential pressure gauges across filters may be used to monitor pressure drops so as to plan filter-cleaning schedules.0 -5.0 -5.0 98. to prevent reduction in mass flow.4.0 100. a specific grade of intake filter designed to protect the compressor.Layout Designing The compressor generates heat due to its continuous operation. Better the filtration at the compressor inlet. The compressor manufacturer normally supplies. the compressor power consumption increases by about 2 percent for the same output. It is evident that compressors located at higher altitudes consume more power to achieve a particular delivery pressure than those at sea level. However. This can be accomplished by locating the inlet pipe outside the room or building. the intake of cool air improves the energy efficiency of a compressor.4 NIL -1.2 Effect of intake air temperature on compressor power consumption (Source: http://www. This results in lower volumetric efficiency and higher power consumption. as the compression ratio is higher.3 -2.7 7. or recommends.2 4. the ambient temperature should be kept at a minimum.energyefficiencyasia.2 Power Saved (%) +1. lower is the the maintenance at the compressor. The pressure drop across a new inlet filter should not exceed 3 pounds per square inch (psi). This heat gets dissipated to compressor room/ chamber leading to hot air intake. cool location. 3. A pressure differential gauge is one of the best tools to monitor the condition of the inlet filter.” Hence.2 37.1 26. “Every 4oC rise in inlet air temperature results in a higher energy consumption by 1 percent to achieve equivalent output. 3.3 Effect of pressure drop across the filter on increase in power consumption (Source: http://www. As a general rule.8 91. Inlet Temperature (oC) 10. Pressure drop across air filter (mmWC) 0 200 400 600 800 Increase in power consumption 0 1. ambient considerations may be taken into account.org) As a general rule “For every 250 mm. and particularly on a roof.6 3.5 Elevation Altitude has a direct impact on the volumetric efficiency of a compressor.6 32.energyefficiencyasia.3 94. 36/uts .

as larger volume is handled for the same duty.7 90. Pressure Reduction Fro (bar) 6.1 5. leading to further energy wastage. but also leads to excessive wear. the temperature of the inlet air at each stage of a multi-stage machine should be the same as it was at the first stage.Altitude Meters Sea level 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Barometric Pressure milli bar* Percentage Relative Volumetric Efficiency Compared with Sea Level At 7 bar 100. and drained from the system.4.0 87. Compressors should not be operated above their optimum operating pressures as this not only wastes energy.energyefficiencyasia.5 789 93.5 Table 3. the temperature of the gas increases.5 Single-stage Water-cooled 4 9 Power Saving (%) Two-stage Water-cooled 4 11 Two-stage Aircooled 2.0 945 98. Almost all industrial systems. and the pressure drop in the line between the compressed air generation and utilisation points. This is referred to as “perfect cooling” or isothermal compression.7 894 97.0 840 95. while in other systems the after-cooler is a separate piece of equipment.01972 x 10 kg/cm2 Table 3.4 Effect of altitude on compressor volumetric efficiency (Source: http://www.9 737 92. Reducing Delivery Pressure The possibility of lowering (optimising) the delivery pressure settings should be explored by careful study of pressure requirements of various equipments. the inlet air temperatures at subsequent stages are higher than the normal levels resulting in higher power consumption. After-coolers are installed after the final stage of compression to reduce the air temperature.6 6. which are heat exchangers that remove the heat of compression between the stages of compression.5 Effect of reduction in delivery pressure on power consumption (Source: http://www.6 Inter and After Coolers Most multi-stage compressors use intercoolers.org) 37/uts .8 To (bar) 6.7 95.org) 3.8 6. Most of the condensate from a compressor with intercooling is removed in the intercooler(s). except those that supply process air to heat-indifferent operations. The volumetric efficiency of a compressor is also less at higher delivery pressures. In some systems. Some systems have both. Intercooling affects the overall efficiency of the machine. and the remainder in the after-cooler. separated. water vapour in the air is condensed. As the air temperature is reduced. collected.0 97.energyefficiencyasia.0 At 4 bar 1013 100.2 92. require after-cooling. after-coolers are an integral part of the compressor package.4. As mechanical energy is applied to the gas for compression. a compressor consumes more power at higher pressures.1 -3 1 milli bar = 1. Ideally.7 Pressure Settings For the same capacity. 3. But in actual practice.

requires 10percent more energy as well as increasing the leakage rate. choked filter elements. In such situations. Where more than one compressor feeds a common header. The longer and smaller diameter the pipe is. • • • • • If all compressors are similar. compressors have to be operated in such a way that the cost of compressed air generation is minimal. Compressors can be graded according to their specific energy consumption. Pressure drop occurs as the compressed air travels through the treatment and distribution system. Following table illustrates the energy wastage. The operating of a compressed air system gently affects the cost of compressed air. Excess pressure drop due to inadequate pipe sizing. If different types of compressors are operated together. Typical acceptable pressure drop in industrial practice is 0. Operating a compressor at 120 PSIG instead of 100 PSIG. Pressure drop caused by corrosion and the system components themselves are important issues. the pressure switch should be set such that only the smallest compressor is allowed to modulate (vary in flow rate). the higher the friction loss.Layout Designing If one point-of-use or a minority of users require higher pressures than the remainder of the plant. for instance. improperly sized couplings and hoses represent energy wastage. To reduce pressure drop effectively. the pressure setting can be adjusted such that only one compressor handles the load variation. different types. therefore keeping the larger system operating at lower pressures. Compressor modulation by optimum pressure setting Very often in an industry. at different pressures and with energy efficient ones made to meet most of the demand Segregating high and low pressure requirement If the low-pressure air requirement is considerable. If compressors are of different sizes.3 bar in mains header at the farthest point and 0. a loop system with two-way flow can be used. measured from the receiver tank output to the point-of-use. which invariably waste energy Design for minimum pressure drop in the distribution line Pressure drop is a term used to characterise the reduction in air pressure from the compressor discharge to the actual point-of-use. 38/uts . capacities and makes of compressors are connected to a common distribution network. proper selection of a right combination of compressors and optimal modulation of different compressors can conserve energy.5 bar in distribution system. Every effort should be made to reduce the system and compressor pressure to the lowest possible setting. A properly designed system should have a pressure loss of much less than 10 percent of the compressor’s discharge pressure. In general. if the pipes are of smaller diameter. consider putting those operations on its own system or add a booster package at the point of. it is advisable to generate low-pressure and high-pressure air separately and feed to the respective sections instead of reducing the pressure through pressure reducing valves. whereas the others operate more or less at full load. the compressor with lower part load power consumption should be modulated.use. unload power consumptions are significant. The compressor with lowest no load power must be modulated. Note: A reduction in the delivery pressure by 1 bar in a compressor would reduce the power consumption by 6 – 10 percent.

efficiency improves and air leaks are reduced.22 0. most compressors with built.energyefficiencyasia. such as couplings. pneumatic conveying or combustion air.frequency hissing sounds associated with air leaks.4 1. sizes of pipes.10 Controlled Usage of Compressed Air Since the compressed air system is already available. based on demand. It is readily adapted to a variety of leak detection situations.4. The drain line must slope downward from the base to work properly. In many cases. hose. plant engineers may be tempted to use compressed air to provide air for low-pressure applications such as agitation. Since air leaks are almost impossible to see. tubing.02 Equivalent power losses (kW) 9. which can recognise the high.4. pipe sections. 39/uts . leaks are caused by failed cleaning of threads or by bad or improperly applied thread sealant. joints.4. Careful review of piping size from the compressor connection point is essential. Leaks occur most often at joints and connections.org) 3. Using a blower that is designed for lower pressure operation will cost only a fraction of compressed air generation energy and cost. A drain line should be connected to the condensate drain in the base.1 Table 3. hoses. disconnects.2 0. and type of fittings and valves must be considered for optimum efficiency of the compressor.11 Compressor Controls Air compressors become inefficient when they are operated at significantly below their rated cfm output.6 Typical pressure drop in compressed air line for different pipe size (Source: http://www. a controller can be installed to automatically turn compressors on and off. The best way to detect leaks is to use an ultrasonic acoustic detector.8 Minimising Leakage Compressed air leakage accounts for substantial power wastage. It is possible that additional condensation can occur if the downstream piping cools the air even further and low points in the piping systems should be provided with drip . fittings.4. other methods must be used to locate them. an isolation valve should be mounted near the compressor discharge.5 3.in after-coolers are furnished with a combination condensate separator/trap. the compressor’s after-cooler reduces the discharge air temperature well below the dew point (for most ambient conditions) and therefore considerable water vapour is condensed.80 0. and traps. drains. All piping and fittings must be suitably rated for the discharge pressure. 3. 3. and install them properly with appropriate thread sealant to avoid future leakages.65 0. Also.Pipe Nominal Bore (mm) 40 50 65 80 100 Pressure drop (bar) per 100 meters 1.04 0. Stopping leaks can be as simple as tightening a connection or as complex as replacing faulty equipment. if the pressure of the compressed air system is kept as low as possible. To avoid running extra air compressors when they are not needed. Select high quality fittings. number. 3.legs and traps. Ultrasonic leak detection is probably the most versatile form of leak detection. To remove this condensation. Lengths of pipes.9 Condensate Removal After compressed air leaves the compression chamber.2 0. It is also important that the discharge piping is the same size as the discharge connection at the compressor enclosure. In situations such as this.

Air Dryers: Drying air is energy-intensive. Condensate Traps: Many systems have condensate traps to gather and (for those traps fitted with a float operated valve) flush condensate from the system. Following are a few tips for efficient operation and maintenance of industrial compressed air systems: • • • Lubrication: Compressor oil pressure should be visually checked daily. The temperature of deliquescent dryers should be kept below 100°F to avoid increased consumption of the desiccant material. For refrigerated dryers. inspect and replace prefilters regularly as these dryers often have small internal passages that can become plugged with contaminants. which should be replenished every 3-4 months depending on the rate of depletion. and the oil filter changed monthly.Layout Designing 3. automatic traps should be checked to verify they are not leaking compressed air. Filters should be checked and replaced regularly. • 40/uts . Manual traps should be periodically opened and re-closed to drain any accumulated fluid. Air Filters: The inlet air filter can easily become clogged.12 Maintenance Practice Good and proper maintenance practices will dramatically improve the performance efficiency of a compressor system. particularly in dusty environments.4. Regenerative dryers require an effective oil-removal filter on their inlets. as they will not function well if lubricating oil from the compressor coats the desiccant.

Elliot. The location of air compressors and the quality of air drawn by the compressors will have a significant influence on the amount of energy consumed. installation. 2006. Capacity of a compressor is the full rated volume of flow of gas compressed and delivered at conditions of total temperature. piping network.Summary • • • • • • • • • • • Air compressors are used in a variety of industries to supply process requirements. adiabatic efficiency. PTR Prentice Hall.. inter-stage coolers. but complicated and costly to create. 7th ed. Smith. and maintenance. Compressed air systems: a guidebook on energy and cost savings. B. P.. filters. Compressors are broadly classified as Positive Displacement Compressor and Dynamic Compressor. to operate pneumatic tools and equipment. Recommended Reading • • • Talbott... 1993. The Fairmont Press. E.L. applications. moisture drain traps. McGraw-Hill Professional. R... Process plant layout and piping design. 2000. 41/uts . Good and proper maintenance practices will dramatically improve the performance efficiency of a compressor system. McGraw Hill Professional. Piping Handbook. Compressed air operations manual: an illustrated guide to selection. Silowash. E. Compressed air leakage accounts for substantial power wastage. Gulf Pub.. 2009. isothermal efficiency and mechanical efficiency. Hunt. 2007. Several different measures of compressor efficiency are commonly used: volumetric efficiency. Piping Systems Manual. Intake air that is contaminated or hot can impair compressor performance and result in excess energy and maintenance costs. 2nd ed. total pressure and composition prevailing at the compressor inlet. compressors have to be operated in such a way that the cost of compressed air generation is minimal. Inc. B. regulators. They are simple to use.. M. The Fundamentals of Piping Design: Drafting and Design Methods for Process Applications. 1993. after coolers. and to meet instrumentation needs. Air compressors become inefficient when they are operated at significantly below their rated cfm output. Where more than one compressor feeds a common header. M. receivers. Nayyar. and lubricators. McGraw-Hill. References • • • Bausbacher. Compressed air systems consist of following major components: Intake air filters. air dryers.

Lobe is a type of _____________ compressor a. Centrifugal compressors c. reciprocating d. Reciprocating air compressors are available either as air-cooled or water-cooled in lubricated and nonlubricated configurations. Reciprocating compressors are available in many configurations. a. Reciprocating compressor is a type of _______________. Single-acting is a type of _____________ compressor. A compressor is considered to be single stage when the entire compression is accomplished with a single cylinder. Which statement is false? a. dynamic compressor c. Four d. rotary c. a. Which compressors are suitable for higher compression ratios and are generally more efficient than radial compressors? a. centrifugal 3. Two b. Reciprocating compressor b. centrifugal 4. c. Single-acting compressors 42/uts . dynamic b. rotary compressor 2.Layout Designing Self Assessment 1. A compressor using both sides of the piston is considered centrifugal compressor. 7. reciprocating d. root blower compressor d. dynamic b. Three c. rotary c. positive displacement compressor b. b. rotary compressor b. Rotary compressors d. Which compressors have rotors in place of pistons and give a continuous pulsation free discharge? a. Compressors are broadly classified into how many types? a. centrifugal compressor c. Five 6. centrifugal compressor d. d. axial flow compressor 5.

Usage of compressed air 10. Positive displacement compressors b. dynamic compressor c.8. Compressed air leakage b. Reciprocating compressors c. Axial compressors d. centrifugal compressor 43/uts . ____________ accounts for substantial power wastage. _________________ are mainly centrifugal compressors and operate on similar principles to centrifugal pump. a. Compressor control d. a. Dynamic compressors 9. Condensate removal c. positive displacement compressor b. Axial compressor is a type of________________. a. rotary compressor d.

Layout Designing Chapter IV Cooling Water System and Fire Fighting System Aim The aim of this chapter is to: • • • introduce cooling water system explain the fire fighting system elucidate cooling towers Objectives The objectives of this chapter are to: • • • explicate cooling system process introduce chemistry of fire explain the cooling tower types Learning outcome At the end of this chapter. the students will be able to: • • • understand classification of fire enlist the different components of a cooling tower infer components of a compressor 44/uts .

1 Introduction Water is the most efficient tool of dissipating unwanted heat. A cooling tower is the most important piece of equipment in any industry whose primary purpose is to remove heat while minimising water usage. Cooling water users Cooling water pump Screen Cold water in River Hot water out Fig. but it is very costly to construct.4. The cooling system could be classified in three broad categories. These systems are very common in countries where there is acute scarcity of water. lake. Water is simply drawn from estuary. In dry cooling. Once through system In once through system. The amount of water consumed for cooling varies with the type of cooling system employed. Local environment authority having jurisdiction must permit such installation as the environment issues in many states do not permit discharging hot water directly to river because of water pollution and aquatic life concerns. 4. the cooling water passes through the heat exchange equipment only once. The example of such countries are Middle East countries. or river to the process equipment/heat exchanger and discharged back to river.1 Once thorough system Dry towers Dry towers or closed recirculation sy stem uses the same cooling water repeatedly in a continuous cycle. 45/uts . there is no direct contact of water with air. This system is used where large volume of cooling water is required and where the water is available in plenty. The most commercial buildings and industries use water to cool their HVAC and process machinery. This type of cooling system consumes little or no water.

As a result.Layout Designing Cooling water users Evaporation losses Cooling tower Circulation pump Make up water from river etc.net) 46/uts . or power generation. and are therefore more cost-effective and energy efficient.retscreen. Drift Evaporation Warm water Water sprayed downward Heat Exchanger Flow meter Make-up water Water with concentrated Mineral Salts Treatment chemicals Flow meter Blowdown Pump Cool water Fig.2 Cooling Tower Cooled water is needed for. cooling ponds. 4. Make up water pump Fig. like the radiator in a car. the most applications rely on the use of evaporative cooling tower systems. for example. A cooling tower is a device that cools water that gets heated in process cooling. Cooling towers are able to lower the water temperatures more than devices that use only air to reject heat. In general. or spray ponds recirculate the water.3 Schematic diagram of a cooling water system (Source: www.2 Recirculation or closed system Evaporative systems Evaporative systems such as wet cooling towers. Cooling towers make use of evaporation whereby some of the water is evaporated into a moving air stream and subsequently discharged into the atmosphere. The cooling tower reduces the environmental impact of water pollution and promotes water conservation. 4. manufacturing processes. Cooling towers are provided to re-use the same water for cooling again and again rather than discharging it to the environment. air conditioners. 4. the remainder of the water is cooled down significantly. A cooling tower is equipment used to reduce the temperature of a water stream by extracting heat from water and emitting it to the atmosphere.

or other patterns. casing. the casing may essentially be the frame. Many towers (casings and basins) are constructed of galvanised steel or. In some forced draft counter flow design. honeycombed. louvers. and it receives the cooled water that flows down through the tower and fill. as well as aluminium and plastics for some components. • Cold-water basin: The cold-water basin is located at or near the bottom of the tower. forming a thin film in contact with the air. 47/uts . Materials are chosen to enhance corrosion resistance. motors. various grades of stainless steel. These surfaces may be flat. including the frame. reduce maintenance. drift eliminators. fill and coldwater basin. Louvers: Generally. Automatic variable pitch blades can vary air flow in response to changing load conditions. while also wetting the fill surface. and other components. Many counter flow tower designs do not require louvers. and concrete are widely used in tower construction. The film type of fill is the more efficient and provides same heat transfer in a smaller volume than the splash fill. louvers. however.3 Components of a Cooling Tower The basic components of a cooling tower include the frame and casing. axial (propeller type) and centrifugal fans are used in towers. cold-water basin. Uniform water distribution at the top of the fill is essential to achieve proper wetting of the entire fill surface. closely spaced plastic surfaces over which the water spreads. propeller fans are used in induced draft towers and both propeller and centrifugal fans are found in forced draft towers. The purpose of louvers is to equalise air flow into the fill and retain the water within the tower. manufacturers use a variety of materials to construct cooling towers. corrugated. or they can be part of a rotating assembly as found in some circular cross-section towers. the inlet air louvers of glass fibre. such as the casing around the wooden framework of glass fibre. and promote reliability and long service life. providing easy access to the fans and their motors. • • • • • • 4. the water at the bottom of the fill is channelled to a perimeter trough that functions as the coldwater basin. such as some glass fiber units. With some smaller designs. the type of propeller fans used is either fixed or variable pitch. There are two types of fill: ‚‚ Splash fill: Water falls over successive layers of horizontal splash bars. nozzles and fans. The basin usually has a sump or low point for the cold-water discharge connection. Fans: Both. cooling towers were constructed primarily with wood. glass fibre. because they extend the life of the cooling tower and provide protection against harmful chemicals. • Frame and casing: Most towers have structural frames that support the exterior enclosures (casings). Frame and casing: Wooden towers are still available. These are described below. Today. A fan with non-automatic adjustable pitch blades can be used over a wide kW range because the fan can be adjusted to deliver the desired air flow at the lowest power consumption. Glass fibre is also widely used for cooling tower casings and basins. Plastic splash fills promote better heat transfer than wood splash fills.4. ‚‚ Film fill: This consists of thin. Propeller fans are mounted beneath the fill to blow the air up through the tower. The inlet may take up an entire side of a tower (cross-flow design) or be located low on the side or the bottom of the tower (counter-flow design). Drift eliminators: These capture water droplets entrapped in the air stream that otherwise would be lost to the atmosphere. the tower and/or the basis are made of stainless steel. Air inlet: This is the point of entry for the air entering a tower.4 Tower Material Originally. cross-flow towers have inlet louvers. the tower is mounted on legs. Fill: Most towers employ fills (made of plastic or wood) to facilitate heat transfer by maximising water and air contact. Depending upon their size. air inlet. but many components are made of different materials. the fill of plastic and the cold-water basin of steel. Nozzles can either be fixed and spray in a round or square patterns. continuously breaking into smaller droplets. Sometimes the cold-water basin was made of concrete. Larger towers sometimes are made of concrete. the coldwater basin is beneath the entire fill. Galvanised steel. With this design. In many tower designs. Nozzles: These spray water to wet the fill. fill. where a corrosive atmosphere is a problem. fans. Generally.

fresh cool air is drawn into the tower through an air inlet at the bottom. 4. or moulded glass fibre reinforced plastic. Propeller fans are made from galvanised steel.this helps maximise heat transfer between the two. When water conditions require the use of splash fill. 48/uts . 4. ABS.1 Natural Draft Cooling Tower The natural draft or hyperbolic cooling tower makes use of the difference in temperature between the ambient air and the hotter air inside the tower. treated wood splash fill is still used in wooden towers.2 Mechanical Draft Cooling Tower Mechanical draft towers have large fans to force or draw air through circulated water. Many nozzles are made of PVC. and glassfilled nylon. Nozzles: Plastics are also widely used for nozzles. Because of greater heat transfer efficiency. aluminium. Mechanical draft towers are available in a large range of capacities. Fans: Aluminium.5. These cooling towers are mostly only for large heat duties because large concrete structures are expensive. no fan is required and there is almost no circulation of hot air that could affect the performance. polypropylene.5. Centrifugal fans are often fabricated from galvanised steel. 4. Vertical ribs Reinforced concrete shell Void Upper stiffening beam Void Hot-water distribution basin Drift eliminators Fill Hot water inlet Foundation ring hot-water risers Vertical ribs Reinforced concrete shell Annular fill area Louvers Air in Cold-water collecting basin (a) Diagonal columns Hot-water distribution basin Fill Diagonal columns Air in Cold-water return Cold-water collecting basin (b) Fig. 4. Concrete is used for the tower shell with a height of up to 200 m. Due to the layout of the tower.4 (a) Cross flow natural draft cooling tower (b) Counter flow natural draft cooling tower There are two main types of natural draft towers: • • Cross flow tower (a): Air is drawn across the falling water and the fill is located outside the tower.5 Cooling Tower Types Cooling towers fall into tow main sub-divisions: natural draft and mechanical draft. polypropylene. The water falls downwards over fill surfaces. although design depends on specific site conditions. Cooling rates of mechanical draft towers depend upon various parameters such as fan diameter and speed of operation. but plastic splash fill is also widely used. Counter flow tower (b): Air is drawn up through the falling water and the fill is therefore. glass fibre.Layout Designing Fill: Plastics are widely used for fill. film fill is chosen for applications where the circulating water is generally free of debris that could block the fill passageways. located inside the tower. and hot-dipped galvanised steel are commonly used fan materials. which help increase the contact time between the water and the air . and other polymers. including PVC. As hot air moves upwards through the tower (because hot air rises). fills for system resistance etc.

e.6 Cooling System Process Cooling towers come in all shapes and sizes. • Induced draft cross flow cooling tower: • • Water enters at top and asses over fill Air enters on one side (singleflow tower) or opposite sides (double-flow tower) An induced draft fan draws air across fill towards exit at top of tower • • Induced draft counter flow cooling tower: • • • Hot water enters at the top. The total heat transferred is equal to the heat of evaporation plus the sensible heat. The evaporation cools the stream of water. The water trickles in droplets through the fill media. • Advantages Suitable for high air resistance • due to centrifugal blower fans Fans are relatively quiet.1 Types of mechanical draft towers 4. often refers to such towers.g. Many towers are constructed so that they can be grouped together to achieve the desired capacity. Thus.Towers can be either factory built or field erected – for example concrete towers are only field erected. They are designed to expose the maximum water surface to the maximum flow of air. The hot water enters the tower at the top and is distributed within the structure in a manner that exposes a very large water surface to the air passing through. Table 4. Some of the water is lost to evaporation. They all work on the same principle of evaporation as the means of cooling. Uses forced and induced draft fans.” The number of cells they have. square. the water is constantly added to cooling tower basin to make up the difference.. which can be solved by locating towers in plant rooms combined with discharge ducts Fans and the motor drive mechanism require weatherproofing against moisture and corrosion because they are in the path of humid exit air. or round depending upon the shape of the individual cells and whether the air inlets are located on the sides or bottoms of the cells. The fill media is generally in form of open plastic mesh that increases the exposed water surface to maximise contact with air. A cooling tower blows air across the mesh to have direct contact with the falling water so that some of the water evaporates. many cooling towers are assemblies of two or more individual cooling towers or “cells. Evaporation results in cooling. an eight-cell tower. The three types of mechanical draft towers are summarised in the following table. the evaporative and sensible heat transfer occur as the warmer water comes in contact with the cooler air. for the largest period of time. Both. Multiple-cell towers can be lineal. 49/uts . Air enters bottom and exits at the top. Type of Cooling Tower Forced draft cooling tower: Air is blown through the tower by a fan located in the air inlet. Water distribution is accompanied by means of spray nozzles or distribution pans and by means of various types of fill media. less recirculation than forced • draft towers because the speed of exit air is 3-4 times higher than entering air Disadvantages Recirculation due to high air-entry and low air-exit velocities.

7 Assessment of Cooling Tower The performance of cooling towers is evaluated to assess present levels of approach and range against their design values. identify areas of energy wastage and to suggest improvements. These are: • Range: Difference between the cooling tower water inlet and outlet temperature is shown in the above figure. (Note: CT = cooling tower.5 Range and approach of cooling towers These measured parameters and then used to determine the cooling tower performance in several ways. and is thus performing well.Layout Designing 4. A high CT Range means that the cooling tower has been able to reduce the water temperature effectively. The formula is: CT Range (°C) = [CW inlet temp (°C) – CW outlet temp (°C)] 50/uts . CW = cooling water). During the performance evaluation. portable monitoring instruments are used to measure the following parameters: • • • • • • • • Wet bulb temperature of air Dry bulb temperature of air Cooling tower inlet water temperature Cooling tower outlet water temperature Exhaust air temperature Electrical readings of pump and fan motors Water flow rate Air flow rate Hot water temperature (In) Range (In) to the Tower (Out) from the Tower Cold-water temperature (Out) Approach Wet bulb temperature (Ambient) Fig. 4.

range and approach should be monitored. The following formula can be used (Perry): Evaporation loss (m3/hr) = 0. a fire can quickly consume and destroy whatever lies in its path. both. or in other words it is = Range / (Range + Approach). We use it daily to heat our homes and cook our meals. Cooling towers have certain design values. Thermodynamic rules also dictate that the heat removed from the water must be equal to the heat absorbed by the surrounding air.C): This is the ratio of dissolved solids in circulating water to the dissolved solids in make up water. the higher the cooling tower effectiveness. specific heat. Although. 51/uts . the ‘Approach’ is a better indicator of cooling tower performance.8 Fire Fighting System Fire is a phenomenon with which everyone is familiar. i. Evaporation loss: This is the water quantity evaporated for cooling duty. Lower the approach. While we are all familiar with fire. – 1) Liquid/Gas (L/G) ratio: The L/G ratio of a cooling tower is the ratio between the water and the air mass flow rates.8 m3 for every 1. CT Effectiveness (%) = 100 x (CW temp – CW out temp) / (CW in temp – WB temp) Cooling capacity: This is the heat rejected in kCal/hr or TR. however. few of us are aware of its nature and complex processes.O.8 x circulation rate (m3/hr) x (T1-T2) T1 .000 kCal heat rejected. CT Approach (°C) = [CW outlet temp (°C) – Wet bulb temp (°C)] Effectiveness: This is the ratio between the range and the ideal range (in percentage). Adjustments can be made by water box loading changes or blade angle adjustments. The higher this ratio. better will be the cooling tower performance. When harnessed.T2 = temperature difference between inlet and outlet water Cycles of concentration (C. Therefore the following formulae can be used: L(T1 – T2) = G(h2 – h1) L/G = (h2 – h1) / (T1 – T2) • • • • • • Where: L/G = liquid to gas mass flow ratio (kg/kg) T1 = hot water temperature (0C) T2 = cold-water temperature (0C) h2 = enthalpy of air-water vapour mixture at exhaust wet-bulb temperature (same units as above) h1 = enthalpy of air-water vapour mixture at inlet wet-bulb temperature (same units as above) 4. and temperature difference.• Approach: Difference between the cooling tower outlet. coldwater temperature and ambient wet bulb temperature is shown in the above figure.C.000.O. given as product of mass flow rate of water. difference between cooling water inlet temperature and ambient wet bulb temperature. but seasonal variations require adjustment and tuning of water and air flow rates to get the best cooling tower effectiveness. Blow down losses depend upon cycles of concentration and the evaporation losses and is given by formula: Blow down = Evaporation loss / (C. Theoretically the evaporation quantity works out to 1. the power and energy from fire serves us well.00085 x 1.. when it is uncontrolled.e.

1 Chemistry of Fire Chemistry of fire can be well illustrated by explaining the following sections. An explosion is. However. there must be an adequate intermixing of the oxygen and fuel molecules. which is pure energy. which releases and ignites more vapour. and there are sufficient oxygen and vaporised fuel molecules available. The heat that radiates back to the fuel is called radiation feedback. This new vapour can now mix with oxygen and can become involved in the oxidation process. Therefore. the same sort of energy radiated by the sun and felt as heat. State of Products in “Fire” Oxidation Process All substances exist in one of three states: as a solid. is in fact the rapid oxidation of millions of fuel molecules in the vapour form.2 Fundamentals of Fire The combustion process. In the examples of rusting iron or rotting wood. in all directions. or travels. Oxidation Oxidation is a chemical reaction between the molecules of a substance and the oxygen molecules in the surrounding atmosphere. energy is released at a much greater rate. For the oxidation process to occur. If sufficient energy is released during the reaction to maintain the elevated temperature of surrounding oxygen and fuel molecules. The burning vapour produces heat. an ignition source is typically needed for oxidation to be initiated. For fuel molecules in either a solid or liquid state.). the amount of energy released is minimal since these oxidation processes occur at a very slow rate. the molecules are tightly bound and cannot be effectively surrounded by the oxygen molecules in the atmosphere. In fact. these molecules will move about more rapidly. While fuel molecules in the solid or liquid states are not directly involved in the oxidation process. As long as there is fuel and oxygen available. the greater intensity in which the energy is released. including the rusting of iron. During this process. This part of the heat serves to release more vapours and also serves to raise the vapour (fuel and oxygen molecule mixture) to the ignition temperature. The more rapid the oxidation rate. 52/uts . producing more heat. the tarnishing of silver. then the oxidation process will continue. which starts a chain reaction. when heated. These molecules become effectively surrounded by the oxygen molecules in the atmosphere and are available to become involved in the oxidation process. the oxidation of a combustible media at an extremely fast rate. However. The heat released by the oxidation of the fuel molecules is radiant heat. elevated temperatures. to the “burning” solid or liquid (the fuel).Layout Designing 4. the oxidation rate of the fuel molecules is much faster. Accordingly. fuel molecules in a vapour state are free to mix with the atmosphere.. the fire will continue to grow. or the rotting of wood. Because of this rapid reaction. There are many common examples of oxidation. What is known as fire is actually a chemical reaction involving the oxidation of the fuel molecules. However. or burning.. The released energy is actually felt and seen in the form of heat and light. Recognising that the fire or combustion process is actually a chemical reaction (involving the oxidation of the fuel molecules) is critical to understanding the basics of the fire phenomena. It radiates. in a fire. 4. the fuel molecules in a solid or liquid state do serve as the source of additional fuel vapours when exposed to heat.e. air is drawn into the area where the flames and vapour meet. molecules in either a liquid or solid state are not directly involved in the rapid chemical reaction of oxidation in a fire. only fuel molecules in a vapour state are actually involved in the oxidation process. The result is that the newly-formed vapour begins to burn and the flames increase. Once there is sufficient oxygen and the fuel vapour molecules properly mix.8. which releases and ignites still more vapour. a liquid or a vapour (gas). etc.g. some fuel molecules break away from the surface to form a vapour just above the surface. once oxidation is initiated. In addition. Thus. a certain amount of energy is released. part of it moves back to the seat of the fire. At the same time. proper mixture. the reaction occurs at a much faster rate and only under certain conditions (e. it is an exothermic process. The additional vapour burns. If enough heat (energy) is applied. The oxidation reaction is an exothermic process (i. in fact. The molecules oxidise by breaking apart into individual atoms and recombine with the oxygen atoms to form new molecules.8. one in which heat is given off). what is called burning or combustion is actually the continuous rapid oxidation of millions of fuel molecules. However.

4. then a fire cannot start. The job of selecting the proper extinguishing agent has been made easier by the classification of fires into four types. Water is a good extinguishing medium and is very effective on deep-seated fires. If any of the three components are removed. as well as familiarity with the burning characteristics of materials that may be found aboard a vessel. It is important to have a clear understanding of these three components and their inter-reactions in a fire. Within each class are fires involving those materials with similar burning properties and requiring similar extinguishing agents.net/pdf/304139/FIRE-FIGHTING-SYSTEMS-pdf.8. while a liquid fuel usually burns up completely. it is important to be able to identify the type of fire on which a particular medium will be effective. 4. or classes. Thus. A solid fuel may leave an ash residue and continue to smoulder for some time. lettered “A” through “D. less heat is produced and the process begins to die out. However. The following Paragraphs examine each of these items in further detail. they may be much less effective or even hazardous for use on other types of fires. a fire-fighter would not want to use a portable water extinguisher on a fire involving a “live” electrical panel or switchboard due to the conductivity of the water and the possible shock that could result. When there is less fuel vapour available to oxidise. such as burning wood or rubbish.6 The fire triangle (Source: http://pdf-world. 53/uts .” based upon the fuels involved.9 Classification of Fire The characteristics of fires and the effectiveness of extinguishing agents differ with the fuels involved. While particular extinguishing agents are very effective on fires involving certain fuels. Take for example. This usually continues until most of the fuel has been consumed. 4. Considering the different types of fuels that may be involved in a fire. the different types of extinguishing agents available and the different mechanisms which the various agents use to extinguish a fire. then the fire will go out.php) There are two important factors to remember in preventing and extinguishing a fire: • • If any of the three components are missing. producing a steady rate of burning. the amount of vapour released from the fuel reaches a maximum rate and begins to level off.3 The Fire Triangle There are three components required for combustion to occur: • • • Fuel – to vaporise and burn Oxygen – to combine with fuel vapour Heat – to raise the temperature of the fuel vapour to its ignition temperature The following is the typical “fire triangle.For a fuel source with a limited amount of surface area available. knowledge of these classes is essential to efficient fire-fighting operations.” which illustrates the relationship between these three components: Oxygen Heat Fuel Fig. the use of a portable water extinguisher.

they can contribute to fires and fire hazards in a number of ways. Sparks from the ferrous metals. thus giving the vapours the chance to mix with the correct amount of air to form an explosive moisture. When equipment is de-energised. extinguishers for class A or B fires could be used safely. can ignite nearby combustible materials. the gases or vapours formed when they are heated and evaporated explode. and (b) danger to the Individuals fighting the fire.4 Class D Metals are commonly considered to be non-flammable. breathing apparatus should be used whenever fires involving metals are fought. just as in the carburettor of a car.Layout Designing 4. storage in a closed container is a necessity. The same circumstances hold true with all flammable oils when enough heat is present to release vapours from the liquid. However. 4. including: • • • • Wood and wood-based materials Textiles and fibres Paper Plastics and rubber 4. or in the vicinity of a fire. The same holds true in gasoline storage. in fighting an electrical fire there are two important things to be taken into consideration: namely (a) damage to the equipment far beyond what the fire could do. such as gasoline. give off noxious gases when subjected to the high temperatures of a fire. However. iron and steel. two things can be done: (a) The liquid can be cooled down to the point where no vapours are given off. Alkali metals such as sodium. 4. Keeping in mind that a flammable liquid is not hazardous as long as it is not hot enough to give off vapours which can mix with the oxygen in air and burn. structural collapse and toxic fumes. de-energise the circuit and use only the types of extinguishment recommended for class C fires. For example. Many metals. the change of state from liquid to gas must first occur. liberating hydrogen. but. Some flammable liquids give off vapours at temperatures ordinarily considered cold.1 Class A Class “A” fires involve three groups of materials commonly found onboard a vessel. As long as they are in a liquid state with no vapours being given off. however.9. resulting in fires. as pointed out previously. their hazards. In order for any vapour to explode.3 Class C Electrical equipment involved in fire.9.9. it must have the correct vapour-air ratio. and lithium react violently with water. potassium. Some metallic vapours are more toxic than others. such as cadmium. A number of metals.2 Class B Class “B” fires involve two groups of materials commonly found onboard a vessel: • • Flammable liquids Flammable gases Flammable or inflammable (identical in meaning) liquids do not themselves burn or explode. When the engine is flooded with gas. For the more volatile liquids. Most metals in powder form can be ignited as a dust cloud. and the extinguishment of fires involving electrical equipment. and violent explosions have resulted. and (b) the supply of oxygen can be blanketed out. This Subsection discusses some electrical installations found aboard a vessel. The danger is when the gases being poured from one container to another. In addition to all this. the mixture is too rich and fails to ignite. 54/uts . gasoline vaporises at -43 EC (-45 EF) or lower. metals can injure fire-fighters through burning. that is. To avoid these two possibilities.9. may cause electric shock or burns to fire-fighters. there is little or no hazard. and sufficient heat is generated in the process to ignite the hydrogen. Finely divided metals are easily ignited at high temperatures. especially in finely divided form. are subject to self-heating under certain conditions.

or has obvious corrosion. Access to. and they cannot be expected to be effective after a fire has spread to involve a large amount of combustible material. The date the inspection was performed and the initials of the person performing the inspection shall be recorded. Any seals or tamper indicators that are broken or missing shall be replaced. 4. impaired. leakage. or clogged nozzles shall be noted. Pressure-gauge readings when not in the operable range shall be noted. The operation instructions on the extinguisher nameplate shall be legible and face outward. 55/uts . or by a combination of these methods. Also. Extinguishers for Class A Fires Multipurpose dry chemical Foam extinguishers Loaded stream extinguishers Extinguishers for Class B Fires Multipurpose dry chemical Foam Carbon dioxide (CO2) Dry chemicals Loaded stream extinguishers Bromotrifluoromethane . the extinguisher shall be subjected to applicable maintenance procedures.4. For water types without gauges.1 Inspection and Maintenance Portable extinguishers shall be maintained in a fully charged and operable condition. Extinguishers shall be inspected monthly. some types tend to inhibit oxidation by chemical action. leaking.10.” Any obvious physical damage. and kept in their designated placed at all times when they are not being used. or visibility of. corrosion. The action of all extinguishers is by cooling the burning substance below its ignition temperature and by excluding the air supply (blanketing out the oxygen). and the following items shall be checked: • • • • • • • The extinguisher shall be in its designated place. the extinguisher shall not be obstructed. Aluminium tags on which the date can be punched are preferred for a lasting record. Inspection Inspection is a quick check that an extinguisher is available and will operate. their fullness shall be determined by “hefting.Halon 1301 Extinguishers for Class C Fires Multipurpose dry chemical Bromotrifluoromethane . Each extinguisher shall be equipped with a tag for registering inspection date. or that the extinguisher is damaged.10 Portable Fire Extinguishers All extinguishers of a portable type act as a “first-aid” appliance for extinguishing fires in their incipient stage. under or overcharged.Halon 1301 Carbon dioxide (CO2) Dry chemicals Extinguishers for Class D Fires Extinguishers or extinguishing agents for class D fires shall be types approved for use on the specific combustible metal. When an inspection reveals that tampering has occurred.

Unless all these tasks are performed quickly and efficiently. giving each employee an opportunity to handle an extinguisher and apply the extinguishing agent to a fire. and to switchboard wiring. at any time. when coiled as illustrated in the figure shown below.-- Fig. Mole end --4-Ft. not more than 1 year apart or when specifically indicated by an inspection. 4. 4. Any extinguishers removed from the premises to be recharged shall be replaced by spare extinguishers during the period they are gone. The damage to the insulation from soaking may require extensive drying out or rewiring operations and the damage from water may be as much or more than the damage caused by the fire itself. it should be borne in mind that water can be damaging to insulated conductors and windings.11. Handling of fire hose The hose must be unrolled.gov/power/data/fist/fist5_2/vol5-2. Hydrostatic Tests If. Water may also be undesirable from the standpoint that it is sometimes difficult to de-energise all circuits with which the water might come in contact. water should be used on a fire of this type only as a last resort. valuable time will be lost that may mean the difference between a fire being quickly extinguished and situation getting out of control. Since water’s effectiveness depends on the speed with which it is applied to the fire after the fire is first discovered. Extinguishers requiring discharge for hydrostatic testing or refuelling should be utilised for demonstration purposes. However. it should be subjected to hydrostatic pressure tests or replaced. Maintenance shall be performed at regular intervals. Dry chemical extinguishers having non-refillable. In addition. the hydrostatic test intervals for extinguishers listed below should be followed. 4. Hose.7 Coiling for hose (Source: http://www. For this reason. the fire fighting force must function as a well-organised team in laying the hoses in order to get the water on the fire.usbr. disposable containers are exempt from this requirement.1 Water Extinguishing System Water was man’s first means of fighting fire and is still one of the best all-around weapons. It includes a thorough examination and any necessary repair or replacement. so that male and female ends are in the correct position for coupling.pdf) 56/uts . such as in motors and generators. Stored pressure-dry chemical extinguishers that require a 12-year hydrostatic test will be emptied and subjected to applicable main­ tenance procedures every 6 years. All couplings must be made tightly to guard against leakage and loss of pressure. an extinguisher shows evidence of corrosion or mechanical injury. can be run out without tangling or kinking.11 Application of Fire Fighting Equipments (Portable and Fixed) Different applications for portable and fixed fire fighting equipments are mentioned below. Refill all extinguishers as soon as they are used.Layout Designing Maintenance Maintenance is a “thorough check” of the extinguisher intended to give maximum assurance that an extinguisher will operate effectively and safely. The hose must be spread out or laid so that it will not kink or tangle when the line is advanced toward the fire.

This is done because all nozzles and fittings are equipped with female couplings. the person handling the female end should make sure the rubber gasket is in place. with the handle in one position. and shut off.liquid fires can be extinguished with water only in the form of a fine spray or fog. To unroll the hose. compact roll. when a fire breaks out. See that fog. the foot is placed on the female end. As mentioned before. Instructions for Fog-Nozzle Use Breaking the water stream up into small droplets increases the electrical resistance of the stream in such a way that dangerous electrical currents cannot flow if reasonable distances are kept. The swivel is given a half turn back to align the thread. Care should be taken to obtain an even.2 m (4 ft) from the female end. the connection will leak and pressure will be lost. There are two suitable types. the male end is snapped up sharply and run toward the fire. and (b) the spray is essentially nonconductive to electricity at distances over 5 m (15 ft). Grasped at the fold. In making all couplings. the correct end is always at the correct place for coupling. One person holds the male end firmly. the male end is held in position with the foot. dry chemical. the ends are in the correct position. This prevents the threads from fouling and speeds up the coupling operation.) While there will seldom be occasion to deliberately direct a spray on electrical conductors. is produced. placing the male end on the top about 1. deenergise the circuit and proceed on the oil fire with CO2. the second person engages the threads of the female swivel. such installations should be equipped only with fog nozzles which cannot produce a solid stream. Class C Fire Precautions Oil switches. the male end always on the inside. All systems should be flushed periodically. and the threads on the male end are protected against abrasion or damage. Connecting hose is usually a two-person operation. To withhold use of water fog until all electrical circuits have been de-energised might occasion lengthy and disastrous delay. Without it. leaving both hands free to engage the swivel.purpose type which. the liberty. oil-filled transformers. (This adjustable nozzle is not to be confused with the all. General instructions and limitations for use of fog nozzles are summarised as follows: • • • • Allow air and scale to clear from system before directing near energised conductors. Fires involving materials other than liquids require a balanced stream to break up or penetrate the burning material. the hose is rolled tightly as slack is taken up. Flammable. will produce a solid stream. (The terms “fog” and “spray” are used interchangeably.) Fog is also used to protect the fire-fighter in approaching a fire. To roll the hose in a coil. and limitations within which this can be done should be understood by anyone who may have occasion to fight fires in or near electrical apparatus. When the connection is made by one person. and the adjustable nozzle. and other electrical equipment containing oil of a relatively high flashpoint may be heated and ignited by excessive current or an electric arc. Coiled in this manner. Allow clearance of over 5 m (15 ft) from energised conductors for 15 to 230 kV and allow at least 1 m (3 ft) on conductors up to 16 kV.The male end always runs in the direction of the fire. Water fog has two characteristics that render it more suitable than solid streams to most fire fighting applications with which electric power personnel are concerned: (a) Water fog is more effective on fires of combustible liquids such as oil fires. not solid stream. or water (fog nozzle). Fog Nozzles for Electrical Installations The form in which water is used is determined by the type of fire to be extinguished. the fixed-fog nozzle. then doubled over. By having the female end on the outside of the coil. 57/uts . Since both of these characteristics are needed around electrical equipment. The latter may produce a cone of spray from a 30-degree cone to a nearly flat curtain. the length is first laid straight.

Another advantage of the applicator is the ease with which it can be manipulated at the seat of the fire. General Use of Fog Nozzles In situations involving liquid fires. while the extinguishing action of low velocity fog. Both the types of fog nozzles have their limitations. under certain conditions.11. due to the possibility of some electrical breakdown causing electrical shock. However. however. depends on cooling and dilution. but it would be more difficult than if the same gasoline were in an open tank. if you must fight a fire on live electrical equipment. Metal applicators should not be used in switchyards and substations because of the danger of making contact with energised circuits. and since the entire area must be cooled below the ignition temperature of the fuel before the fire can be extinguished. the applicator should be used whenever possible on liquid fires. The greatest danger lies primarily in accidental physical contact with live wires or equipment. The following general rules apply to the application and use of ordinary air foams. the finely diffused water particles form a steam blanket that aids in extinguishing. This increases the rate of cooling.2 Foam Extinguishing System Fire fighting foam is a mass of gas-filled bubbles which is lighter than flammable liquids. Foam solutions are not recommended for use on electrical fires as the foam is conductive. low velocity fog should be used. be sure that the fog nozzle is operated at its designed pressure to produce a fine spray before using it on the live electrical equipment and maintain distance in excess of 5 m (15 ft) from live conductors. High-velocity fog extinguishes fires in flammable liquids by a complete coverage of the burning surface with a fine spray which cools the surface. Applied close to the burning surface. or emulsifies the flammable liquid. 4. These materials should not be used simultaneously with air foams. High-expansion foam can seem to completely submerge and apparently extinguish fires. dilutes the flammable vapours. Two main types of foam are available. Electrical equipment should always be approached carefully during a fire.6 m (4 to 12 ft) in length with the end bent at an angle. while the fire continues to burn quietly beneath it. continuous layer of vapour-sealing. Solid-Stream Nozzles Prohibited The use of solid-stream nozzles in electric power installations is prohibited because of the hazards involved in applying a stream of water with possible high electrical conductivity. cooling. water-bearing material for purposes of halting or preventing combustion. enough current can flow through a hose stream to injure the man holding the nozzle. burning gasoline flowing over a large area on the ground could be extinguished by a fog nozzle. • • 58/uts . for safety.and high-expansion foam as discussed below. The foam can float on all flammable liquids and produces an air-excluding. The applicator head provides a greater spread and finer diffusion of the water. as previously mentioned.Layout Designing There is ordinarily no danger from playing hose streams on low-voltage circuits. • Most foam are adversely affected by contact with vaporising liquid extinguishing agents and by many dry chemical agents.2 to 3. This can occur when burning vapours beneath the foam support the foam blanket on heated air. These are low. produced by a fog head at the end of an applicator. An applicator is an extension pipe 1. Gases from decomposing plastic materials have a similar breakdown effect on foams. always use a fog or fine spray. With this in mind. for example.

it has the ability to penetrate into loose material and confined spaces where water or foam might not. Low-Expansion Foam The normal expansion ratios for high-expansion foam range from 100:1-1000:1.8 Types of foam extinguishing systems (Source: http://www. and any situation where water would be damaging to the material after the fire is extinguished. the foam forms an emulsion of steam. The expansion ratio is the volume of foam generated. Fig.pdf) Limitations of Foam Foams are primarily used for control and extinguishment of fires involving flammable or combustible liquids. Since CO2 is heavier than air. and for volumetric displacement of vapour. Uses CO2 may be used on a large variety of fires. divided by the volume of solution used. which has a temperature of minus 79 VC (-110 VF). The primary method of extinguishment with low-expansion foam is smothering.3 Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing System The use of CO2 as an extinguishing agent is based on the principle of using an inert gas to reduce and displace the oxygen content of the air. CO2 is not suitable for use on pyroxylin plastics (photographic film). and fuel. 4. If foam is applied to liquids with a bulk temperature higher than 1000C (2120F).11. This snow turns into gas and in the process absorbs heat from the surrounding atmosphere. and the liquid must not be unduly destructive to the foam. High-expansion foam is particularly suited as a flooding agent for use in confined spaces. all types of electrical machinery and apparatus. The minimum foam depth for extinguishing a fire is about 6 mm (1/4 inches) with an average depth of 76mm (3 inches) or more. some types of foam are capable of following a flowing fuel fire. The liquid must not be water reactive. and the following criteria must usually be met for the foam to be effective: • • • • • The liquid must be below its boiling point at the ambient condition of temperature and pressure. The foam must not be highly soluble in the liquid to be protected. The rapid expansion of the gas on discharging produces a refrigerating effect. air. although cooling is a factor.Foam Extinguishing System Low-Expansion Foam The normal expansion ratios for low-expansion foam range form 4:1 to 12:1.usbr. 4. This may produce a fourfold increase in volume. heat and smoke. However.gov/power/data/fist/fist5_2/vol5-2. for transporting wet foam masses in inaccessible places. 59/uts . The fire must be a horizontal surface fire as falling fuel fires cannot be extinguished by foam unless the fuel has a relatively high flashpoint and can be cooled to extinguishment by the water in the foam. The primary method of extinguishment is the smothering and cooling effect of water. such as: flammable liquids in practically any type container. Most fires where there are no flowing embers to maintain a high degree of heat for reigniting can be extinguished by a reduction of the oxygen content from the normal 21 percent to 15 percent. as indicated by the CO2 snow.

Two employees equipped with self-contained breathing apparatus will open generator housing door and vents to permit the CO2 and smoke to escape by natural draft and to determine if all fire has been extinguished.gov/power/data/fist/fist5_2/vol5-2. however. the release of carbon dioxide into an enclosure causes a blinding storm of small crystals and builds up CO2 concentration so rapidly that escape becomes nearly impossible. As far as safety to life is concerned.pdf) Breathing a higher concentration than 9 percent CO2 can render a person helpless almost immediately. it is potentially dangerous for personnel to be in an area protected by a CO2 system. is not dangerous.usbr. depending upon the size and design of the units. A test release of a bank of CO2 concentrations from atmospheric normal to above 45 percent in less than 10 seconds. In entering a generator housing after CO2 has been discharged. and when discharged. the following precautionary measures for personnel safety are required. if not breathed in excessive amounts. they will be obtained when CO2 is used to smother a fire in an enclosure such as generator housing on oil storage or oil purifier room. In the case of the oil storage and oil purifier rooms.Layout Designing Precautions in using CO2 The characteristics of carbon dioxide are such that certain precautionary measures are necessary. This period should be determined by a CO2 concentration test. Fans can also be used to clear the unit of smoke and CO2.2 Effect of CO2 on lungs (Source: http://www. It is desired to maintain a minimum concentration of at least 25 percent for a period of time to extinguish fires in enclosures of this kind. As CO2 design concentrations for fire extinguishing generally exceed 25 percent. The CO2 nozzles in generator housings should not direct the gas directly against the windings as the chilling effect may damage the insulation. other personnel may enter the housing. Also.” or frostbite from coming in contact with a metal part through which the gas has passed. the rapid expansion produces a refrigerating effect to the extent that one may obtain a “burn. It also increased CO2 concentrations in turbine pits to 15 percent. Therefore. proper airing out of the area should also be obtained before personnel are allowed to enter. After this has been accomplished and atmospheric tests for carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide concentrations are found to be below safe limits. a concentrated atmosphere inhaled for several minutes will produce suffocation. 60/uts . and hazardous concentrations in both locations remained for approximately 1 hour. All the employees entering such areas must obtain clearance on the stationary extinguishing system and make it inoperative by mechanical and/or electrical means. CO2. proper clearance of the generator should be obtained and enough time should elapse so that the CO2 application has served its intended purpose in extinguishing the fire. The effective discharge period of the CO2 extinguishers varies from 1 to 2 minutes. however. Entering enclosures after CO2 discharge Concentrations for the proportions mentioned above are not likely to be encountered when portable CO2 equipment is being used to fight fires in an open area. as illustrated in the following tabulation: CO2 Concentration 2 percent 3 percent 5 percent 9 percent Increase in lung activity 50 percent 100 percent 300 percent Can be tolerated only for a few minutes Table 4. CO2 is stored in a liquid state under very high pressure.

are prohibited at Reclamation facilities because their shells are subject to metal fatigue and creep at the seams of construction which can cause failure of the units and may injure the operator. The extinguishers contain a cartridge of CO2 or nitrogen (depending on size) to expel the dry chemical. 61/uts . Effective range of the compound stream is from 10. or in any situation where the compound stream can be swept across the burning surface.4 Carbon Tetrachloride. The powder consists principally of bicarbonate of soda which has been chemically processed to make it free-flowing.11. Invertingtype fire extinguishers. However. and about 3 minutes 30 seconds in the 159-kg (350-lb) size. portable fire extinguishers which operate by inverting the unit to initiate an uncontrolled pressure generating chemical reaction to expel the agent. An effective discharge of dry chemical is obtained for a period of approximately 1 minute 45 seconds in smaller size.4. nonabrasive. since the powder is non-conducting and. Chlorobromomethane and Inverting-type Extinguisher The use of carbon tetrachloride and chlorobromomethane extinguishers is not allowed in any form at Reclamation installations because of their toxic and corrosive effects and possible damage to some electrical insulation. and also to provide means for prompt rescue of any trapped personnel. suitable safeguards shall be provided to ensure prompt evacuation of such locations.7 m (35 to 45 ft). such as self generating soda acid. both in rotating machinery and other equipment. Extinguishing characteristics are similar to those of portable extinguishers. These extinguishers are effective on fires of flammable liquids in vats and pools. Wheeled Units Dry-chemical-compound wheeled units are available in capacities of 45 to 159 kg (100 to 350 lb) with operating pressure furnished by nitrogen gas. or gas-cartridge. water-type. self generating foam. releases many times its volume in nontoxic fire extinguishing gases similar to CO2. Dry-chemical Extinguishers Dry-chemical extinguishers expel a finely powdered dry chemical which. the powder remaining after the fire is extinguished is difficult to clean from motor or generator windings.7 to 13. spilled fires on floors. on striking flame. These extinguishers can be used for electrical fires. Safety Requirements When there is a possibility of a personnel getting exposed to a dry-chemical discharge. in some types.

.. Oxygen. There are three components required for combustion to occur: Fuel... The performance of cooling towers is evaluated to assess present levels of approach and range against their design values. the rapid expansion produces a refrigerating effect to the extent that one may obtain a “burn. William Andrew. Once there is sufficient oxygen and the fuel vapour molecules properly mix. All extinguishers of a portable type act as a “first-aid” appliance for extinguishing fires in their incipient stage. The evaporation cools the stream of water. nozzles and fans. 2007. Springer. or spray ponds recirculate the water.liquid fires can be extinguished with water only in the form of a fine spray or fog. Chemical Publishing Company. drift eliminators. Nolan. The form in which water is used is determined by the type of fire to be extinguished. The characteristics of fires and the effectiveness of extinguishing agents differ with the fuels involved. Hunt. is in fact the rapid oxidation of millions of fuel molecules in the vapour form. identify areas of energy wastage and to suggest improvements. Cooling towers fall into two main sub-divisions: natural draft and mechanical draft. P. an ignition source is typically needed for oxidation to be initiated. Oxidation is a chemical reaction between the molecules of a substance and the oxygen molecules in the surrounding atmosphere. and when discharged. E. CO2 is stored in a liquid state under very high pressure. 1998. Incorporated. D. 2004. and they cannot be expected to be effective after a fire has spread to involve a large amount of combustible material. Treatment of Cooling Water. A. fill. P. Aquaprox. Cote.Layout Designing Summary • • • • • • • • • Dry towers or closed recirculation system uses the same cooling water repeatedly in a continuous cycle. E..” or frostbite from coming in contact with a metal part through which the gas has passed. PTR Prentice Hall. C. Cooling Water Treatment Principles and Practices: Charts and Notes for Field Use. A cooling tower blows air across the mesh to have direct contact with the falling water so that some of the water evaporates. 62/uts . louvers. Flammable. or burning. Gulf Pub. Smith. • • • • • References • • • Bausbacher. Heat. Fundamentals of Fire Protection. 1993. 2009. R. The combustion process. air inlet. Fire Fighting Pumping Systems at Industrial Facilities. Jones & Bartlett Learning. The basic components of a cooling tower include the frame and casing. cold-water basin. Evaporative systems such as wet cooling towers. A cooling tower is equipment used to reduce the temperature of a water stream by extracting heat from water and emitting it to the atmosphere. Process plant layout and piping design. The Fundamentals of Piping Design: Drafting and Design Methods for Process Applications. 2010. Recommended Reading • • • Frayne. cooling ponds.

b. Cooling tower d. Evaporative system 4. Cooling ponds is a type of ____________. Cold-water basin 63/uts .Self Assessment 1. ______________ is located at or near the bottom of the tower. c. elevation c. a. Splash fill b. or river to the process equipment/heat exchanger and discharged back to river. Towers or closed recirculation system uses the same cooling water repeatedly in a continuous cycle. design d. or spray ponds recirculate the water. fill. a. forming a thin film in contact with the air. Oxygen d. evaporative system 6. Frame b. ____________ consists of thin. dry tower b. Evaporative systems such as wet cooling towers. evaporative system 5. a. Casing c. Frame d. elevation c. a. Water b. cooling ponds. Casing 7. Elevation c. ______________ is a device that cools water that gets heated in process cooling. lake. ______________ is the most efficient tool of dissipating unwanted heat. The basic components of a _____________ include the frame and casing. a. a. cooling tower b. d. Film fill c. cold-water basin and drift eliminators. Fire c. Which statement is false? a. closely spaced plastic surfaces over which the water spreads. Water is simply drawn from estuary. 3. Fill d. Cooling towers are provided to reuse the same water for cooling again and again rather than discharging it to the environment. dry tower d. Dry tower b. CO2 2.

There are _______ components required for combustion to occur a. a. Class B c. three c. Class A b. Oxidation b. Class D 64/uts . Fire generation 9. two b. four d.Layout Designing 8. Fire fighting system c. five 10. Plastic and rubber comes under ____________ type of fire a. ______________is a chemical reaction between the molecules of a substance and the oxygen molecules in the surrounding atmosphere. Combustion d. Class C d.

Chapter V Piping for Steam Distribution Aim The aim of this chapter is to: • • • highlight the importance of Steam explain the Steam distribution system elucidate the importance of piping in steam distribution system Objectives The objectives of this chapter are to: • • • enlist the methods of calculating pipeline size introduce the piping material categorise pipeline size Learning outcome At the end of this chapter. the students will be able to: • • • understand the piping layout comprehend the resistance of valves and fittings to flow of fluids infer economic velocity for deciding line size 65/uts .

flow is induced in the supply pipe. 5. and this causes a pressure drop. Energy is easily transferred to the process. It is necessary to consider steam. an efficient steam distribution system is essential. The central source might be a boiler house or the discharge from a co-generation plant. Initially. which causes the steam to flow through the pipes. The modern steam plant is easy to manage.1 Introduction Steam is widely used in most of the process industries and in all power generation plants. Installation and maintenance of the steam system are important issues. or ‘steam mains’. condensate and the effects on the construction material while designing the piping system for steam distribution. for supplying adequate and quality steam. Condensate has a very small volume compared to the steam. Steam Steam Condensate Process vessel Space heating system Steam Condensate Condensate Steam Make-up water Feed pump Feed tank Condensate Fig. • 66/uts . and must be considered at the design stage.com) • • As steam condenses in a process. to understand the basic steam circuit or ‘steam and condensate loop’.2 Steam Distribution System The steam distribution system is the essential link between the steam generator and the steam user. • • • • • • Steam is efficient and economic to generate. Steam is flexible. Waste heat boilers use exhaust gases that originate from high temperature processes. Whatever the source is. Steam is easy to control. The reasons for using steam are as follows. 5.spiraxsarco. there will be one or more main pipes. to the steam using equipment. engines or even incinerators. The boilers may burn primary fuel. Smaller branch pipes can then carry the steam to the individual pieces of equipment. as process heating media. The steam generated in the boiler must be conveyed through pipework to the point where its heat energy is required. Steam can easily and cost effectively be distributed to the point of use. which carry steam from the boiler in the general direction of the steam using plant. Refer to the figure given below.1 A Typical steam distribution circuit (Source: www. There are various methods to carry steam from a central source to the point of use.Layout Designing 5.

The condensate will then have to be drained from various strategic points in the steam main. the steam distribution pipework and in the process equipment is a convenient supply of useable hot boiler feedwater. There is now a continuous supply of steam from the boiler to satisfy the connected load and to maintain this supply more steam must be generated. Pipeline sizing is an important factor. When the valve on the steam pipe serving an item of steam using plant is opened. steam immediately passes from the boiler into and along the steam mains to the points at lower pressure. as this is the time where there is maximum temperature difference between the steam and the pipework. Once the pipework has warmed up. are included to improve tensile strength and creep resistance at high temperatures. The resulting condensation (condensate) falls to the bottom of the pipe and is carried along by the steam flow and assisted by gravity. and should be practiced wherever practical. Pipeline sizing can be divided into two categorise. The same material may be used for condensate lines.9 Al06. The condensate formed in both. although copper tubing is preferred in some industries. In order to do this. 67/uts .3. On start-up of the system. such as chromium and molybdenum.2 Pipeline Sizing The objective of the steam distribution system is to supply steam at the correct pressure to the point of use. This condensing rate is commonly called the ‘starting load’. For high temperature superheated steam mains. Returning all condensate to the boiler feedtank closes the steam energy loop.1 Piping Material Pipes for steam systems are commonly manufactured from carbon steel to ANSI B 16. the temperature difference between the steam and pipework is minimal. Typically. it is a valuable commodity and should not be allowed to run to waste. steam flowing from the distribution system enters the plant and again comes in contact with cooler surfaces. continues to transfer heat to the process (running load). when up to temperature. The steam then transfers its energy in warming up an equipment and product (starting load). 5. Steam on contact with the cooler pipes will begin to condense immediately.. the condensing rate will be at its maximum.3. but some condensation will occur as the pipework still continues to transfer heat to the surrounding air.3 Pipes As discussed above. Although it is important to remove this condensate from the steam space.• • • • When the boiler main isolating valve (sometimes referred to as the ‘crown’ valve) is opened. 5. more water (and fuel to heat this water) is supplied to the boiler to make up for the water which has previously been evaporated into steam. pipes are supplied in 6meter lengths. viz. Pipes are one of the most important components of a steam distribution system. • • • • • • • • 5. so heat is transferred from the steam to the pipe. The air surrounding the pipes is also cooler than the steam. The pipework is initially cooler than the steam. so the pipework will begin to transfer heat to the air. due to the gradient in the steam main that should be arranged to fall in the direction of steam flow. oversized pipe work and undersized pipe work. and. additional alloying elements. This condensing rate is commonly called the ‘running load’.

68/uts . The table given below can be used for determining the pipeline size. Pressure drop as a general rule. water hammer and noise due to the inherent increase ins team velocity. In practice. etc. insulation. including support work. Fig. •  For steam pipes a greater volume of condensate will be formed due to the greater heat loss. based on pressure drop and velocity described below.spiraxsarco. should not exceed 0. • There is a risk of steam starvation. fittings.2 Categorisation of pipeline sizing (Source: www. a balance is drawn between pipe size and pressure loss. valves. •  There is a greater risk of erosion. This may hinder equipment performance due to only lower pressure steam being available.1 bar/50 m. etc. 5. will be more expensive •  Higher installation costs will be incurred.Layout Designing Piping sizing Oversized Pipework •  Pipes. Pipeline sizing based on pressure drop Pressure drop through the distribution system is an important feature. This in turn means that either more steam trapping is required or wet steam is delivered to the point of use Undersized Pipework •  A lower pressure may only be available at the point of use.com) The required pipeline size can be calculated. whether for water pipes or steam pipes.

93 15 25 40 18 30 48 21 35 56 31 51 82 40 67 107 50 83 132 59 98 157 68 114 182 77 129 206 86 144 230 105 175 280 141 235 375 0.20 154.com) 69/uts .04 40.64 35.1 Pipeline size (Source: www.26 128.05 Pipeling Capacity kg/h 25 43 58 95 136 210 362 569 822 41 71 97 159 227 350 603 948 1369 66 113 154 254 363 561 965 1517 2191 29 51 69 114 163 251 433 681 983 49 85 115 190 271 419 722 1135 1638 78 136 185 304 434 671 1155 1815 2621 34 59 81 133 189 292 503 791 1142 57 99 134 221 315 487 839 1319 1904 91 158 215 354 505 779 1342 2110 3046 50 86 118 194 277 427 735 1156 1669 83 144 196 323 461 712 1226 1927 2782 133 230 314 517 737 1139 1961 3083 4451 65 113 154 254 362 559 962 1512 2183 109 188 256 423 603 931 1603 2520 3639 174 301 410 676 964 1490 2565 4032 5822 80 139 190 313 446 689 1186 1864 2691 134 232 316 521 743 1148 1976 3106 4485 215 371 506 833 1189 1836 3162 4970 7176 96 165 225 371 529 817 1408 2213 3195 159 276 375 619 882 1362 2347 3688 5325 255 441 601 990 1411 2180 3755 5901 8521 111 191 261 430 613 947 1631 2563 3700 184 319 435 716 1022 1578 2718 4271 6167 295 577 696 1146 1635 2525 4348 6834 9867 125 217 296 487 695 1073 1848 2904 4194 209 362 493 812 1158 1788 3080 4841 6989 334 579 788 1299 1853 2861 4928 7745 11183 140 242 330 544 775 1198 2063 3242 4681 233 404 550 906 1292 1996 3438 5403 7802 373 646 880 1450 2068 3194 5501 8645 12484 170 294 401 660 942 1455 2506 3938 5686 283 490 668 1101 1570 2425 4176 6563 9477 453 785 1069 1761 2512 3880 6682 10502 15164 228 394 537 886 1263 1951 3360 5281 7625 380 657 896 1476 2105 3251 5600 8801 12708 608 1052 1433 2362 3368 5202 8960 14082 20333 Table 5.spiraxsarco.4 0.50 62.80 9 14 23 10 17 28 12 20 32 18 29 47 23 38 61 28 47 75 34 56 90 39 65 104 44 74 118 49 82 131 60 100 160 80 134 214 20 20.92 102.7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 14 Pipe size (nominal) 25 32 40 50 65 80 100 125 150 Actual inside pipe diameter Schedule 40 26.Pressure Velocity Barg m/s 15 25 40 15 25 40 15 25 40 15 25 40 15 25 40 15 25 40 15 25 40 15 25 40 15 25 40 15 25 40 15 25 40 15 25 40 15 15.70 77.90 52.

3 Steam pipeline sizing chart – pressure drop approach (Source: www. draw a horizontal line to the steam flow rate of 286 kg/h. and mark Point A.Layout Designing Pipe sizing can also be computed using the chart in the figure given below. The point at which lines DE and BC cross will indicate the pipe size required. In this case. 5. From point B.24 bar Determining the pipeline size based on the pressure drop using the nomogram in fig.3: • • • • • Select the point on the saturated steam line at 7 bar g.spiraxsarco. From point A.6 bar g Length of pipeline = 165 m Calculate the maximum pressure drop per 100 m. Answer: Maximum pressure drop per 100m = = = 0. and a 50 mm pipe would be used.24 bar/100 m on the pressure loss scale (Line DE).com) An example calculation is as follows: Given: Inlet pressure P1 = 7 bar g Steam flowrate = 286 kg/h Minimum allowable P2 = 6. Fig. Draw a horizontal line from 0. 70/uts . and mark Point B. 5. a 40 mm pipe is too small. draw a vertical line towards the top of the nomogram (Point C).

150 mm. Steps to be followed for the same are as mentioned below. as above this. From point B.4. Superheated steam can be considered as a dry gas and therefore carries no moisture.Pipeline sizing based on velocity Velocity is an important factor in sizing pipes.4. noise and erosion will take place particularly if the steam is wet. An example calculation is as follows: Given: Inlet pressure Steam flow rate Maximum velocity = 7 bar g = 5000 kg/h = 25 m/s Calculate the pipeline size based on velocity using the nomogram in fig. 5. it is often necessary to restrict velocities to 15 m/s to avoid high pressure drops. Pipe sizing based upon the velocity approach for saturated and superheated steam can be done using the nomogram as shown in fig. Table 5. 71/uts . In longer supply lines. a velocity of 25 to 40 m/s is used when saturated steam is the medium. From point C. It is recommended that pipelines over 50 m long are always checked for pressure drop. Even these velocities can be high in terms of their effect on pressure drop. draw a vertical line to the steam velocity of 25 m/s (Point C). 40 m/s should be considered an extreme limit. As a general rule. would be selected. and steam velocities can be as high as 50 to 70 m/s if the pressure drop permits this. draw a horizontal line across the pipe diameter scale (Point D).1 can also be used for determining the pipeline size. no matter what the velocity. A pipe with a bore of 130 mm is required. • • • Draw a horizontal line from the saturation temperature line at 7 bar g (Point A) on the pressure scale to the steam mass flowrate of 5 000 kg/h (Point B). 5. Consequently there is no chance of pipe erosion due to suspended water droplets. the nearest commercially available size.

All plastic underground piping must be kept at a 10 foot distance. to allow removal of dirt and scale.3. 5. Provide condensate return pump at the building to discharge condensate back to the Campus collection system. involves certain considerations not necessarily applicable to other piping systems. 400 or even 500 degrees Fahrenheit. Drip legs. In steam. Size drip legs at the vertical risers at full size and extend beyond the rise. Drip legs should be of 2 pipe sizes: smaller than the main. Install steam supply piping at a minimum. but not lesser than 4 inches. steam is often “superheated” to much greater temperatures. dirt pockets. and strainer blow downs shall be equipped with gate valves. Installing pipes to normally handle these temperatures and pressures involves special considerations. Provide an 18-inch drip leg for steam mains smaller than 6 inches. Install drip legs at intervals not exceeding 200 feet.Layout Designing Fig. • • 72/uts .com) 5. close to drip legs. the major difference is the heat steam generates.4 Steam pipeline sizing chart – velocity approach (Source: www. Install steam traps. Install condensate return piping sloped downward in the direction of steam supply. where pipe is pitched down in the direction of the steam flow. Install piping free of sags or bends and with ample space between piping to permit proper insulation applications.spiraxsarco. Boiling water under greater than normal atmospheric pressures results in steam reaching 300. uniform grade of 1/4 inch in 10 feet downward in the direction of flow. Of course.3 Piping Layout Installing pipes for carrying steam. mains would be 6 inches and larger. Size drip legs at other locations would be of same diameter as the main. • • • • • All underground steam systems shall be installed a minimum of 10 feet from plastic piping and chilled water systems. Although water’s boiling point is 212 degrees Fahrenheit.

m = 0. increasing the pipe diameter (ID) would reduce the velocity and would mean less pressure drop. The design procedure therefore involves selecting steam velocity closest to if not within economic range which gives pressure drop within permissible limit. 5. the recommended velocities are: Exhaust wet steam Dry saturated steam Superheated steam 15 – 25 m/s 25 – 35 m/s 35 – 45 m/s At these velocities the pressure drop would be about 1 psi /100 ft or about 0.35 m/s. m EV SPV d OR d = 18. and a drop in pressure results.2 Effect of change in pipe size A compromise has to be reached between these opposing factors of initial cost. the velocity changes. The pressure drop therefore is not of substantial magnitude. The effect of change in the pipe size could be seen as below: Pipe Size (ID) higher lower lower higher Velocity Pressure Drop more higher Less Heat-loss Table 5.. the steam pipe –lines could be broadly grouped into two categories. where it is very small in comparison to the total drop. Steam mains are large size line spanning considerable distance. pressure drop and heat loss. the pressure drop through valves and fittings becomes a major item in the total pressure drop value.5 Resistance of Valves and Fittings to Flow of Fluids When a flow of a fluid in a pipe line is altered by some obstruction such as a valve or fitting.5. steam mains and branch lines. However. Branch lines are much shorter in length. For steam service. This pressure drop may be insignificant in long lines. 73/uts .2 bar / 100 m. turbulence is magnified.002827 X d2 X Where. viz. The branch lines are therefore sized on the basis of velocity of 25 .4 Economic Velocity for Deciding Line Size For given mass/volume flow rate of steam. The pressure drop is therefore an important consideration.807 = mass flow rate = economic velocity m/s = specific volume m3/Kg = pipe dia (ID) in mm For the purpose of deciding pipe sizes for steam service. They have to deliver steam of the required quantity to the various steam using devices. but when the line is short. Velocity of steam which offers optimum solution is referred to as economic velocity. a higher pipe size would mean higher initial cost of piping.

25 1 0. 5.5 4 3. i.5 0.1 2 1.5 3 50 30 20 10 . 3000 2000 Global valve open Gate valve ¾ Closed ½ Closed ¼ Closed Full Open 1000 500 300 200 100 50 Equivalent Length of Straight Pipe in Feet Angle valve open Normal Diameter of Pipe in Inches 10 Return Bend Short Radius 900 Bend 5 3 2 5 3 2 1 Long Radius 900 Bend 0.5 Fig.2 0. the pressure drop caused by a 2-inch elbow is equivalent to approximately the pressure drop caused by five or six feet of 2-inch pipe under the same conditions of flow.3 0..Layout Designing It has been the tendency.e.5 0. and probably is the most practical way to present the friction values in terms of an equivalent length of the same size of pipe.5 1 150 Bend 0.5 1.75 2.5 Resistance of valves and fittings to flow of fluids 74/uts Inside Diameter in Inches Swing Check Valve 30 20 48 42 36 30 24 2220 18 16 14 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4.

. References • • • Gracey. The Fairmont Press. McCauley. The steam distribution system is the essential link between the steam generator and the steam user. Inc. Pipeline sizing can be divided into two categorise. 2002. J.. P. Steam Distribution Systems Deskbook. & Dorsi. 2004. The steam trap handbook..D. Residential Energy: Cost Savings and Comfort for Existing Buildings. 2000. C.. Inc. Saturn Resource Management. 1995. J. turbulence is magnified. 75/uts . 2006.Summary • • • • • • Steam is widely used in most of the process industry as process heating media and in all power generation plants. CRC Press. Recommended Reading • • Krigger. 4th ed. M.F. The objective of the steam distribution system is to supply steam at the correct pressure to the point of use. and a drop in pressure results. viz. J. Inc. Johnson. High-pressure pumps. the velocity is changed.9 Al06.T.. McCaulry.. Principles of Controlled Maintenance Management.. Pipes for steam systems are commonly manufactured from carbon steel to ANSI B 16.F. The Fairmont Press. oversized pipework and undersized pipework When a flow of a fluid in a pipe line is altered by some obstruction such as a valve or fitting. Gulf Professional Publishing.

________________ based upon the velocity approach for saturated and superheated steam can be done using the nomogram. Diameter c. piping layout c. Piping layout d. Steam distribution system 2. Pipe sizing d. Piping layout b. a. ___________ is widely used in most of the process industry as process heating media. ______________ are one of the most important components of a steam distribution system. a. Fittings 5. Condensing rate is commonly called _______________. piping layout 4. running load d. Which is the essential link between the steam generator and the steam user? a. Design 6.Layout Designing Self Assessment 1. Velocity b. steam distribution b. Piping b. Piping material c. Valve 3. a. Layout d. Steam Distribution 76/uts . Layout d. Layout d. Steam b. Steam b. ______________ is an important factor in sizing pipes. Pipes c. a. a. Piping c. Piping design c.

steam distribution system 9.7. 2-A. pipeline sizing based on velocity d. 1-C. 4-C d. three d. a. four A. 4-D b. a. two c. Pipeline sizing can be divided into __________categorise. the _________ is changed. 1-D. Match the columns. When a flow of a fluid in a pipe line is altered by some obstruction such as a valve or fitting. economic velocity c. 3-C. economic velocity 10. Based on pressure drop B. one b. 2-D. steam d. 4-A c. 4-B 8. running load b. 1. Undersized Pipework 4. 1-A. 1-B. valves and fittings C. Velocity of steam which offers optimum solution is referred to as ____________. Risk of steam starvation D. 3-A. Expensive pipes. 3-D. Steam a. Pipeline sizing 2. Oversized Pipework 3. running load b. velocity c. 2-B. 3-B. Easy to control 77/uts . 2-C. a.

Layout Designing Chapter VI Turbines and Design Consideration for Tank Farm Aim The aim of this chapter is to: • • • introduce gas turbines explain the gas turbine usage elucidate tank farm Objectives The objectives of this chapter are to: • • • explicate the Petroleum Act. 1934 introduce the tank foundation explain the types of gas turbines Learning outcome At the end of this chapter. the students will be able to: • • • understand the specifications of storing of petroleum products enlist the components of gas turbines infer types of tank farms and roof structures 78/uts .

fanjet. also a combustion turbine (CT). This differs from the intermittent combustion occurring in Diesel and automotive IC engines. For aviation applications. The hot air flow leaving the turbine is then accelerated into the atmosphere through an exhaust nozzle. industrial and residential consumption. a turbo shaft engine. the output of the turbine is used to turn the compressor (which may also have an associated fan or propeller). Actually. turbojet. such as: jet turbine engine.2 Gas Turbine Usage In an aircraft gas turbine. a gas turbine has a compressor to draw in and compress gas (most usually air). it is usually called a jet engine. Windmills and hydroelectric dams have used turbine action for decades to turn the core of an electrical generator to produce power for both. and turboprop or prop jet (if it is used to drive a propeller). and sometimes a gas turbine engine. The gas turbine is an internal combustion (IC) engine employing a continuous combustion process. and helium. and b) a land-based gas turbine 6.combustor-turbine part of the gas turbine is commonly termed the gas generator. steam. 79/uts . and various other names depending on the particular engine configuration or application. A Compressor Combustor Fuel Thrust power Exhaust Shaft Turbine Nozzle Inlet B Compressor Combustor Fuel Exhaust Shaft Turbine Power turbine Shaft power Inlet Fig. to provide thrust or propulsion power. 6. with the first known appearance dating to the time of ancient Greece.1 Schematic for a) an aircraft jet engine. a combustor (or burner) to add fuel to heat the compressed air. turbofan.1 Introduction to Gas Turbines A turbine is any kind of spinning device that uses the action of a fluid to produce work.6. water. Simpler turbines are much older. Typical fluids are: air. it is generally called a gas turbine. The compressor. For electrical power generation and marine applications. wind. and a turbine to extract power from the hot air flow.

In non-aviation gas turbines. Natural gas is commonly used in land-based gas turbines while light distillate (kerosene-like) oils power aircraft gas turbines. as well as combustible gases derived from blast furnaces. 6. The usual working fluid is atmospheric air. water). Thrust is generated both. • • 80/uts . part of the turbine power is used to drive the compressor.e. Turbojets have smaller frontal areas and generate peak thrusts at high speeds. Such engines can range from about 100 pounds of thrust (lbst.2 A modern jet engine (Source: http://www. by air passing through the fan (bypass air) and through the gas generator itself. 6. The jet engine of fig. making it most suitable for commercial aircraft. Although the gas turbine must be started by some external means (a small external motor or other source.000 lbs. with weights ranging from about 30 lbs. the “useful power”.html) A typical jet engine is shown in fig.allstar.fiu. such as another gas turbine).2 is a turbofan engine.000 lbst. wood chips and bagasse. is used as output shaft power to turn an energy conversion device such as an electrical generator or a ship’s propeller. Since motion of all its major components involve pure rotation (i. The remainder.edu/aero/turbine2. 6. the largest for future generations of commercial aircraft. its mechanical life is long and the corresponding maintenance cost is relatively low.3 Advantages of Gas Turbines Some of the principle advantages of gas turbine are discussed below. to 20.2. the gas turbine requires no coolant (e. no reciprocating motion as in a piston engine). With a large frontal area. making them most suitable for fighter aircraft.Layout Designing Fan Low pressure Compressor passing bY engine air jet Fan the turbine shaft pressure high outer tage turn Combustor Low pressure turbine 2-S to to turn inner shaft pressure High compressor Thrust Air inlet Thrust Twin spool shaft to turn the fan and the compressors Fig.g. The smallest jets are used for devices such as the cruise missile. A turbojet does not have a fan and generates all of its thrust from air that passes through the gas generator. with a large diameter compressor-mounted fan. A wide variety of fuels can be utilised. Diesel oil or specially treated residual oils can also be used. the turbofan generates peak thrust at low (takeoff) speeds. • • • It is capable of producing large amounts of useful power for a relatively small size and weight. 6.. refineries and the gasification of solid fuels such as coal.) to as high as 100. it can be brought up to full-load (peak output) conditions in minutes as contrasted to a steam turbine plant whose start up time is measured in hours. As a basic power supply.

Thus. The more efficient. It encloses a relatively thin-walled flame tube within which combustion takes place. and then expanded. smaller gas turbines.4. Gas turbine compressors are either centrifugal or axial. A triple spool engine would have a third. 6. Consequently. A single shaft gas turbine has only one shaft connecting the compressor and turbine components. or can be a combination of both. The shorter.1 The Process Gas turbine systems operate on the thermodynamic cycle known as the Brayton cycle. 6. An axial compressor is made up of a relatively large number of stages. A twin spool gas turbine has two concentric shafts. They are found in early gas turbines or in modern. the higher value. heated. The industrial gas turbine is a balance between performances and cost that result in the most economic machine for both. provides net economic benefits. While such advancements increase the manufacturing cost of the machine. higher capacity axial flow compressors (with compressed air output directed along the center line of the machine) are used in most gas turbines. In a Brayton cycle.6. the user and manufacturer. The power produced by an expansion turbine and consumed by a compressor is proportional to the absolute temperature of the gas passing through the device. arranged so that the air is compressed as it passes through each stage. Higher temperature and pressure ratios result in higher efficiency and specific power.4. a flame tube and a fuel injection system. Combustors A combustor consists of at least three basic parts: a casing. a longer one connecting a low pressure compressor to a low pressure turbine (the low spool) which rotates inside a shorter.2 Components Gas turbine is mainly composed of three parts: Compressor The compressor components are connected to the turbine by a shaft in order to allow the turbine to turn the compressor. Gas turbine is explained in detail below. consisting of a row of rotating blades (airfoils) and a row of stationary blades (stators). and a fuel injection system. larger diameter shaft. it is advantageous to operate the expansion turbine at the highest practical temperature consistent with economic materials and internal blade cooling technology and to operate the compressor with inlet air flow at as low a temperature as possible. generally cost less and are limited to pressure ratios of 6 or 7 to 1. atmospheric air is compressed. 81/uts .4 The Gas Turbine Gas turbine engines are extremely simple. with the excess of power produced by the expander (also called the turbine) over that consumed by the compressor used for power generation. The casing must withstand the cycle pressures and may be a part of the structure of the gas turbine. Centrifugal compressors (with compressed air output around the outer perimeter of the machine) are robust. As technology permits higher turbine inlet temperature. each stage. larger diameter shaft connects the high pressure turbine with the higher pressure compressor (the high spool) which rotates at higher speeds than the low spool. the optimum pressure ratio also increases. intermediate pressure compressor-turbine spool. in terms of greater power output and higher efficiency. the general trend in gas turbine advancement has been towards a combination of higher temperatures and pressures.

The first set directly drives the compressor. The turbines. gas turbines are considered to produce very low levels of combustion pollution. the shaft and the compressor all turn as a single unit.htm) Compared to other prime movers (such as Diesel and reciprocating automobile engines).3 Combustion area (Source: http://science. NOx will deplete ozone. 6.4 Turbine stage (Source: http://science. In this figure. The gas turbine emissions of major concern are unburned hydrocarbons. Superheated toluene vapour Hydrodynamic radial bearings 12. While the contribution of jet aircraft to atmospheric pollution is less than 1%.5cm High-pressure liquid toluene out Liquid toluene in Turbine wheel Gimballed hydrodynamic thrust bearing Turbine nozzle manifold Alternator rotor Alternator windings Feed pump Fig. Both effects are harmful. 6.Layout Designing Fig. jet aircraft emissions injected directly into the upper troposphere have doubled between the latitudes of 40 to 60 degrees north. so further NOx reduction in gas turbine operation is a challenge for the 21st century. increasing ozone by about 20%. carbon monoxide. In the stratosphere.com/transport/flight/modern/turbine5. where supersonic aircraft fly.howstuffworks.htm) 82/uts .howstuffworks. there are two sets of turbines. oxides of nitrogen (NOx ) and smoke.com/transport/flight/modern/turbine4. Turbines At the left of the engine is the turbine section.

Gas turbines are available in sizes from 500 kW to 250 MW. the exhaust will run through some sort of heat exchanger either to extract the heat for some other purpose or to preheat air before it enters the combustion chamber. This final turbine stage and the output shaft are a completely stand-alone.000 hours. Many aero derivative gas turbines for stationary use operate with compression ratios in the range of 30:1. Thermal output Fuel flexibility Reliability and life Size range 83/uts .000 to 50. Modern gas turbines have proven to be reliable power generators given proper maintenance. High-pressure steam can be generated or the exhaust can be used directly for process drying and heating. 6. they are less efficient and much heavier. Industrial gas turbines generally have more modest compression ratios (up to 16:1) and often do not require an external fuel gas compressor. synthetic gas. Plants typically operate on gaseous fuel with a stored liquid fuel for backup to obtain the less expensive interruptible rate for natural gas. In the case of the turbine used in a tank or a power plant. Time to overhaul is typically 25. shown here with a single set of vanes. While these turbines are lightweight and thermally efficient. freewheeling unit. It drives the output shaft. as shown. and fuel oils. requiring a high-pressure external fuel gas compressor. Industrial or frame gas turbines are exclusively for stationary power generation and are available in the 1 to 250 MW capacity range. Larger industrial gas turbines (>100 MW) are approaching simple-cycle efficiencies of approximately 40% (LHV) and combined-cycle efficiencies of 60% (LHV). The largest aero derivative generation turbines available are 40 to 50 MW in capacity.At the far left is a final turbine stage. Gas turbines operate on natural gas. there really is nothing to do with the exhaust gases but vent them through an exhaust pipe. landfill gas. more rugged. larger aero derivative turbines (>40 MW) are approaching 45% simple-cycle efficiencies (LHV). Design characteristics Gas turbines produce a high quality (high temperature) thermal output suitable for most combined heat and power applications. can operate longer between overhauls. And the amazing part about a gas turbine engine is that there is enough energy in the hot gases blowing through the blades of that final output turbine to generate 1. and are more suited for continuous base-load operation with longer inspection and maintenance intervals than aeroderivative turbines. they are usually more expensive than products designed and built exclusively for stationary applications. They spin freely without any connection to the rest of the engine. They are generally less expensive. A gas turbine engine really is that simple.5 Types of Gas Turbines Aero derivative gas turbines for stationary power are adapted from their jet and turbo shaft aircraft engine counterparts. With advanced system developments. However.500 horsepower and drive a 63-ton M-1 Tank. Sometimes.

sea and other remote places. Gas turbines are extensively used in the oil and gas industries which can afford to run them at relatively low efficiency. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) or catalytic combustion further reduces NOx emissions. Pumping stations used to boost the pressures are run on gas turbines which use the pumped oil or gas and can run without supervision.6 Applications of Gas Turbines • The high power to weight ratio and the jet propulsion of the gas turbine makes it suitable for aircraft over the piston engines. The low weight. They are used in marine applications. • • • • 84/uts . 6. They are used in electricity generation. H K G E C D Fig. Many gas turbines sited in locales with stringent emission regulations use SCR after-treatment to achieve single-digit (below 9 ppm) NOx emissions. Electrical load variations may be smoothened by gas turbines. lightness of the rotating parts and high power by high internal pressure and temperatures are important characteristics for aircraft engines.net) 6. Gas turbines are also used extensively on offshore oil drilling rigs. A major use is pumping oil and gas through pipelines over long distances through deserts. and simultaneous low CO emissions in the 10 to 50 ppm range. they generate electricity. with laboratory data down to 9 ppm. There.5 Simplest form of combustion turbine plant with reaction type gas (Source: www. supply shaft power for pumping duties and may heat the rig with their exhaust gas.pipingguide.Layout Designing Emission Many gas turbines burning gaseous fuels (mainly natural gas) feature lean premixed burners (also called dry low-NOx combustors) that produce NOx emissions below 25 ppm.

6. People may also use the term “oil depot” to refer to a tank farm. ports. and allows maintenance crews to handle maintenance tasks in a convenient location. Reference of North and East markings or 00 orientations marking on the foundation has to be furnished by the client. Tank farms can contain a mix of fuel. Tanks can be above or below ground. Each tank is clearly labelled to indicate the contents and provide information about safety. These locations make it easy to move fuel in and out of the farm. causing a large fire and potentially endangering the fuel supply if the farm is large. Guards are usually posted on site and the site is locked and regularly inspected to confirm that all systems are operating as they should be. with plumbing so that tanks can be connected to tankers and piping for the purpose of dispensing fuel and refilling the tanks. A tank farm can also be located along a pipeline used to transport petroleum products. while others are administered by a group. This eliminates the need to buy fuel commercially. Some security facilities are necessary at a tank farm. temporary tack welding will be done during the time of laying. 6.1 Base Plate Laying The annular plates will be laid first and then the sketch plates and full plates will be laid with sequences mentioned in the drawing. and major trucking terminals.8. and other problems.2 Base Plate Welding The annular butt joints will be welded first. minimum lap for any two plates will be 30mm. Many tank farms are located near refineries. 85/uts . with airports being a classic example of a facility which needs to have a lot of fuel on hand. as seen when a company which sells natural gas or propane to the public makes deliveries to home tanks. sending out delivery trucks on a regular basis to fill up the storage tanks at the gas station. Some farms are owned by a single company which uses the farm to meet its needs. It is also possible for facilities to have their own tank farms for the purpose of storing fuel on site. Sump pit on the foundation must be given prior to the commencement of the Bottom laying. fires. Temporary erection cleats and jigs/fixtures will be used for laying and avoiding distortion during the time of welding. rail yards.7 Tank Farm A tank farm is a facility where petroleum products are stored prior to being disbursed to end consumers or retail facilities. The facilities at a tank farm are usually very basic.8 Tank Foundation Foundations made by others shall be checked for uniform slope and levels for our acceptance. 6.8. The same procedure will be repeated for long seam welding. The farm may also have facilities to store delivery trucks. Small tank farms are sometimes kept at bus yards and other transit facilities for the purpose of refuelling vehicles. Companies which sell fuel to gas stations keep fuel on tank farms. because the farm represents a significant fire risk. for convenience. including gasoline with various octane ratings and diesel.6. explosions. along with fuels like propane and natural gas. Someone could target the farm for sabotage or terrorism. Subsequently every alternate short seam will be fitted and welded and at the same time nearest short seams will be freed from tack welds. People also want to avoid accidents at tank farms which could result in accidental release of fuel.

scaffolding will be provided for erection and welding purpose. final plumb check will be done in accordance with the design code and also peaking and banding check for the shell joints will be done. Cryogenic Vessel is essentially a double walled cylindrical tank. Radiography of vertical/horizontal welds will proceed as erection and welding work progresses. Annular space between inner and outer vessel is filled with an insulating material and evacuated to a high vacuum to achieve minimum evaporation losses Design of cryogenic equipment like vessels is compact.5 Types of Tank Farm and Roof Structure Different tank farms used for storing petroleum products are explained below. After welding the last horizontal joint.8. fitting and welding will be done as said for the first course. with lower course of plate. horizontal joint set up and plumbing will be done prior to welding the same.3 Shell Erection After grinding off the weld reinforcement on the top the of annular joints where the shell will rest and the vacuum box testing of this portion. the curb angle will be fitted and welded. Top end liquid filling reduces the pressure inside the tank and pressure increases in bottom filling. plumbing and gauging will be done prior to the welding of vertical joints.8. After completing the vertical welding. for stability and safety. Second shell course erection will then be done. there is no significant change of pressure during liquid delivery. Pressurizing system enables operator to increase the pressure during liquid unloading to tanks or gas line vaporizers. By regulating the opening of both top and bottom filling valves. After completing the vertical welding from one side. After welding the curb angle. and the second shell plates will be rested on the first shell course with the help of spacers and wedges. 6.8. For the second course vertical joints. guy wire supports will be provided from plates to the channels anchored in ground. shell to bottom and curb angle to shell joints are welded. the tank base butt/lap joints will be vacuum box tested. To safeguard erected tank plates. erection of shell will commence subsequent to marking the circle to tank inner radius on the tank base. Sequence of welding for the horizontal joints will be same as vertical welding. Manufacturing of such cryogenic tanks requires special technical know how and sophisticated fabrication techniques. sturdy and easy to operate.Layout Designing 6. 86/uts . Temporary strong backs will be provided during the time of welding in order to check peaking of joints. This results in constant liquid supply to vaporizer.4 Vacuum box test and Radiography After all welding work on the tank base and shell vertical/horizontal joints. For outside welding on the shell. Minimum two numbers of erection channels will be wedged per plate erected. subsequent shell courses will be erected and welded. Cryogenic Tanks Cryogenic Vessels are designed for storage and transport of liquid gases at sub-zero temperatures. Identification marks for welder and weld joints shall be marked on the tank by using paint or metallic marker simultaneously during fit up and welding. welder’s trolley will be used and for inside. the shell will be back chipped before weld is deposited from the other side. 6. First shell course plates will be rested on the mark-ings by providing small cleats on both sides of the shell plates on the tank base. After tack welding the vertical joints. In the same manner. For maintaining the gap for the vertical joints. Shell to bottom joint can be fitted before or after fitting the curb angle. spacers will be inserted in between the two plate edges.

6 (a) Internal floating roof tank. by safety clearances. 6.8). hazard-oriented separation of tank farms from production facilities. also eliminating any undue strain on the drainage system. water curtains. a.e. Within a group of tanks.g. Fig. pump groups). If this demand cannot be met due to the operational situation. 6.7 a) . The accessibility of tank farms for flammable liquids must be safeguarded for mobile fire extinguishing equipment (vehicles) from at least two sides and every individual tank must be accessible by mobile fire extinguishing equipment from outside of the tank area (fig. 6. Escape and emergency routes (VKF Guideline 16-03d [9]) Good accessibility for maintenance. Structural. the layout of the tanks should be such that “shadow zones” (i. easy to maintain. Logical division of the complete facility by individual protective structures and fire sections. The unique design features minimise the risk of the floating roof getting stuck while in operation. b. fire walls. zones which the fire extinguishing equipment cannot reach or only with difficulties) do not occur in case of a fire.api. e. fixed firefighting installations must be provided. c. (c) external floating roof tank (Source: http://www.Floating Roof Tanks Floating roof tanks are safest. filling/discharging bays. (b) domed external floating roof tank. Products which could react dangerously with each other or cannot be extinguished with the same fire extinguishing equipment must be stored separately in a suitable manner.9 Planning and Design of Tank Farm When planning a tank farm attention must be paid to: • • • • • • • A clear arrangement of the individual units (rows of tanks. sturdy and yet economical.org) 6. piping networks. The specially designed tank components and matching provisions in the roof drain system allow smooth movement of the rolling ladder even if the roof tilts or sags due to heavy rain water collection on the roof or due to shift in axis of the roof.7b and fig. tank zone with non-flammable liquids. 87/uts . 6. operation and event rectification. firefighting from the top may also be taken into consideration (fig.

Layout Designing

Fig. 6.7 (a) Tank farm accessibility from two sides (Source: www.bafu.admin.ch)

Fig. 6.7 (b) Tank farm accessibility from one side (Source: www.bafu.admin.ch) • The distances between tank groups have to be defined according to fire-extinguishing aspects (accessibility, possibility of inserting water walls, etc.). It is advantageous to subdivide bigger tank groups into smaller fire sections (e.g. by fireproof walls or with tanks of non-flammable liquids in between).

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Fig. 6.8 Tank inside the tank field (shadow zone) (Not accessible by mobile fire extinguishing equipment or only with difficulties) (Source: www.bafu.admin.ch) 6.9.1 Perimeter, Drainage In case a storage tank leaks, liquid sprayed beyond the bed (spray parabola) must be collected and handled in a controlled manner. The strip to be drained must have a width of at least 0.5 times the height of the tank above the bed, measured from the tank wall. If tanks are thermally insulated or if they are equipped with protective cladding, this measure is not required. The surface of the tank farm perimeter which can be wetted by leaking liquid during operation or in case of accidents is to be of a structure impermeable to liquid, weather-resistant and principally resistant against the goods stored there. These areas are to be drained in a controlled manner.

6.10 Tank and Protective Clearance
Minimum tank spacing is defined as the effective clearance between tanks or between a tank and the wall. Anything reducing the effective dimension, e.g. thermal insulation must not reduce the minimum clearance. If a leak occurs in the wall of a tank, the spray parabola must be caught inside or outside of the tank bed. Thermal insulation or protective cladding meets this requirement. Protective clearance is measured from the outer edge of the protective structure of the tank farm to the adjoining building under the same ownership or to the building line of the neighbouring lot. The protective clearance can be reduced after consulting the authorities, if suitable measures, such as protective walls, deluge spray systems, or foam, are provided. For tank diameters larger than 10m, it must be verified for each product that the radiant heat on the building line of the neighbouring lot does not exceed 8kW/m2 in case of a fire.

6.11 Storage of Petroleum Products
Liquid petroleum products such as gasoline, diesel fuel and kerosene, must be stored safely to prevent spills and leaks. Any one of these products can move quickly through the soil and into groundwater or runoff into dugouts and streams. A small leak of one drop per second can release about 200 gal (900 L) of gasoline in one year. But it takes only a few litres of gasoline to severely pollute a farmstead’s drinking water. It is hard to detect low levels of fuel pollution in water because they are difficult to smell or taste. Water that seems pure may still be contaminated and can affect human health. Fire and explosions are another potential danger from petroleum products. Vapours from an underground leak that collect in basements, sump pits or other underground structures could explode.

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Layout Designing

Above ground tanks, underground storage tanks and piping must all be protected against corrosion to prevent leaks. New tanks and piping may leak if they are not installed properly. Secondary containment systems and good record keeping are effective ways of managing your fuel storage system to prevent losses that could cause environmental damage. Taking into consideration the above hazards, it is necessary to follow the norms and obligations prescribed by the government for storing petroleum products.

6.12 The Petroleum Act, 1934 (Act No. 30 of 1934)
An Act to consolidate and amend the law) relating to the import, transport, storage, production, refining and blending of petroleum [16th September, 1934] Whereas it is expedient to consolidate and amend the law relating to import, transport, storage, production, refining and blending of petroleum . It is hereby enacted as follows: Preliminary definitions- In this Act unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context,• • “petroleum” means any liquid hydro-carbon or mixture of hydro- -carbons and any inflammable mixture (liquid, viscous or solid) containing any liquid hydro-carbon; “Petroleum Class A” means petroleum having a flash-point below Twenty-three degrees centigrade;(bb) “Petroleum Class B” means petroleum having a flash point of twenty- Three degrees centigrade and above but below sixty-five degrees Centigrade;(bbb) “Petroleum Class C” means petroleum-having flash point of sixtyFive degrees [“flash-point”] of any petroleum means the lowest temperature at which it yields a vapour which will give a momentary flash when ignited, determined in accordance with the provisions of Chapter II and the rules made thereunder; “to transport petroleum” means to move petroleum from one place to another in India and includes moving from one place to another in India across a territory which is not part of India]; ‘to import petroleum” means to bring it into India by land, sea or air otherwise than during the course of transport; “to store petroleum” means to keep it in any one place, but does not include any detention happening during the ordinary course of transport; “motor conveyance” means any vehicle vessel or aircraft for the conveyance of human beings, animals or goods, by land, water or air, in which petroleum is used to generate the motive power; “prescribed” means prescribed by rules made under this Act.

• • • • •

6.13 Licence for Storage of Petroleum Products
Following are required under petroleum act: • • Letter indicating purpose of storage of petroleum product & nature of business Piping cum equipment layout plans to scale ‚‚ Distance between storage tank and storage tank to fencing. ‚‚ Dyked area and volume of each dyked area minimum Dyked HT. Class c=1.o M. ‚‚ Tank fitted with vent pipe to Atm. fitted with non corrodible wire goal. ‚‚ Protected area is surrounded by walls. ‚‚ Electrical insulation on cables and motor data sheet for pumps. • • • • Plot plan indicating premises to be licensed with boundary indicated red and indicating area within 100M from edge of storage tank / unloading station Fire protection system/hydrant Equipment specification Scrutiny fee

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Summary
• • • A turbine is any kind of spinning device that uses the action of a fluid to produce work. In an aircraft gas turbine, the output of the turbine is used to turn the compressor. Gas turbine systems operate on the thermodynamic cycle known as the Brayton cycle. In a Brayton cycle, atmospheric air is compressed, heated, and then expanded, with the excess of power produced by the expander over that consumed by the compressor used for power generation. Gas turbine is mainly composed of three parts: Compressor, Turbines and Combustor. A tank farm is a facility where petroleum products are stored prior to being disbursed to end consumers or retail facilities. Cryogenic Vessels are designed for storage and transport of liquid gases at sub-zero temperatures. Floating roof tanks are safest, easy to maintain, sturdy and yet economical. The unique design features minimise the risk of the floating roof getting stuck while in operation. In case a storage tank leaks, liquid sprayed beyond the bed (spray parabola) must be collected and handled in a controlled manner. Minimum tank spacing is defined as the effective clearance between tanks or between a tank and the wall. Liquid petroleum products such as gasoline, diesel fuel and kerosene, must be stored safely to prevent spills and leaks.

• • • • • • •

References
• • • Bausbacher, E., Hunt, R., 1993. Process plant layout and piping design, PTR Prentice Hall. Soares, C., 2007. Gas turbines: a handbook of air, land, and sea applications, Butterworth-Heinemann Syms, P., 2010. Land, Development and Design, 2nd ed., John Wiley and Sons

Recommended Reading
• • • Frayne, C., 2010. Cooling Water Treatment Principles and Practices: Charts and Notes for Field Use, Chemical Publishing Company, Incorporated Boyce, M. P., 2002. Gas turbine engineering handbook, 2nd ed., Gulf Professional Publishing McAllister, E. W., 2009. Pipeline rules of thumb handbook: quick and accurate solutions to your everyday pipeline problems, 7th ed., Gulf Professional Publishing.

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Layout Designing

Self Assessment
1. A _________ is any kind of spinning device that uses the action of a fluid to produce work. a. turbine b. compressor c. plant layout d. tank farm 2. Gas turbine engines are extremely a. hard b. simple c. user friendly d. compatible 3. Gas turbine systems operate on the thermodynamic cycle known as the _____________. a. gas turbine cycle b. cycle of rotation c. Brayton Cycle d. process cycle of turbine 4. Gas turbine is mainly composed of ________ parts. a. two b. three c. four d. five 5. A single shaft gas turbine has only one shaft connecting the _________ and turbine components. a. compressor b. gas turbine c. combustor d. tank farm 6. A ___________ consists of at least three basic parts: a casing, a flame tube and a fuel injection system. a. compressor b. combustor c. turbine d. baryton cycle 7. At the left of the engine is the _________ section. a. compressor b. combustor c. turbine d. baryton cycle

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Tank farm 93/uts . Perimeter drainage d. Tank farm d. Cryogenic vessels b. a. Protective clearance c. combustor d. Tank farm is also known as ____________. a. Floating roof tanks c. or foam. turbine c. ______________ are designed for storage and transport of liquid gases at sub-zero temperatures. oil depot 9. deluge spray systems. __________ can be reduced after consulting the authorities. Oil depot 10. a. are provided. compressor b. such as protective walls. Tank clearance b. if suitable measures.8.

Layout Designing Chapter VII Towers Aim The aim of this chapter is to: • • • introduce towers and their role in processing facility highlight the general requirements for the tower plant layout design state the importance of tower maintenance Objectives The objectives of this chapter are to: • • • explain the types of towers introduce the concept of tower elevation and support elucidate design consideration for towers Learning outcome At the end of this chapter. the students will be able to: • • • • explain distillation process understand the concept of nozzle elevation and orientation identify the tower instruments locate tower piping in piping designs as well as in plants 94/uts .

1 Introduction Towers are cylindrical steel vessels that are used for distilling raw materials in the production of such products as gasoline. butane. oil becomes one of the most valuable commodities in the world. Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbon compounds with a wide range of boiling points from 100 0F (38 0C) to 1400 0F (7600 C). It describes the internal workings of towers and provides the information required to orient nozzles. the still is partially filled with a set feed called a batch. just below 100 0F (38 0C). piping. when separated or broken down.1 Crude distillation of products across temperature range (Source: http://www. the initial boiling point (IBP) is reached. at IBP. and the whole process is repeated Not only is this process time consuming but also the product is not always of high quality. 7. and controls and provide platforms and ladders for the operator and maintenance access.7. The residue includes everything above 80 0F (427 0C). Towers are one of the principal pieces of equipment of any processing facility. and heating oil. however. The feed remaining in the still is then pumped out.1 Batch Shell In the batch shell still process. It is then refilled. 7. and the still is allowed to cool. The batch sheet still process was one of the earliest used for liquid mixture separation. separating the individual components of the mixture. As boiling continues.2. The vapours are then condensed. The feed is then heated to the temperature required to produce a specific product from the overhead vapours.scribd. locate instruments. Separation or distillation is a process by which a liquid mixture is partially vaporised. The plant layout designer must understand the internal structure of a tower and how it operates to produce a satisfactory design. 95/uts . As the temperature of crude oil is raised. 900F 3/20C 900F . diesel. This process is repeated each time for each product until the batch reaches the maximum temperature for the range of products specified.2200F (3/20C)-(1040C) 2200F-3150F (1040C)-(1570C) 3150F-4500F (1570C)-(2320C) 4500F-6500F (2320C)-(3430C) 6500F-8000F (3430C)-(4270C) 8000F+ (427 C)+ 0 Butane and Lighter Gases Straight Run Gasoline Naptha Kerosene Light Gas Oil Heavy Gas Oil Straight Run Residue Crude Oil Fig.2 The Distillation Process Crude oil is of little commercial use. the heavier materials are produced below 80 0F (427 0C). 7.com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) The evolution of distillation towers is best explained in three basic steps explained below. This chapter highlights the general requirements for the tower plant layout design. is produced first. the temperature rises. The lightest material. They are also referred to as columns.

scribd. which is kept at the temperature for the next highest boiling overhead product and so on for the number of products needed. The main difference is that all the liquid condensate is returned to the upstream still. which is kept at the lowest temperature for the lightest overhead product.scribd. the fractional distillation process is made up of several stills linked together in series. several shell stills are linked in series to form a battery.2 Continuous Shell In the continuous shell still process. If the feed and the temperature of each still remain constant.2.2. they meet the incoming liquid from the second still.3 Continuous shell still distillation process (Source: http://www. The same reaction takes place in all the downstream stills. Because the temperature of the liquid in the second still is lower than the incoming vapours from the first still. Fresh feed continuously enters the first still. quality and a reduction in the energy needed to heat the raw materials. travel through the overhead line. As vapours rise in the first still. This causes vaporisation of the incoming liquid from the second still and condensation of the rising vapours in the frost still. 7.com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) 7. At the same time. The continuous shell still process which is an improvement over the batch shell still operation. First still Feed Receiver Condenser Second still Receiver2 Condenser Heat Product Bottoms Heat Product Bottoms Fig. liquid from the second still enters near the top of the first still. 96/uts .3 Fractional Distillation Similar to the continuous shell still. the vapours partially condense. and come into contact with the liquid in the second still. 7. The bottoms from the first still are fed to the second still.2 Batch shell still distillation process (Source: http://www. the finished product is of satisfactory quality.Layout Designing Condenser Still Feed Receiver Product Heat Bottoms Fig.com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) 7. As the feed is partially vaporised in the first still the vapours rise. This process improves on previous operations in terms of quantity.

com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) Vapour and liquid flow One of the most common internal devices that allows the single tower to function similarly to the multistill unit is the tray shown in the below figure.com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) All the three process arrangements are satisfactory operations and play an important part in the development of the modern distillation tower. The figure below shows a single fractionator tower with the corresponding still numbers and temperature ranges of the multistill unit. 7. Slots and holes in the trays allow the vapour to rise and the liquid to flow down.5 Fractionator tower (Source: http://www.4 Multiunit Fractional still distillation process (Source: http://www.Condenser Vapour Vapour Vapour Vapour Vapour Still-2 Still-3 Still-4 Still-1 Still-5 Receiver Feed 1950F 900C 1800F 800C 1700F 750C 1600F 700C 1500F 600C Heat Bottoms Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid Product 1550F (680C) Fig. This means that the single unit can function in a way similar to the multishell unit for less capital and operational cost. Fractionator tower Still-5 Still-4 Still-3 Still-2 1500F 650C 1600F 700C 1700F 750C 1800F 800C 1950F 900C Condenser Reflex return Line Receiver Still-1 Feed Furnace Bottoms Pump Product 1550F (680C) Fig. The final step in combining these operations into one single component is achieved by stacking the stills on top of each other and installing an internal device between each still to allow the liquid to flow down and the vapours to rise.scribd. 97/uts . The reflux return line controls the temperature of the fluids in the upper portion of the tower. 7.scribd.

which are drawn off from the side of the tower at the appropriate location. Liquid flowing down from upper trays falls through the downcomers and over and around the bubble caps around the next downcomer. a stripper is used to strip lighter material from the bottoms of a main tower or a vacuum tower. 7.scribd. In this manner.com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) 98/uts .scribd.7 Vacuum tower and stripper (Source: http://www. This process of vaporising and condensing throughout the tower allows the feed to be separated into the required boiling-range fraction. Vapour Vapour Liquid Liquid Draw-off Chimney Vacuum Tower Stripper Bubble Cap Tray Fig. Fig.com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) 7.6 Vapour liquid flow (Source: http://www.3 Types of Towers Towers are named for the service or type of unit they are associated with. It is generally used in a vacuum/crude init for distilling crude bottoms residue under vacuum pressure. the lighting boiling fractions in the down flowing liquid are vaporised by the heat from the rising vapour and heavier boiling fractions in the vapour are condensed and flow down the tower. 7. The below figure shows a typical vacuum tower and stripper.Layout Designing Rising vapours in the tower pass through slotted bubble caps and come into contact with liquid flowing around the caps. For example.

Some towers have swaged top and bottom section. varying only in dimension. the liquid passes through a distributor that route the liquid evenly down through the packed beds of metal rings. Fig. On entering the tower. The principal difference among towers is the type and layout of the internal components that controls the vapour liquid contact. The below figure describes a typical gas-liquid packed tower and its principal components and their related items are located on either side of a central pipe rack. the tower is often located adjacent to the building or structure containing the equipment. and the equipment is elevation. a manner similar to the tray tower operation.From the outside. the liquid is partially vaporise by the heat and the vapours are condensed by the cooler liquid.10 shows a process flow diagram of a tower and its related equipment. 7.scribd. Overhead Maintenance Access Reflux Tray Maintenance Access Feed Draw-off Chimney Reboiler Draw-off Maintenance Access Bottoms Reboiler return Level Instruments Fig. instead of having trays. the units are packed with beds of metal rings. This chapter describes the internal and external plant layout requirements for the two most common types of tower: the tray and packed arrangements. a typical plan arrangement of the same equipment. The below figure describes a typical trayed tower. serviced by auxiliary roads for maintenance access. In plants in which the related equipment is housed. 7.8 Trayed tower (Source: http://www. tower configuration is similar in appearance. 99/uts .com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) In a packed tower. Rising vapours passing through the beds come into contact with the descending liquid.

They are usually located within a process unit adjacent to related equipment and in a suitable position for operator close to such related items as pumps re boilers drums and condensers and should be in position to facilitate an orderly and economic interconnection between itself and that equipment.9 Packed tower (Source: http://www. The below figure is a process flow diagram of a tower and its related equipment. towers and their related items are located on either side of a central pipe rack serviced by auxiliary roads for maintenance access in plants in which the related equipment is housed. Plan Arrangement 100/uts . Process Flow Diagram b.scribd. a typical plan arrangement of the same equipment in elevation. N Overhead Condenser Overhead Condenser Trim Cooler Reflux Drum Product Bottom Pumps Pipe rack Maintenance access way Tower Reboilers Plan Above Reflux Pumps Reflux Drum Tower Feed Reboilers Trim Cooler Maintenance road Bottom Pumps Reflux Pumps a.Layout Designing Gas Outlet Liquid Inlet Liquid Distributor Packing Packing Support Body Flange Gas inlet Level Instruments Maintenance access Liquid Outlet Fig. Within the conventional inline process unit.4 Design Consideration for Towers Towers are not a standard operation. 7. the towers is often located adjacent to the building or structure containing the equipment.com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) 7.

10 Tower area (Source: http://www.Tower Overhead Condenser Trim Cooler Reflux Pumps Reboilers Bottom Pumps c. 7. The below figure shows an example of elevation and support. • • • • • • NPSH Operator access Maintenance access Minimum clearance Vertical reboiler Common access 101/uts . Required Elevation Tower Tangent Line Support (skirt) Point of Support Grade EL. Support is the means by which the vessel is retained at the required elevation. Elevation Reflux Pumps Fig. it can be set by a combination of the following constraints – whichever produces the minimum tangent line elevation.com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) 7.scribd. 7.000) Fig.5 Tower Elevation and Support Tower elevation is the distance from the grade to the bottom tangent line of the vessel. 110’-0” (103.scribd.com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) Although the tower elevation must satisfy minimum NPSH requirements.11 Consideration for tower elevation and support (Source: http://www.

which is secured to a concrete foundation or structural frame by means of anchor bolts. Operator Access Tower Operator Access Net Positive Suction head Pump Pump c. Common Access Tower f. the skirt could be flared. 102/uts . It is attached by continuous welding to the bottom head of the vessel and is furnished with a base ring.Layout Designing a.scribd. NPSH Tower b. small.12 Tower elevation requirement (Source: http://www.com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) A skirt is the most frequently used and most satisfactory means of support for vertical vessels. 7. Minimum Clearance Minimum e. In most cases. Access openings are required in vessel skirts for inspection and when possible should be oriented toward the main access way. The following figure shows a typical skirt arrangement.diameter towers. the skirt is straight but on tall. Maintenance Access Maintenance Access Tower Tower d. Vertical Reboiler Tower Platform Standard Skirt Flared Skirt Reboiler Bonnet Removal Area Fig.

750 Bolt holes Stiffening ring Base ring Fig. +2.-6”/.com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) The first step in tower layout is setting the bottom tangent line elevation.scribd. This step assists civil engineering in foundation design. vessel engineering in support design. 7. the plant layout designer requires the following information.Bottom outlet opening Vent hole 12”x18”/. • • • • • • • • Tower dimensions Type of heads Support details NPSH requirements Bottom outlet size Reboiler details Foundation details Minimum clearances 103/uts . systems engineering in line sizing and rotating equipment engineering in pump selection to set the elevation of a tower.300x450 Minimum Bottom outlet Skirt access opening EL.13 Tower skirt (Source: http://www.

305 .scribd.150 .14 Tower elevation sketch (Source: http://www. Maintenance Access Orientations Fig.15 Elevation and Orientation requirements for maintenance access (Source: http://www.300 7’-0” 2135 EL.025 MIN Maintenance access to be level with top of packing support Downcomer Areas Nozzle diameter Trayed Tower + 5”/. The following figure shows typical elevation and orientation requirements for maintenance access.230 . 7.com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design 7. A maintenance access is usually located at the bottom. Maintenance Access Elevations Packed Tower Single Downcomer Double Downcomer Tray Tray b. 7.305 4’-0” 1200 EL. 100’-0” 100. Their position must also facilitate economic and orderly interconnection of piping between the tower and related equipment.125 min a. Maintenance accesses must not be located at the down comer sections of the tower. Maintenance access segment (Typical) 1”/.com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) 104/uts . top and intermediate sections of the tower and is used to gain entry to the tower during shutdowns for internal inspection and component removal.6 Nozzle Elevation and Orientation Nozzles must be elevated to meet the internal requirements of the tower and oriented for maintenance and operational needs.Layout Designing ¼ of diameter For 2:1 Heads Tangent Line 12” 6” 9” 12” . 110’-3” 6”ϕ Long Rarius Elbow Point of Support 101’-0’ 100.scribd.000 Operator Access Fig. Care must be taken at the sections of the tower that contain internal piping to avoid blocking the maintenance access entrance.

there mosiphon reboiler the off nozzle is located just below the bottom tray to the vertically mounted recirculating the boiler. reboiler connections are usually located at the bottom section of the tower. Downcomer ¼” .006 Alternative Orientation Fixed orientation Downcomer Nozzle diameter +5”/.scribd. 105/uts .16 Options for internal feed piping (Source: http://www. The figure below shows both the arrangements. This can restrict nozzle orientation options. The draw off nozzle is located at the bottom head.Feed connections to trayed towers usually must be located in a specific area on the tray by internal piping.125 minimum Downcomer Double nozzle orientation two options Downcomer Alternative Orientation Fixed orientation 45 LRE 0 Single nozzle orientation two options Downcomer Downcomer Maximum 900LRE Maximum LRE=Long Radius Elbow Multiple Choice Orientation a.com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) To be specific. Reflux: Alternative Arrangement Single nozzle orientation multiple options b. the return nozzles are located just above the liquid level. 7. Feeds: Alternative Arrangement Fig. The restrictions are minimised by optional routing of the internal piping to facilitate the most economic exterior arrangement Internal feed piping to packed towers is piped directly to the distribution and can be oriented at any angle. For the horizontally mounted tower. For both systems. The above figure illustrates several options for internal feed piping.

7. Horizontal Reboiler Downcomer Return Alternative return locations Return 100 100 (Maximum) Draw-off at any orientation High liquid level Reboiler Draw-off Tower Alternative return locations Alternative Draw-off location b. In addition the vent and relief valve could be located on the top head instead of attached to the overhead piping. 106/uts .17 Reboiler connections (Source: http://www. towers with very large diameters) more than one nozzle is specified on large.diameter vapour lines.Layout Designing Downcomer Draw-off Return 100 100 Maximum Return High liquid level Alternative Draw-off location Downcomer Draw-off Tower Reboiler a.scribd. Following figure shows a typical top head arrangement.com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) The vapour outlet is usually a vertical nozzle located on the top head of the tower. It is usually a single nozzle but in certain cases (For example. Vertical Reboiler Fig. the vessel connection could be welded instead of flanged.

when more than one nozzle may be specified the elevation of the nozzle is dictated by the constraints.Nozzle Diameter Minimum 0. As with the vapour outlet. If a skirt supports the tower the nozzle is routed outside the skirt. 7.Alternative Vessel Vent Location Vapour Outlet Vessel Vent Alternative Vapour Outlet Location 1.com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) 107/uts . The orientation can be at any angle but generally it is dictated by pump suction piping flexibility. Vessel Drain Bottom Outlet Check Clearance Vortex Breaker Tangent Line See head dimension 4”/.100 minimum Long Radius Elbow Check Clearance 3”/. 7.075 + Insulation or Fire Proofing Fig.42X Internal Diameter Relief Valve Knuckle Radius Tangent Point Alternative Relief Valve Location Large Diameter Lines Do Not Require Flanged Nozzles Fig.scribd.scribd. The following figure shows a typical bottom head arrangement.com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) The liquid outlet is located on the bottom head of the tower.18 Top head arrangement (Source: http://www.19 Bottom head arrangement (Source: http://www.

The following figure shows a typical platform arrangement. When nozzles especially those with internal piping are positioned the plant layout designer must show adequate clearance at tray support steel are measured from the internal diameter of the vessel to the face of the flange. blinds. 108/uts . 7.com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) Level instruments are located in the liquid section of the tower. The type of head must be specified. usually at the bottom. The following figure shows the preferred location for both the connections. To set top and bottom head nozzle elevations.7 Platform Arrangements Platforms are required on towers for access to valves instruments. Downcomer Pressure Minimum Temperature Temperature Orientation Vapour Space 2”/.20 Temperature and pressure locations (Source: http://www. and maintenance accesses platforms are usually circular and supported by brackets attached to the side of the tower. access to platforms is by ladder. This information is furnished on the instrument vessel sketch.050 Liquid Space Pressure Orientations Fig. 7.scribd. The elevation of the nozzles is dictated by the amount of liquid being controlled or measured and by standard controller and gauge glass length. The temperature probe must be located in a liquid space and the pressure connection in a vapour space. The information is highlighted in the process vessel data. The two most commonly used are flanged and dished and 2:1 elliptical heads. Generally.Layout Designing Temperature and pressure instrument connections are located throughout the tower.

740 Maintenance access Fig. 7. Following figure shows platform and ladder elevation requirement. 109/uts .scribd.com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) Platform elevations for towers are set by the items that require operation and maintenance and by a maximum ladder run of 30 ft (9150mm). 109’-0” 102.Piping Prepared location access not required past standpipe and instruments Level instrument Side exit preferred Ladder to upper levels Ladder cage Ladder from grade Platform support bracket Platform EL.21 Typical platform arrangement (Source: http://www.

22 Tower platform and ladder elevation requirements (Source: http://www. For intermediate platforms with no controls required and platforms with controls located to the side or the edge of the platform. 110/uts . The following figure shows the two arrangements. the width must be a minimum of 3 ft (915mm). At congested platforms with controls located over the platform.440 900-1500 Ladder Run 30’-0” maximum No access required Maintenance and valve access 18" to 6'-9' . 7.450 to 2050 Alternative valve access with or without extension stem 12”/.440 maximum Ladder (Typical) Intermediate platform to suit maximum ladder run Level gauge access by ladder or platform Control instrument and maintenance access Grade Drain valve access from grade Fig.Layout Designing Top head platform vent access Maintenance and blind access 10”/0250 minimum Temperature and pressure point access by ladder or platform 8’-0” 2.scribd.com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) Platform widths are dictated by operator access.300 minimum 2150 Maintenance access Platform (Typical) 8’-0” 2. the width must be a minimum of 3 ft (915mm) plus the width of the controls or projections.

111/uts .com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) At maintenance access platform. 7.915 Valve Platform Bracket Toe plate Vessel clip Closure plate Intermediate platform Handrail 3’-0” minimum .250 3’-0' minimum .scribd. The following figure displays typical maintenance access arrangements. Top head-mounted maintenance access must be from three sides.R 10" . adequate space must be provided to swing the maintenance access cover flange open for storage against the face of the tower.915 Platform width Congested platform Fig.Platform width 1.23 Platform width requirement (Source: http://www.

Vapor line To clear nozzle 2’-0”/.Layout Designing One maintenance access diameter minimum Davit Top head maintenance access Davit Maintenance access Fig.380 a. instruments.com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) Top head platforms are required for access to vents. 7. 112/uts .610 minimum Vent Trunnions 2’-0” minimum .610 Trunnions b. 7.25 Typical top head platform arrangement (Source: http://www. Multinozzle Top Head Platform Vent Vapor line Relief Valve Tangent Line Minimum 15" 15" Minimum . Minimum Top Head Platform Fig. is provided by common plat forming. if layout permits.24 Maintenance access arrangements (Source: http://www.scribd. and relief valves and are supported from the head by trunnions.com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) Access between towers. The platform elevations can be within a maximum difference of 9 in (230 mm) but must be connected by mechanical joint. The following figure shows typical top head platform arrangements.scribd.

X0 Inside Radius + 14”/.440 8’-0” to 17'-0" 2.com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) 113/uts . 7.1”/.350 14” . straddle both the main axes.27 Bracket spacing (Source: http://www. when possible.scribd.620 X 300 22 ½0 150 11 ¼0 Y 600 450 900 22 ½0 Fig.180 7.220 2. 7.220 4’-0” to 8’-0” 1.com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) Brackets for side-mounted platforms are evenly spaced around the tower and.100 Bracket Vessel internal diameter Up to 4’-0” 1.440 5. Oddly angled brackets can be used for small platform extensions as long as the bracket clip does not interfere with the adjacent support.scribd.350 Y0 4”/ .025 Fig.26 Common platform (Source: http://www.180 17'-0" to 25'-0" 5.

110’-6” 103. The following figure shows the preferred areas of division of piping. The figure below shows this requirement ladder at tower transition sections and at flared skirts may be sloped. platforming and ladders. and platform orientation.com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) On very wide platforms or those that support heavy piping loads.090 Platform EL.200 Grade EL.scribd.Layout Designing When a common ladder serves two or more platforms. Offset in ladders should be avoided. 139’-0” 111. knee bracing is required in addition to the usual platform steel. to a maximum angle of 150 from the vertical.28 Ladder rung spacing (Source: http://www. the ladder rungs must be level with the platforms they serve. the piping is grouped for ease of support and positioned to accommodate interconnection with related equipment and the pipe rack. 130’-0” 109. 7. The potential obstruction immediately under the knee brace must be kept in mind during platform design. Platform EL.890 Even Increments Platform EL.000 Fig. it required. 149’-6” 115. When possible. 114/uts . 7. 100’-0” 100. nozzle.790 Ladder Platform EL.140 Platform EL/ 119’-0” 105.8 Tower Piping Tower piping is located in conjunction with tray. The platform elevations must be in even increments to suit the standard 12in (300mm) ladder rung spacing.

scribd. 115/uts . The following figure displays some typical supports for tower piping.29 Tower areas of division (Source: http://www.com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) Adequate space must be provided between piping and the back of piping and the tower shell to facilitate the installation of pipe supports attached to the tower.Pipe rack Vertical piping area Ladder area Ladder area Platform operating and maintenance area Fig. 7.

com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) Tower piping should be arranged with sufficient flexibility to accommodate tower growth and to allow interconnection to equipment during the regular operating conditions.600 8”/ .31 and fig.30 Tower piping supports (Source: http://www. 7. 7.100 minimum + insulation Radial located piping 0” 2’. Fig. 116/uts .Layout Designing 4”/.100 2’-0” .32 show typical overhead vapour line and pump suction arrangements.60 mi ni m mu 1 ½” utility piping 4”/.200 minimum BOP 4”/.scribd.0 .100 minimum + insulation BOP=Back of Pipe Common BOP located piping Overhead vapour line Trunnion Minimum Support Vessel clip Guide Fig. 7.

Pipe Rack Overhead condenser N Support Overhead line Tower Horizontal leg for flexibility Plan Subtract growth (B) from growth (A).570 3100 Line Temperature 1800 Line Growth (B) Ai rC oo 4000 20’ 6. 7.com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) 117/uts .scribd.100 ler Fig.31 Overhead arrangement (Source: http://www. difference is used to calculate horizontal leg (C). Support 1800 Min Calculated + Growth (A) Guide Horizontal Leg (C) 120’/36.

scribd.com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) Relief valve systems that are open to the atmosphere are located at the top of the tower. 118/uts . closed systems are located a minimum distance above the relief header.32 Pump suction arrangement (Source: http://www. 7.Layout Designing Pipe Rack N Pumps Supports Tower Platform above Plan view Tower Pumps Fig.

9 Tower Instruments Level.scribd. The following figure shows a typical instrument vessel. and temperature instruments control the operation of the tower and must be placed in a position that enhances operation and maintenance without obstructing operator access.com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) 7. 119/uts . pressure. Instrument requirements for towers are usually highlighted on an instrument vessel sketch furnished by the instrument engineer.Alternative Location Safety Distance Atmospheric relief valve Preferred Location Overhead Line Closed System Relief valve preferred location (Closest available platform above relief valve header) Tower Minimum Relief valve header Pipe rack Fig.33 Relief valve system (Source: http://www. 7.

915 T1 L2 7" . switches and gauges are either located individually or grouped on a common bridle or standpipe.180 3”/.073 ½” THD ¾” THD Fig.34 Instrument vessel sketch (Source: http://www. 120/uts 4'-11" .Layout Designing P1 101 P1 2 T1 TE 101 TL=Tangent Line THD= Threaded RF = Raised Face P1 102 P2 5 6 TE 102 ¾” THD LG 101 ½” 300# RF LC 101 P1 103 TE 103 P3 27 L1 3'-11" 1200 3"ϕ T3 3’-0” . The controller must be operable from grade or a platform.scribd. gauges and switches may be operable from a ladder of no platform is available.com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) Level controllers. 7.

121/uts . Locally. Handling of these items is achieved by fixed devices (For instance. temperature and pressure instruments can be operable from a ladder if a platform is not available at the required elevation. relief or control valves) and interior components (For instance. a clear space must be provided at the back of the tower that is accessible from the plant auxiliary road. Single-Mounted Level Gauge and Switch Switch Drain Fig.35 Arrangement of level instruments (Source: http://www. trays or packing rings). Single-Mounted Level Controller Drain ¾” Level switch ½” Vent Glass 1”ϕ Level Gauge ½” Drain ¾” ϕ Plan Elevation b.Level Controller (Right hand) Cover swing area ½” OR 2” ϕ 3’-0” To 6’-9” Platform Plan a.900 To 2050 . cranes). When davits or beams are used. davits or trolley beams) or by mobile equipment (For instance. They can be read locally or in the main control room. mounted indicators are available in a variety of styles. 7.10 Maintenance Tower maintenance is usually limited to removal of exterior items (For instance.scribd. with straight or swivel heads that can be positioned for clear dial visibility. they are located and designed to lower the heaviest removable item to a designated drop area at grade. 7.com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) Like level gauge. When mobile equipment is used.

scribd.300 4” to 8”ϕ Davit support from vessel Davit Drop area Plan Trolley beam Elevation B 8’-0” minimum 2. 7. Typical tower trolley beam arrangement (Source: http://www. B.36 A Typical tower davit arrangement.com) 122/uts .455 Trolley beam Supports Trolley beam Drop area Plan Elevation Fig.Layout Designing A Alternative davit location s upported from platform 3’-0”/.

Such towers operate under extremely cold conditions and sometimes require increased standout dimensions for nozzles. and instrument engineering. Utility stations are required at tower platforms that have maintenance access. towers can be shop fabricated in tow or more sections for shipment in one piece or in sections for field welding. 7. platform. 123/uts . Steam and air risers are the two services required and must be positioned during the tower layout stage in order to furnish adequate clips for support.com/doc/6799435/Process-Plant-Layout-Piping-Design) In certain cases.Maximum extent of hook travel Trolley beam Trolley beam Be aware of bracing requirements Removable handrail section Item may be pulled clear of lower obstructions of possible Hook Drop zone Drop zone Off Center Fig.scribd. Polyurethane insulators are usually furnished between trunnions and support brackets. stiffening rings are specified as additional strengthening for the tower shell. process. Care must be taken in positioning the rings to allow adequate clearance at nozzles.37 Planned drop zone (Source: http://www. platforms and ladders to clear extra-thick insulation and to prevent frost on supporting steelwork. Because of size. allowances for clearances must be made between weld seams and attached fittings. system. especially for towers in vacuum service. As with stiffening rings. ladders. The plant layout designers must be familiar with company and client tower standards before proceeding with tower layout and should coordinate the effort with such supporting groups as vessel. and clips.

Layout Designing Summary • • • • • • • Towers are cylindrical steel vessels that are used for distilling raw materials in the production of such products as gasoline. McGraw-Hill. The Fundamentals of Piping Design: Drafting and Design Methods for Process Applications. 1993. Separation or distillation is a process by which a liquid mixture is partially vaporised. Tower elevation is the distance from the grade to the bottom tangent line of the vessel. M. Gulf Pub.3. Piping Systems Manual. C. and heating oil. Becht. R.... Hunt. diesel... Nayyar. 2009. E. 2007. 2007.. 124/uts . several shell stills are linked in series to form a battery. Recommended Reading • • • Smith. and temperature instruments control the operation of the tower and must be placed in a position that enhances operation and maintenance without obstructing operator access. Piping Handbook. The Fundamentals of Piping Design: Drafting and Design Methods for Process Applications. Level. Process piping: the complete guide to ASME B31. the still is partially filled with a set feed called a batch. In the batch shell still process. The feed is then heated to the temperature required to produce a specific product from the overhead vapours. PTR Prentice Hall. and maintenance accesses platforms are usually circular and supported by brackets attached to the side of the tower. 2004. References • • • Bausbacher. Smith.L. B. The two most common types of tower are. They are also referred to as columns. blinds. P. Silowash. McGraw Hill Professional. Process plant layout and piping design. P. In the continuous shell still process. ASME Press. the tray and packed arrangements. 7th ed.. 2000. Platforms that are required on towers for access to valves instruments.. pressure. Gulf Pub. 2nd ed.

continuous shell c. a. several shell stills are linked in series to form a battery. batch shell still process d. Distillation c. Gas turbine cycle b. batch shell still process b. continuous shell process 5. the still is partially filled with a set feed called a batch. Towers are also known as________________. combustors d. Tower types 7. tower elevation c. continuous shell process c. fractional shell b. _____________ is the distance from the grade to the bottom tangent line of the vessel. In _________________. a. a. tower design 125/uts .Self Assessment 1. fractional shell d. a. a. fractional shell process b. distillation process 6. batch shell still process d. In the_____________. Similar to the continuous shell still the _________________ is made up of several stills linked together in series. tower support b. turbines 2. tower layout d. ____________ is a process by which a liquid mixture is partially vaporized. distillation process c. The first step in __________ is setting the bottom tangent line elevation. Tower design d. compressors c. distillation process 4. a. a. Tower support b. Brayton cycle d. Tower elevation c. Traced piping 3. columns b.

b. c. and maintenance accesses platforms are usually circular and supported by brackets attached to the side of the tower. 9. Platforms c. Turbines d. d. Feed connections to trayed towers usually must be located in a specific area on the tray by internal piping. Which statement is false? a. Nozzles must be elevated to meet the internal requirements of the tower and oriented for maintenance and operational needs. Compressors 126/uts . bottom b. The draw off nozzle is located at the bottom head. blinds. a. The liquid outlet is located on the _________ head of the tower. top c. Level instruments b.Layout Designing 8. right side 10. _________________ are required on towers for access to valves instruments. left side d. a. Maintenance accesses must be located at the down comer sections of the tower.

this low level of total insolubles has been sustained to the present time. Oil analysis confirmed evidence of increasing degradation of the lubricant. Post Oil Change Operational Experience Impact on servo-valve malfunction and failures: The immediate effect of the change to Castrol Perfecto XPG 32 was the elimination of servo-valve malfunction and failures due to deposits and varnish from lubricating oil. This represents a dramatic step change in performance from earlier experience which has now been sustained for over 7 years of subsequent operation without an oil change. at the time.Castrol Perfecto XPG 32 During a planned outage in November 2001. Increasing levels of total insoluble. taking excellence in lubrication and plant protection to a new level. Castrol Perfecto XPG 32 has demonstrated superior performance and extreme resistance to the formation of insoluble degradation products.9mg of deposit per 100g of oil which is considered to be a very low level.Case Study I Castrol Perfecto XPG 32 Problem A GE MS6001FA (Frame 6FA) gas turbine installed in a 120MW Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Power Station was suffering from poor reliability and availability due to failure or malfunction of the Moog servo control valves. By mid-2001. Solution . a dramatic reduction was observed in the levels of total insolubles in the oil as a result of the extremely low sludge forming propensity of Castrol Perfecto XPG 32. Servo-valve malfunction and failure was a long existing problem in the service of the unit. The value is currently running at 0. BP’s “Castrol Plus” site service operation was engaged to carry out a full oil change. 127/uts . Formulated using special highly refined base oil coupled with the latest in antioxidant technology. servo-valve failure was a common occurrence causing an unacceptable incidence of unplanned outages and resulting in a serious negative impact on reliability and availability of the plant.000 hours of field operational experience. other test results indicated an advancing state of degradation. Castrol Perfecto XPG 32 offers a valuable contribution to improvement in reliability and availability and to optimisation of the plant. suggesting the oil was still in serviceable condition. It was becoming an increasingly popular during the latter part of 2000. Furthermore. even after more than 7 years in the system. Although the Rotating Pressure Vessel Oxidation test (RPVOT) indicated a value of 440 minutes. Castrol XPG 32 offers a high degree of oxidation resistance even under arduous service conditions of high operating temperatures and intermittent running or “peaking” duty. Gas turbine lubricant which was correctly specified in accordance with GE specification. including tank clean out and complete system flush. Sticking servo-valves were causing frequent trips resulting in unplanned downtime and consequential trading penalties and loss of production. Now well proven in a wide range of applications with over 500. just above 50% of the new oil value for the grade in use. which result in sludge build-up in tanks and pipe work and varnish on bearings and hydraulic control valve components. providing superior reliability in operation and long service life. was a newly launched grade was selected to refill the system. increasing total acid number and declining antioxidant content together indicated that the oil condition was such that varnish forming propensity had reached a level where it was likely to be problematic in service. Dramatic reduction in total insolubles: At the same time. Castrol Perfecto XPG 32 which. Operational Experience Initial fill of the gas turbine lubrication system took place in 1998. using a conventional grade of anti-wear. By minimising the formation of such deposits. This high performance gas turbine lubricant is based on leading edge base oil and additive technology.

Layout Designing No need for other control measures: Servo-valves are still exchanged on a routine programme every three years as a precaution but. State the solution on the problem given in the above case.9mg of deposit per 100g of oil which is considered to be a very low level. At the same time. Answers  uring a planned outage in November 2001. 128/uts . Castrol Perfecto XPG 32 which. additive treatment or any other action. even after more than 7 years in the system. this low level of total insolubles has been sustained to the present time. This represents a dramatic step change in performance from earlier experience which has now been sustained for over 7 years of subsequent operation without an oil change. taking excellence in lubrication and plant protection to a new level. The value is currently running at 0. was a newly launched grade was selected to refill the system. This high performance gas turbine lubricant is based on leading edge base oil and additive technology. 3. at the time. Sticking servo-valves were causing frequent trips resulting in unplanned downtime and consequential trading penalties and loss of production. Furthermore. 2. No other measures are in place or have been found necessary on this system to combat the problem of varnishing. Questions 1. Which is the problem involved in this case study? Answers  GE MS6001FA (Frame 6FA) gas turbine installed in a 120MW Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Power Station A was suffering from poor reliability and availability due to failure or malfunction of the Moog servo control valves. on examination. a dramatic reduction was observed in the levels of total insolubles in the oil as a result of the extremely low sludge forming propensity of Castrol Perfecto XPG 32. are found to be consistently free of any evidence of varnishing. BP’s “Castrol Plus” site service operation was engaged to carry D out a full oil change including tank clean out and complete system flush. No supplementary cleaning systems are in use in the form of ultra-fine filtration or electrostatic precipitation and no intervention has been made in respect of the lubricant in any way by partial oil change. What was the post oil change operational experience in terms of Servo-valve malfunctioning and failure and dramatic reduction in total insoluble? Answers  he immediate effect of the change to Castrol Perfecto XPG 32 was the elimination of servo-valve malfunction T and failures due to deposits and varnish from lubricating oil.

Here. Which is one of the USA’s largest distributors of gasoline. What is the solution provided for the problem in the above case study? 3. diesel fuel and lubricants. precise locating and triggering alerts. Any spillage is drawn into the conduit by capillary action and contact is absorbed by the cable jacket which swells and as contact is made with the electrodes in the cable core leak detection is achieved. The Company’s rationale was simply to detect minor floor plate leaks while still small seepage and consequently taking a few extra days to interrogate the system will have little or no impact on the cost or volume of soil remediation. San Jose. the company has twelve closely grouped small diameter tanks. Questions 1. operating an air-ram boring tools rather than a rotating drill bit.Case Study II Avoiding Ground Water Pollution at Tank Farm Coast Oil Co. sought the most effective means of fulfilling its responsibility to ensure it met the Regional Water Quality Control Board’s standards for the prevention of ground water pollution at its San Jose tank farm. they overcame them using a small. Whilst the closeness of the tanks posed working space limitations for the installers. Coast Oil operators were opted to make for periodic measurements with a battery-powered TraceTek test instrument at junction boxes on vertical risers. manoeuvrable horizontal drilling machine. Specific Application At this tank farm. Which is the risk involved in this case study? 2. USA The Risk Coast Oil Co. What are the application specifications? 129/uts . The Solution Tyco Thermal Controls provided the solution with its cable-based TraceTek leak detection system using TT5000 sensing cable which contains a hydrocarbon scavenging material. The challenge was to retro-fit this facility with and effective leak detection system to monitor the soil beneath the tanks without interrupting commercial operations. rather than continuous monitoring. Installed within PVC conduit in the soil beneath fuel tanks it offers a system capable of quickly detecting fuel leaks.. TraceTek systems are offered with continuous monitoring equipment for very quick detecting.

Testing is a key aspect of gas turbine manufacturing to ensure reliability and efficiency. Gas turbine systems are primarily used in auxiliary electric power generation to manage peak loading conditions. Since the manufacturer also wanted simplified connectivity for voltage measurements. This company relies on high-performance test instrumentation in its R&D facilities to improve the efficiency of new designs as well as reduce undesirable gas emissions.000 in shipping costs when instrumentation is transported for startup testing.000 lb weight of the previous system. VTI’s LXI hardware was selected. This instrument can take both thermocouple and voltage measurements while utilizing the easy-to-use mini-TC plug. VTI provided the EX1000A for voltage measurements (outputs from pressure and load transducers). This simplified connectivity while reducing wiring errors. Sizes range from very small units to larger combined cycle generators capable of generating up to 300 MW. Ethernet-Based Technology Apart from its proven performance. the manufacturer purchased six EX1048A thermocouple instruments to run in parallel with the existing test system as well as other competitive data acquisition systems. patch panels. The gas turbine manufacturer needed to upgrade its data acquisition system to a more portable. Compact Design. the gas turbine manufacturer selected this LXI system because of its compact design and ease of use. This testing allows the engineers to improve their products and remain competitive in the global energy market. or terminal blocks. loads. For these reasons.5 days to only 6 hours. In addition to the EX1048A. As a global manufacturer. and torque. The high-density LXI components weigh just 500 lbs – significantly less than the 4. The current test methodology required that the same equipment used for new system development be used in the field at installation. The company wanted to reduce the setup time and cost of the system by simplifying calibration. To test performance. industrial companies needing self power generation and companies requiring emergency power generation. The Challenge: Precision Performance and Faster Setup The company uses a data acquisition system to record. the EX1048A provided the highest accuracy (0. maintenance and transducer connectivity. The Solution: Compact LXI System The gas turbine manufacturer worked with VTI Instruments to identify an LXI system as a possible replacement. VTI leveraged the capabilities of both the EX1048A and the EX1000A to create a single box called the EX1000A-TC. Startup testing involves shipping a large amount of test equipment to the customer site for new turbine installation testing and verification. During the trial period. The most common measurements taken are temperature (inlet/outlet gas). this company produces a wide range of alternative fuel turbine generators for power utility agencies. Customers can reduce their dependency on costly primary sources since these generators can be located anywhere and started and stopped as power needs fluctuate. A common hardware platform that can scale from 100 channels for onsite testing to thousands of channels for R&D testing was essential. scalable system that maintains high accuracy (better than 1°C). measure and analyse the physical characteristics of gas turbines. This enables the company to save over $11. gas pressures. Production or startup testing is also done onsite at the time of installation to verify proper setup and ensure reliability. Portability was also needed for onsite testing. Setup time was reduced from 2. 130/uts .Layout Designing Case Study III Gas Turbine Systems Today’s leading suppliers of power generation and energy delivery products require cutting edge technology and superior performance to meet the world’s most demanding energy requirements.5° C) of any of the data acquisition systems and delivered the improved environmental and portability requirements that were needed. The mini-TC connector used for the EX1048A allowed thermocouples to be directly connected to the instrument without using external reference junctions.

What does today’s leading suppliers of power generation and energy delivery products require? 2. In which area is the gas turbine system primarily used? 3. State the solution for the problem mentioned in the above case study. 131/uts . which enables the synchronisation of multiple. This saves both. distributed devices over a single Ethernet cable through the IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol. time and money. Questions 1. Which are the challenges that the company faced? 4.The manufacturer also wanted cutting edge Ethernet-based technology. The manufacturer uses IEEE 1588 for large system synchronisation to provide more information in the event of an out-of-tolerance condition or failure. since problems can be resolved quickly. The LXI platform allows centralised monitoring of the system by factory personnel at remote locations worldwide. The EX1048A and EX1000A-TC devices are LXI Class A.

Gas turbine engineering handbook. O. Dickenson. Johnson.. McGraw Hill Professional.. Inc. 2002. P. Process piping: the complete guide to ASME B31. A. Krigger. 2nd ed. Frayne.. Gulf Professional Publishing. 4th ed. Talbott. 1998. Inc.D. 2002... Frayne. Valves. Elliot. R. 2010. J.. 2001. Hunt. Recommended Reading • • • • • • • • • • • • Boyce. 2004. Principles of Controlled Maintenance Management. Becht... Treatment of Cooling Water. Smith.. M. land. McGraw-Hill. R. The steam trap handbook. Chemical Publishing Company. Residential Energy: Cost Savings and Comfort for Existing Buildings.. E. The Fairmont Press. R. T. Steam Distribution Systems Deskbook. piping. E. B. 7th ed.F. ASME Press. Inc. Springer. & Dorsi.F. CRC Press. P. 2007. P. M..T. applications. Gulf Professional Publishing. 2001. 2009. J. 2nd ed. William Andrew. M. Inc.. McCaulry. Compressed air operations manual: an illustrated guide to selection. P. Cote. E. 1995. Development and Design.. 2nd ed. C. Process plant layout and piping design.. Gas turbines: a handbook of air. 2nd ed. 2009. Cooling Water Treatment Principles and Practices: Charts and Notes for Field Use...... Piping Systems Manual. Nolan. and pipelines handbook... Silowash.. The Fairmont Press. Gracey. 2010. 7th ed. Butterworth-Heinemann. McAllister. Nayyar. M.. A. 2000. C. High-pressure pumps. Cooling Water Treatment Principles and Practices: Charts and Notes for Field Use. 2000. PTR Prentice Hall..L. and sea applications. A. Piping engineering leadership for process plant projects.3.. 2002. 2006. Rhea. 2004. P. J. Incorporated. C.. E. Soares. Gas turbine engineering handbook.Layout Designing Bibliography References • • • • • • • • • • • • • Aquaprox. John Wiley and Sons. Incorporated. Syms. C. McCauley. 2nd ed. Fire Fighting Pumping Systems at Industrial Facilities. P. and maintenance. M. Elsevier. The Fundamentals of Piping Design: Drafting and Design Methods for Process Applications. 2010. Saturn Resource Management.. B.. Gulf Pub. 2004. 2006. Gulf Professional Publishing. D. Compressed air systems: a guidebook on energy and cost savings. 1999. 1993. 2007. installation. 3rd ed. 1993. Land. Pipe Drafting and Design. Chemical Publishing Company. Fundamentals of Fire Protection. Gulf Professional Publishing. Parisher. Gulf Professional Publishing. McGraw-Hill Professional.. J. Pennock. 2nd ed. Pipeline rules of thumb handbook: quick and accurate solutions to your everyday pipeline problems. 132/uts .. Piping Handbook... C. Jones & Bartlett Learning.. The Fairmont Press. Gulf Professional Publishing. Bausbacher.. Boyce. W. C. 2009...

a 6. d 5. c 4. c 8. b Chapter IV 1. b 7. a 2. d 5. a Chapter II 1. b 10. b 7. a 2. c 8.Self Assessment Answers Chapter I 1. b 7. b 7. d 9. a 6. c 4. d 5. b 3. d 9. c 4. a 6. a 10. d 8. b Chapter III 1. c 4. a 2. a 2. b 3. b 3. d 5. a 9. d 9. b 3. c 8. a 6. a 10. a 10. a 133/uts .

Layout Designing Chapter V 1. c 8. d 9. a 10. a 6. d 5. c Chapter VI 1. c 4. a 8. b 134/uts . b 3. c 4. a 3. a 10. b 5. b 5. b 7. b 3. d 9. a 2. b 7. b 9. c 8. a 2. d 2. c 7. a 6. c 4. a 6. b 10. b Chapter VII 1.