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Power Electronics in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications

John M. Miller, PE, PhD
J-N-J Miller Design Services, P.L.C. 3573 E. Gatzke Road, Cedar, MI. 49621

Abstract-Hybrid electric vehicles are enjoying more widespread customer acceptance than battery electric vehicles because of their performance and economy. Today two of the major global automotive companies have hybrid electric vehicles for sale in most areas of the globe with cumulative sales now exceeding 120k. Whereas battery electric vehicles may find niche applications in route travel and short commuting the hybrid electric vehicle provides un-compromised utility and fuel economy benefits ranging from 5% to 50% or higher compared to the non-hybrid base vehicle. Ac drives are now ubiquitous in hybridized power trains due to their high durability and ease of control via power electronics. However, because of the unique application requirements of an automotive propulsion system the present ac drives are still inadequate in meeting the full drive system performance requirements and package volume targets. Consequently, today’s hybridized power trains continue to utilize ac drives that have either over rated electric machines or power electronics or both. This paper is motivated by the premise that the most economical solution to wide CPSR and overall performance of ac drives for hybrids rests on power electronics. The paper will describe the present situation and what efforts are underway, principally in transmission systems, to provide ac drives that are better matched to personal transportation vehicles.

I.

Introduction

Power train configurations for hybrid vehicles have evolved along four major architecture paths as illustrated in Figure 1. Parallel architectures provide the best fuel economy improvement for minimal additional complexity. Figure 1a shows a hybrid power train in a front wheel drive vehicle having an integrated electric machine in the transmission. For electric fractions of less than 10% this architecture is most generally referred to as an Integrated Starter Generator (ISG) or Integrated Starter Alternator (ISA) implementation [1,2]. Electric fraction is defined as the ratio of peak electric power to the sum of peak engine power plus peak electric power. As electric fraction increases the hybrid architectures progress through ISG to full parallel hybrid and/or power split and finally ending at series configurations. Figure 1b shows a power split architecture in which the downsized vehicle power

plant is connected via gears between two motor generators (M/G). M/G1 functions as a starter-alternator to react against the engine crankshaft and is typically rated at 30% to 50% of M/G2. M/G2 is the main electric propulsion ac drive and its rating constitutes the electric fraction for this architecture. To illustrate, a passenger vehicle equipped with a 1.5 liter engine has approximately 75 kW (@50kW/L) of heat engine power. For a typical power split electric fraction of 30% this yields a 32 kW rating for M/G2 (and 16 kW for M/G1). The hybrid architecture in Figure 1c represents an electric all wheel drive or on demand all wheel drive configuration. This intermediate architecture is gaining interest among automotive manufactures because of its relative ease of implementation compared to hybridized power trains. Referred to using the designation, E-4, the objective is to deliver tractive power to the non-driven axle when the need arises on demand. For example on slippery road surfaces when the conventional antilock brake system (ABS) wheel speed sensors detect a differential speed error between the driven and non-driven axles. This error would signal the E-4 system to apply tractive power to the electric augmented axle yielding all wheel drive capability on demand. E-4 system power may be autonomous or is supplied by an engine driven alternator and supported by a modest energy storage system. The final architecture shown in Figure 1d is the series hybrid power train in which 100% of engine power (no engine downsizing possible) is converted to electric power and distributed to the electric traction motor according to driver demand. Energy storage in a series hybrid is more variable than in parallel and split parallel systems because the engine can be controlled under several strategies. With the engine providing base load the energy storage system is sized as a peaking unit for dynamic events such as acceleration then the storage system rating would be the highest. Under load tracking control the engine provides nearly all the tractive power with a minimal storage system for sustaining electric loads during idle stop.

Power Inverter

Energy Storage

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Trans & FD

‘a) Parallel Architecture, ISG

0-7803-7768-0/03/$17.00 (C) 2003 IEEE

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With a constraint that the ac drive system provide a terminal to shaft (transmission input) efficiency of greater than 80% places some very stringent constraints on each subsystem. CVT transmissions with ratio coverage of up to 6:1 are capable of holding the engine speed in a more confined torquespeed range than more conventional MT and AT types. Comm. number of connectors and component placement are critical in order to minimize power dissipation of the complete ac drive system. Figure 3 illustrates two cases of shift strategy in a 6-speed AT. The first is for best acceleration under wide-open throttle (WOT) conditions where the shift points are near engine red line speed. 24 . Gate drives. Figure 2 illustrates the breakdown of propulsion system power processing as we progress backwards from the driven wheels (driveline) up through the transmission and into the traction motor and back to the energy storage unit. The impact on the ac drive due to a step ratio transmission is a demand for high transient power during shifting as well as very dramatic torque slewing so that shift events are brisk. outside of the energy storage system required for hybrid vehicles. very demanding scenario on both the electric machine and power electronics. to map the high dynamic range of normal driving into a narrow operating regime for most efficient (and/or best performance) of the engine [3. Shift strategy is brand image dependent and a complex function of the vehicle loading and accelerator pedal position. The interesting point from the ac drive system perspective is what these shifting strategies and transmission types mean when it comes to the locus of operating points in its torquespeed map. Power Rectifier emtr Power Inverter Energy Storage Gen ‘d) Series Architecture Fig.4]. the power electronics unit represents the next most costly subsystem. Selection of operating system voltage. Power electronics must be durable to sustain these dynamic events lasting on average 10 seconds or less. the shift points are intentionally set somewhat below the engine peak power rating to allow margin for grade and headwind loading. Regardless of type. Mapping the operating space of the ac drive As noted in Figure 2 the propulsion ac drive system is matched to the vehicles dynamic operating conditions via a mechanical transmission. when the shift is executed the engine speed slews to a lower speed very quickly after which it climbs back up nearing the peak power again before the next shift event. During brisk deceleration (~-0. Although not specifically shown in Figure 3. Automotive applications of ac drives demand a wide dynamic power range of 10:1 or more to encompass power for highway cruise of approximately 10 kW to 20kW and 60 kW to over 100 kW for acceleration.Rd Energy Storage Power Inverter Power Electronics Ri Vφ. Shifting thus translates the wide range in vehicle speed into a compressed speed variation on the engine. AWD A. Also. Pwr Supply Alt Power Inverter e-mtr Pb Pd Pi Pe Pm Pa Energy Storage Gear Fig. Iφ Vb ω Transmission T Driveline C'md's M/G1 M/G2 Power Inverter ‘b) Power Split Architecture Control Electronics Controller. Power Electronics in hybrid powertrains Today. Figure 3 is meant to illustrate the range in strategy from WOT to some more mild case. Dynamics during braking represent a similar. 1 Types of Hybrid Vehicle Powertrain Architectures II. Sizing of the power transistors required is commonly done with durability as a constraint. 2 Ac drive system configuration for hybrid power train ‘c) E-4 Architecture. but still long compared to the thermal time constants of inverters. permitting no more than a 40oC temperature rise of junction over heatsink or case when the coolant inlet temperature is maintained at or below 65oC. Traditionally rated at 160% of the ac drive system peak power in order to accommodate its reactive power needs as well as to support dynamic events the inverter unit is still an area of focus for cost and package size reduction. manual (MT) or automatic (AT) step ratio transmissions or continuously variable transmissions (CVT) the objective is the same. For example.5g or higher) it is very important that the power electronics have inertia compensation control so that low compliance drive trains such as power split do not experience instability or jerk phenomena.

Hybrid power trains based on epicyclic gear sets will commonly use two or possibly a single M/G to implement a power split architecture. 4 Shift points mapped to ac drive capability curve (Red=WOT case. 3 Illustration of automotive transmission shift points a) Dual M/G epicyclic or Power Split Both cases of transmission shift strategy (WOT and mild) are shown mapped into the ac drive capability curve in Figure 4. Torque. Green = mild accel. T (Nm) 25 . FD=final drive. 5 Epicyclic Transmission Hybrid Architectures (R= ring gear. N (rpm) B. Ac drive capability curve 200 T_nom Capability T_wot wheels ICE R C OWC LUC Gear box FD M/G S Jatco IHAT Integrated Hybrid Automatic Transmission b) Single M/G epicyclic concept (from [5]) Fig. thermal design and overall safety remain. Automakers are exploring integration of Lithium battery technology but issues of charge control. N (rpm) Fig. For this illustration a 30 kW rated ac drive was assumed. The WOT case for shift points noted in Figure 3a is represented by the Red trace in which the locus of T-N points are clustered in the upper reaches of field weakening. S= sun gear. for the more mild acceleration case having lower peak and excursions by the transmission the T-N locus is clustered closer to the electric machine corner point speed. C=carrier. V (mph) Engine speed. LUC=lock-up clutch) 150 100 50 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Engine Speed. A Question of matching N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6 Shift Single motor generator hybrid configurations having the electric machine in a pre-transmission configuration typically do not realize effective matching of machine and ICE peak efficiencies. Figure 5 illustrates two hybrid architectures based on epicyclic transmissions and having either dual M/G sets or a single M/G. Figure 6 helps clarify the impact transmission (including M/G and epicyclic gearing) has on vehicle fuel economy and performance for specific drive cycles. Similarly. case) In Figure 5 the power electronics and control unit is assumed part of the M/G function block.N/V Chart 6-speed trans 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Vehicle speed. OWC=one way clutch. N (rpm) N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6 N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6 N M/G ICE S/A R C S Gear box FD ‘b) Mild acceleration shift points Fig. Since WOT represents a low frequency of occurrence compared to normal driving the electric machine designer would tend to size the machine so that it has low losses in this regime (optimum efficiency would be designed for high frequency of occurrence T-N points during a standard drive cycle). In both cases a single energy storage module in the form of an advanced battery such as Nickel Metal Hydride is present in addition to the vehicle’s conventional electrical distribution support battery. wheels ‘a) WOT acceleration shift points N/V Chart 6-speed trans 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 50 100 150 Vehicle speed. V (mph) Engine speed. ICE = internal combustion engine. Transmission design plays a pivotal role in matching the ac drive system to the vehicles mission as exemplified by standardized drive cycles.

Why is ISG difficult to introduce? When power levels of the ac drive system used as a source of propulsion power for the vehicle drops below 20 kW and into the range of 10 kW or less it is incumbent on the propulsion system designer to overdrive the system as much as physically possible. N (rpm) 2000 4000 6000 8000 T_ISG T_E4 T_HEV P_ISG P_E4 P_HEV T_crank T_boost P_Idle P_cruise P_ab P_regen Japan 10-15 1900 kg sedan Europe EC 1900 kg sedan US combined 2900 kg SUV 4 4. if not for key starts. 18. switched/variable reluctance and some surface permanent magnet designs). As Figure 6b illustrates the driveline overall gearing. 33. Therefore. All T-N traces assume an ac drive system having constant power speed ratio (CPSR) of 3:1. C. fans and compressors (air conditioning) as well as electric engine valve actuation (EVA) in the near future.1 F D = 3 . P(kW/100) * Torque. The bottom line is that ac drives in vehicle driveline applications today must be over sized to accommodate the full dynamic operating range in both power and speed. E-4.5 a c c e l ti m e 0 --> 6 0 m p h ‘b) Performance impact of final drive gear selection (from [4]) Fig. then for all warm restarts (referred to as strategy starts).4 kph on ECE MVEG and 34.7 to 3:1 is typical for all of the major electric machine technologies (asynchronous. Traditionally this has forced the introduction of over sized ac drives for applications at and below the ratings of E-4. This is due to the simple fact that ISG and all hybrid types for that matter are required to crank the vehicle engine and this high torque load under direct drive conditions essentially sizes the electric machine and power electronics. E-4 at 20 kW and full HEV at 30 kW (and higher) is the inability for these electric drive systems to meet all the requirements simultaneously due to lack of constant power speed ratio or CPSR. Sizing the hybrid ac drive system Capability curves for three of the ac drive systems noted in Figure 1 are shown in Figure 7 along with several representative specification points.6 kph on the ECE urban. Figure 8 is meant to illustrate the dilemma of ISG with the new proviso that cranking torque levels of up to 300 Nm are developed. In Figure 7 the former requirement is assumed with a specification of 180 Nm of cranking torque nominal for engines less than 4 liter. What should start to become more apparent when looking at the different T-N and generating power capability curves in Figure 7 for ISG at 10 kW. shown here as 3 kW continuous. The second generating specification point is for sustained cruise of 5 kW assuming powering of all power train electrification loads such as pumps. light trucks and sport utility vehicles (SUV). or 26 . interior permanent magnet. 6 Drive Cycle Dependence of Driveline Components In Figure 6a the average speed on the standard drive cycle is xx kph for Japan’s 10-15 mode. CPSR of 2.5 6. to sustain the vehicle electrical content and passenger amenities. as completed by the final drive. III.7 F C = 3 . The generating quadrant specification points in Figure 7 represent idle power generation.5 kW again to contain EVA power demand at these higher speeds.1 on the US FTP75 cycle. Additional generating quadrant specification points include trailer tow (not shown) and autobahn or high speed cruise requirements noted here as 6.FE (mpg) AT Gear shift ratio coverage = 5 5. HEV and specification points ‘a) Fuel economy impact of shift ratio coverage (from [5]) FC (l/1 0 0 k m . In most hybrid power trains the electric drive system is also required to crank the engine. including regeneration at 18 kW which will collect greater than 80% of the available braking energy in most passenger vehicles. It is this difference in drive cycle average speed that contributes to the matching differences and also why 5 speeds and CVT’s are suitable for the Japan market whereas 6 speeds are better for North American and European markets. 7 Hybrid capability: ISG. T (Nm) Classes of HEV ac drives 300 200 100 0 -100 0 -200 -300 -400 Speed. The second motoring requirement is for vehicle power train boosting during vehicle launch. It should also be noted that 20 kW ac drives represent a good overall benefit in meeting all of the specification points. a 200 Nm target was set to provide some margin for cranking when the battery is low or aged and a system need that meets an always starts directive. There are two fundamental motoring quadrant specification points and four generating quadrant specification points. The trace labeled Tod.5 7 Gsrc Fig.5 Power. if only for 50 ms. passing maneuvers and grade climb. establishes the vehicles performance.) F C = 3 .5 5 5.5 6 6.

high torque corner point of the ac drive system will be inaccessible to the vehicle power train. These ancillary and accessory drives require all of the attributes noted earlier for the traction drives. the ac drive system requires an energy storage system that has low internal resistance and high pulse power capability. because of lack of package space and locations that are less than benign Overdriven motor: ISG case T_od 500 400 Torque. but again a system incapable of meeting cranking torque. lead-acid and the more advanced batteries such as Nickel-metal hydride and Lithium-ion. beyond the machine torque capability itself and the peak kVA rating of the power electronics. Typical bus voltage swing ranges are –30% to +25% of nominal. The Red trace in Figure 8 with legend P_b_10k is meant to illustrate the cusp taken out of the inverter-machine T-N capability curve by the energy storage system’s limitations. At higher power levels the ac drive system facilitates a downsized engine while its relatively higher torque facilitates earlier transmission up-shifts. torque linearity and accuracy of prediction since most hybrid power trains fall under a torque control strategy in which engine and ac drive system torques are arbitrated according to operating conditions. Control issues facing power electronics and ac drives in automotive applications are the high switching frequency and consequent high sampling rates. there are concerns over transient response. IV. the power electronics must be environmentally sealed to withstand simultaneous temperature and vibration and prevent ingress of all automotive fluids. Unless the energy storage system pulse power is adequate. N (rpm) 2000 4000 6000 8000 Fig. Therefore. Needs for power electronics in hybrid ancillary & accessory systems Possibly one of the more overlooked and often times an after thought are the electric drives associated with electrification of the power train ancillary and occupant accessory systems. a downsized ac drive system is now an over arching goal as hybrid power trains become increasingly pervasive in the marketplace. current. Designed for 10 kW peak. A further limitation. This argues for even further consideration of ac drive system performance and compromises must be made in the energy storage system in terms of storage capacity (Ah) and consequent weight and cost. Fuel cell powered vehicles will have an additional need for electric drive of the air compressor feeding the fuel cell stacks. speed and torque. Needs for power electronics in hybrid propulsion systems. EMC/EMI is a pervasive issue facing all power electronics designs. Additional concerns are bus voltage utilization. Overall. the need for high accuracy encoder and resolvers. For the drive system itself. Because hybrid vehicles achieve a good portion of fuel conservation via idle stop it is necessary to electric drive steering. this overdriven case represents a situation where only the cranking and idle specification points can be met. fault management to prevent overstress in any of the main attributes of voltage. means to mitigate parameter sensitivity in the presence of wide temperature gradients and saturation conditions in the electric machine. a higher pulse power rated energy storage system is needed which for battery systems typically means higher operating voltage. A. if not to a greater degree. Some advanced batteries having thin plate construction are capable of 20C rates. Traction is best provided by the higher electric fraction architectures and is best suited at voltages well beyond 42V PowerNet. Traditional battery systems.over drive torque. but durability in the automotive environment is a major concern. cabin climate control and all the pumps and fans associated with engine fluid and electric machine and power electronics thermal management. represents the case where the electric machine is operating in its 10s or less maximum overdriven condition having electric loading exceeding 30 A/mm2 in the windings (asynchronous machine assumed). A second set of traces for the same physical machine and power electronics design. the low speed. 8 Limits of ac drive system capability 27 . For highest efficiency the ac drive system is required to have low spin losses and broad efficiency plateau’s. Moreover. but with higher corner point speed (Green traces) show a much better fit to the specification points. The E-4 architecture in particular benefits most from ac drive systems having low spin losses and very wide CPSR. particularly during operation in field weakening and the fact that energy storage system voltages are variable depending on loading and whether motoring or generating. temperature. braking. T (Nm) P_b_10k T_cont P_cont P_b_14. Due to the stack up of power losses noted in Figure 2. Concerns facing power electronics are the need for low cost. Lastly. more efficient packages that have high power density and are also easy to install in the vehicle. more stress on the power electronics switches and more attention to power and energy management. the torque falls as 1/N2 during over drive resulting in a machine with low corner speed (only 250 rpm or so) and thus very limited capability at higher speeds. is the limitation of the energy storage system.3k 300 200 100 0 -100 0 -200 Speed. Designed for minimal package. are capable of pulse discharge rates of 10C to 15C or more for short durations.

Power split. These low compliance drive lines experience more instability and are Rd Ri Vb T2 T3 SPM T4 T5 T1 T6 ω Transmission T Driveline C'md's Control Electronics Controller. Hence the demand for wide CPSR in power split implementations. architectures utilize gearing between the M/G and engine (ISG’s are generally direct parallel hybrids) thus compressing the engine speed working range. There is much work underway today to address the need for package reduced ac drives having wide CPSR. 10 Wide CPSR ac drive system based on DMIC (from [7]) The DMIC topology shown in Figure 10 is a cascade of a conventional six switch hard switched bridge operating under 28 . ‘a) Popular SUV: ISG installation ‘b) Phantom view of ISG installation Fig. packaging of hybrid components forces the vehicle designer to compromise or eliminate some amenities such as full spare tire or rear seat air conditioning in order to package the needed components. How can Power Electronics Help? prone to oscillation during transients originating either from the road or from the driveline itself. The best M/G systems available today that meet the demands of power split architectures are the interior permanent magnet (IPM) design [6] and the switched reluctance machine (SRM). notably the power split. Power electronics is then called upon to dampen these driveline oscillations and jerk so that smooth performance and pleasant driveability is experienced. Figure 10 below is taken from [7] and illustrates the principle of DMIC. SRM’s are likely more suitable to this application. Dual mode inverter control (DMIC) [7] is a very promising power electronics enabled technology that addresses the demands of future hybrid power trains. Such systems are very smooth in operation but more complex. Power Electronics T1 During the next five years or less there will be pressing need to address the full compliment of hybrid system components to meet the cost objectives of mass market introduction. Hybridized SUV (from [2]) An ISG system must be supported by electrified ancillaries as noted above. But this is at the expense of working the M/G in constant power over ratio’s exceeding 5:1. B.environments. Based on the high power density brushless dc machine and conventional power device technology it may lend itself to new power split variants operating at much higher speeds. or indirect parallel hybrid. The same can be said for nine phase pole-phase-modulated systems. In many cases. Hybridization today is already a transmission design exercise combined with electric machines and power electronics control. Figure 9 shows in phantom view the packaging of an ISG system into a popular SUV. There appears to be a concomitant trend to low compliance drivelines as drive clutches and torque converters are supplanted by M/G sets to realize “electric-CVT’s”. will continue to evolve and possibly realize single M/G implementations in the quest for downsized components. Comm. Pwr Supply T6 Fig. have evolved into weak magnet designs and are basically SR like. Gate drives. For example. due to system constraints. high phase order systems have been and are being explored. So there is a bifurcation of transmission architectures in progress for hybridized products. CVT’s are capable of ratio coverage of 6:1 but tend to significantly lose efficiency under full load at high ratio. Hybrid power train architectures today. are being hybridized and have gear shift ratio coverage (ratio of lowest to top gear) that are trending to ratio’s of 6 and higher. in fact present IPM’s. It is therefore to be expected that an ISG installation will easily incur full system costs double the ISG only costs (machine plus power electronics plus battery). Five phase systems for example can realize a smaller M/G package for the same torque but the power electronics complexity is higher. Conventional step ratio and continuously variable mechanical transmissions. However. generally with a torque converter. 9. IPM’s do not have the power density nor are they capable of the higher speeds necessary to push the limits on downsizing. Seemingly a spacious vehicle there is precious little package volume available to contain hybrid system components let alone the myriad of supporting system electric drives.

Jaura. 24-25. Fukino. The dilemma now facing the power electronics designer is to determine which has the greater overall advantage to a hybrid vehicle.” IEEE 7’th Workshop on Power Electronics in Transportation. Keim. Ann Arbor. 5. W. 13-18. E. Levi. “Improvement of Fuel Economy in Passenger Cars Using New Transmission Concepts. M. J.Leonardi. Stefanovic." Global Powertrain Congress. D. The ac voltage controller is rated 1 pu current but must be capable of 6 pu or higher voltage to block the permanent magnet motor back emf which would in normal power electronics result in braking current in the main bridge diodes. A. The last remaining hurdle to achieving higher power density ac drives for hybridized power trains will then be removing the need for liquid cooled power electronics and operating at elevated temperatures. Sept.Lang. matching the vehicle operating conditions to the engine and electric drive were presented that show a trend to a growing span in gear ratio coverage range plus interest in continuously variable transmissions. Lawler. 3. If the electrolytic capacitors could be eliminated and replaced with polymer multiplayer capacitors (PML’s) then an inverter would be realized that is considerably downsized and capable of higher operating temperatures. References [1] J. In a hybrid drive line the inertia will smoothen the single phase torque ripple of DMIC when in constant power range. [6] E.” JATCO Technical Review. PA. The DMIC concept offers the hybrid power train designer a new degree of freedom in high power density and compact power electronics. Power electronics is one of the major cost impediments to hybrid vehicles for mass market introduction and it continues to be hampered by a lack of standardized bus voltage.Miller. Conclusion This paper has overviewed the situation impeding the proliferation of power electronics in automotive hybrid vehicles.. Fujikawa.M. “Theoretical Verification of the Infinite Constant Power Speed Range of the Brushless DC Motor Driven by Dual Mode Inverter Control. Oct. Croatia.brushless dc motor control and an ac voltage controller implemented as a pair of thyristors in antiparallel per phase. providing for rotor retention. "Developmental Challenges of a Hybrid Electric Technology Demonstrator Vehicle. Oct. Jaura "HEV's – Vehicles that go the extra mile and are fun to drive!" Convergence 2002 Transportation Electronics Conference. paper #2002-21-0040. 2002 [2] A. GPC2002 Alternative Fuel/Lightweight Vehicle Public Show." IEEE EPE 10'th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference. Understanding the unique attributes of meeting the performance requirements in a hybrid vehicle so that it remains transparent to the consumer yet delivers significantly improved fuel economy is a major challenge to the power electronics and ac drive system designer. This means that new solutions must be found for minimizing spin losses. The main bridge provides current regulation and is rated at 1 pu voltage and current. Auburn Hills.M. 24-26. field weakening range and controllability. F. Wagner. Sheraton Inn.McCleer. C. Transistor modules are already compact but it’s the bus capacitors that contribute as much as 60% of the power electronics bulk. Lovelace. There are also complicating factors of vastly different hybrid propulsion architectures each with its unique requirements for power level. seeking wider CPSR ac drives through power electronics or agreeing that automotive manufacturers invest in more complex mechanical transmissions and conventional drives. Oct. 77-85.M.Miller. and insuring quiet bearings. S. McKeever. The end goal being power electronics completely integrated into the electric machine.” Powertrain International. [7] J. M. 21-23. 2002 [4] G. MI. 2 pgs. K. K. Wentzloff. "Design and Experimental Verification of a Direct Drive Interior PM Synchronous Machine Using a Saturable Lumped-Parameter Model. Electrolytics are limited to 105 oC whereas new PML’s can tolerate up to 180 oC. WPET2002. Cavtat & Dubrovnik. Pittsburg. Summer 2002 pgs 38-44. Detroit. R.. 2002 [3] J. MI. It has been shown in this paper that meeting the key specification points of a hybrid vehicle electric drive is often accomplished using over rated machines or power electronics or both. Discussions of conventional transmissions for 29 . This paper is further motivated by the premise that the most economical solution to wide CPSR and overall performance of ac drives for hybrid rests on power electronics. Unlike vehicle electrification for which the 42V PowerNet draft standard has been globally accepted no such standards exist for mobile traction applications. No. Omni William Penn Hotel.Miller. A. Nochizuki. J. T.K. The trend will be towards higher operating speeds in order to realize downsized hybrid power trains.J.M.A. J. Vol. [5] M. “IHAT: Integrated Hybrid Automatic Transmission.Miller.G.H.Jahns. DaimlerChrysler Technical Center. No. P. J. J.M. MI. 9-11 Sept. "Prognosis for 42V Integrated Starter Alternator Systems in Automotive Applications.Grabowski. Traction drives are precision ac drives whereas ancillary and accessory function drives in the 1 kW range are more tolerant in all attributes except packaging. Bailey. Wai. J. Nakashima. M. efficient thermal management and is subject to power rating specifications that change all too often. 2002 V. Cobo Exposition & Conference Center. 2002. adequate connectors for power and control." IEEE 2002 Industry Applications Society 37’th Annual Meeting. V. 2002. T.