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Performance Evaluations of Coupled Inductor-Assisted High Frequency PWM Chopper Type DC-DC Converters

Claudio Y. Inaba, Yoshihiro Konishi, Hisashi Iyomori, and Mutsuo Nakaoka
The Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, 2-16-1 Tokiwadai, Ube city, Yamaguchi, 755-861 1, Japan
inabaope-news1 .eee.yamaguchi-u.acjp

Abstract - In this paper, an advanced two quadrant PWM chopper type DC-DC power converter with low switch peak voltage stress for parallel processing type small scale UPS applications and utility interactive new energy interface distributed power supplies is presented. In addition, a coupled inductor - assisted soft switching PWM boost chopper type DCDC converter is also proposed. These two circuit topologies are evaluated and compared on the basis of simulation and experimental results by a lkW, SOkHz breadboard setup. Moreover, some modified circuit topologies of the soft switching boost chopper with coupled inductors are also discussed in this paper.

PWM boost chopper type DC-DC converter, both utilizing coupled inductors, are compared, discussed and evaluated on the basis of simulation and experimental results.
11. CONVENTIONAL TWO QUADRANT PWM

CHOPPER TYPE DC-DC CONVERTER The conventional two quadrant high frequency PWM chopper type DC-DC converter is shown in Fig. 1. As an example of application, its operating principle is described when the converter circuit is applied to a new type battery interfaced power conditioner, including small capacity UPS and new energy interface type distributed power supply. (i) Step-down operationfor battery charging: Battery V, is charged by the time ratio control of switch S, through a stepdown operation. (ii) Step-up operationfor battery discharging:Battery V, is discharged by the time ratio control of switch SI through a step-up voltage operation. This two-quadrant (bi-directional) converter circuit topology is very simple and advantageous when applied to systems which step-up (boost) voltage conversion ratio is not high. However, if the number of cells such as battery cell, fuel cell or super capacitor cell is small, the boost voltage conversion ratio becomes higher and the maximum voltage and current rates of power semiconductor devices (MOSFET, IGBT) become extremely high resulting in worsen efficiency.
111. COUPLED INDUCTOR - ASSISTED TWO QUADRANT

Index Terms - Coupled inductor, low switch peak voltage stress, Two-quadrant converter, boost converter, soft switching.

I. INTRODUCTION Recently, demands for small capacity UPS for telecommunication network systems, 36Vl42V DC power supplies for electric vehicles and automobiles, new energy utilization stand-by power sources and industrial energy plants are becoming higher and higher from an enhancement view point. From this technological background, high frequency PWM chopper type DC-DC power converter circuits with high boost voltage conversion ratio and low switch peak voltage stresses are particularly required for DC interfaced systems and applications mentioned above. However, in conventional PWM chopper type DC-DC power converters, the power semiconductor devices such as MOSFETs and IGBTs with high voltage and large current rates are needed as voltage step-up ratio increases. In order to overcome these practical problems, by employing two magnetically coupled inductors, a two quadrant PWM chopper type DC-DC power converter with high boost voltage conversion ratio and low switch peak voltage is proposed in this paper. The operating performances of this advanced chopper circuit topology are described and compared with the conventional PWM chopper type DC-DC converter. In addition, an active voltage clamp soft switching PWM cell is introduced in the hard switching PWM chopper type DC-DC converter with coupled inductors in order to reduce switching losses of power semiconductor devices used in this circuit. The operating principle of this soft switching PWM boost chopper type DC-DC converter with low switching peak voltage stress and high boost voltage conversion ratio is also presented herein. The two quadrant hard switching PWM chopper type DCDC converter operating in boost mode and the soft switching

PWM CHOPPER TYPE DC-DC CONVERTER

3. I . Circuit touology In order to improve the aforementioned disadvantages of the circuit illustrated in Fig. 1, two magnetically coupled inductors (L, and L2) are implemented and this converter circuit is illustrated in Fig. 2. These coupled inductors are represented by L,, L, and M ( = k m ) and have similar characteristics of a flyback type high frequency transformer.

Fig. 1 Conventional two quadrant PWM chopper type DC-DC converter

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decreasing its voltage spike. I.: 1MBH30D-060. = 50pH. . = 25°C). a diode additional snubber capacitor C D.. since D. is on and current flows through V. Fig. but the stabilization of the center tap potential may be lost when asymmetrical operation conditions arise between the plus and minus semicycle of the inverter output current in each phase. After that. .L. operates as a snubber capacitor and an instantaneous current flows through L.. and L. . (in simulation. 3. Although energy into C . 3 Typical current and voltage waveforms simulation analysis and a 1kW. = 600V. I. t I ? ? 0 t 1. decreases. 5. and L. current flows through V. all the switching power devices are considered ideal and in the experimental breadboard setup. and L.Ds2. I 1 I vc d i l 4 T. .Qnveratingprinciple (i) Voltage step-down operation (battery charging mode) : When the active power switch S.D. . current flows through the path composed of C.L. S. and D.Current through switch S. D. Current across coupled inductors L. This means that a center tap potential variation of output smoothing capacitors (Cdlr Cd2)reduces the circuit reliability. As a result.C.. 2. if the leakage inductance in primary side of high frequency transformer (coupled inductors) is considerably high. typical voltage and current waveforms are illustrated when the proposed converter circuit operates in the boost mode. When a half bridge inverter is connected in the output of the proposed power converter. and k is the magnetic coupling coefficient. V.) are connected in parallel with output smoothing capacitors c d .3.D. the diode D.L. As a result. V. On the other hand. turns off and the energy stored into L. .D. C Voltage across capacitor Cd. S.. also operates as a snubber capacitor during the inductors.: L . C turning off of switch S.968) C..e. .: 2700pF Voltage and current operating waveforms of S. VDss=250V. . While the energy stored into L . 3.=: - - - 480pF (at VDs=25V) S21D.. S. (ii) Voltage step-up operation (battery discharging mode): In Fig. part of it is effectively transferred to L. the energy stored into C . . conducts if voltage across capacitor C.. . ID=44A(Tc=25"C). should only conduct during the voltage stepdown (battery charge) operation.5pH.2.. Mode 0 1112131 Fig. .. an . 4 and Fig. operates as a snubber during turn off of S.. output voltage and output power are respectively V . attenuating its voltage spike.Cd2 .lD. since it is connected in the tapped point of L . and C. i. and c.). since a half bridge inverter is supposed to be connected in the output of the DC-DC power converter treated here.S.): S. L. L ... Voltage and current of diode D. t.. = 600V. does not discharge to SI. Mode 1. k = 0.. voltage step-up conversion ratio can be determined by the duty factor of boost switch SI and turn ratio N between L. energy is stored into L.D. and C .. In this mode. 2 Coupled inductor . turns off. the net current flowing into the center tap during the inverter switching cycle may add zero in theory. .L. is also connected to block the current path from C. In the breadboard setup. because of the leakage inductance in secondary side of coupled .. (in experiment. Besides. A 4 is the mutual inductance between L . Therefore. . Simulation and experimental evaluations The steady state characteristics of this power converter (see Fig.S. is on...C.. C. is turned off. V. in voltage step-down mode.. charging battery V.. . when S . = 312.L .= 30A L..= OV) D.I + I to t.assisted two quadrant PWM chopper type DC-DC converter Current through capacitors C . 5OkHz experimental breadboard setup using power MOSFETs is also implemented and the experimental results are compared with the simulation. Here. the design specifications and circuit parameters are as follows.C. = 48A (T.L..D..V. current flows through L. ... reducing the circuit reliability. . when input voltage.: IRFP264N. 2) operating in boost mode are verified by 44 ... is off. C. However. in the case of magnetic coupling coefficient k is considerably low..: 3OJL2C41.: l p F Cdl. 3 (to t3): At to.V.t3. two divided load resistances with same values (R.. D. . = R. In simulation analysis.D. is provided. are respectively illustrated in Fig. In order to alleviate this voltage spike. and L.c d . is not discharged completely. In mode 2 (t. Mode 0 ( to. discharges through L. . a voltage spike is generated in the active power switch S. 3. In order to discharge the energy in the leakage inductance of secondary side (L2 side) of coupled inductors. charging C . N = 2. With this configuration. .. and energy is stored into L. is discharged through L. turns off.5. to SI.V.

! d ! . and S. and Sa turn on and off alternately with a certain interval td as a dead time.L ... . 7 where Qm(S. .. smm (a) Simulation (b) Experiment Fig. turns on under conditions of ZVS and ZCS. 'I... . . t6): At ti.DC CONVERTER - 4. . . .. the gate signal is supplied to Sa./D. diode D. ... ..+. turns off under condition of ZVS.. . *~-- :...i<. S. increases linearly. .. I. .. .) . .. .. . 8 Operation waveforms of switches Qm and Qa. turns on under conditions of ZVS and ZCS and at t6. : .../Dm) and Q.ll~V/d~.2. COUPLED INDUCTOR .. . (C.. This improved soft switching PWM boost chopper type DC DC power converter is illustrated in Fig. . ....n m ! e ? . start to conduct.. As it can be seen. typical voltage and current waveforms on this circuit topology are illustrated and each operation stage is represented in Fig..... and L... .. ~.:.. is the resonant capacitor connected in respectively. . . an active voltage clamp cell is introduced for achieving soft switching in boost chopper operating mode. . - ... / ... t2): At t.:..'T-II 1 I Fig.. decreases linearly. -.assisted soft switching PWM boost chopper type DC-DC converter . . -.OD" timelzplldlvl MI00 Lhl 3OOrnY ' L 2 ." .. . and C .. . decreases linearly. .. : .. .... . since vcr= Vcc. is on and Sa is off. 9. and C . Voltage and current waveforms through C .ASSISTED BOOST CHOPPER TYPE SOFT SWITCHING PWM DC .. resonate again and voltage across C... voltage Vcc... : 1. . . Voltage across ZVS and resonance between C C . ..... . - - IV. 4 Voltage and current waveforms of switch S... . ... .. 8. and D... -. it can be noted that the switch peak voltage is suppressed lower than V. .. .... Mode 5 (t4 t. . Current through D... S.-. . I..= 8OOW. are also depicted in Fig...-. . .(S. since D. r .. Mode 3 (t2 t3):Current through D.. S.. : ! 1 .... voltage v . .. . . is off. is clamped to a constant level of V. S.. :. ' . 6.-* -_-. . . . - (a) Simulation (b) Experiment Fig. Mode 0 ( to):Before to... I. = 340V and Po.. . Mode 2 (t. -:. .>>C.. ... From Fig.. . is conducting. and diodes D . 4. In this mode.. energy is stored into L..-. 6 Voltage and current waveforms of capacitor C.1 - - .:.. " : . S. starts. In this mode.. Operating principle In Fig. L... I i IIOA/dlvl !rrl 1 ../D. ... . *... Mode 1 (to t..... . .. l)OOV/dlYI CND i ..) are respectively termed the resonant inductor and the clamp capacitor... becomes zero.... . . .. . ... . C . . -. Voltage and current of auxiliary switch Qa(SJDo) 0 : ... . . . 1 .' Circuit topology In order to improve the operation performances of the circuit in Fig. ... . . .... I. .... = 36V... .(S. .. and ZVS can be achieved in S. .. ..-. .... . Il+/dlvl Current through resonant inductor 0 Voltage and current of main switch Q. . starts to conduct and during this interval.$ Switch drive pulse signals I Fig. . Mode 4 (t3 r4): At the end of one switching cycle. is turned off under .. becomes zero. . . when SI turns off. decreases to zero at t2.Y.... L. - cNj& . --....... . ... . . Mode 6 (t. ~. reaches C.): when v. v.. the current through inductor L..C. ..... The resonant inductor current iLrdecreases to zero and starts to flow to the negative direction. 4.:..... V. ..:. 2. ...): At time instant to. .. ..____ - :.. .. ~ . the gate signal is inserted into S. . .--. .. even if the active voltage clamp cell is introduced. ........... high output voltage and low switch peak voltage is obtained. C . C parallel with Qnt. While D.... operates as snubber and the absorbed energy is effectively discharged in L.. and So... ..) are the main and auxiliary switching blocks. and their switching drive signals 45 . .. .. I I .. By using the coupled inductors. 7 Coupled inductor . . 5 Voltage and current waveforms of diode D. . ....--. . .. (a) Simulation (b) Experiment Fig.........' . l - .

. _.. ... it can be noted that in both DC-DC converter circuits. But. P.... . this does not affect in the circuit performance.. 12. 4.. V.. . .. vow Mode 2 ( tl t 2 ) - Mode 3 ( t2- f3) 6NO .. p s The operating principle and steady state characteristics of the proposed soft switching DC-DC converter are verified by simulation analysis and a lkW. the voltage across the clamp . C. .D.. the position of the active clamp cell composed of SAD. and C. L. = 900W..5pH. ..: IRFP264N.. . In this mode. .3... 11. -./T) values and in Fig. Cos. differs from the circuit in Fig.. three modified topologies of the soft switching boost chopper type DC-DC converter circuit using coupled inductors other than the proposed converter in Fig.t 5 ) A (a) Simulation (b) Experiment Fig. however. I F = 30A L. SokHz experimental breadboard setup using power MOSFETs is implemented. SJD. 2) operating in boost mode and the soft switching boost chopper circuit (Fig.. VDss= 250V. N = 2. Modified soft swz'tchinp boost chouper circuit with coupled inductors In Fig. . 7) are discussed. and Cd2 becomes decreased.. = 312. soft switching can be achieved and the total cost of the DC-DC converter can be .__ . 13. vm Fig. COMPARISON BETWEEN THE HARD SWITCHING TWOQUADRANT AND THE SOFT SWITCHING BOOST CHOPPER TYPE DC-DC CONVERTER Comparative experimental evaluations of voltage and current stresses for the hard switching two-quadrant chopper type DC-DC converter circuit (Fig. = 36V..... 9 Equivalent circuits for each commutation stage Mode 7 (t6 ): S. 12(c). 10 Voltage and current waveforms of switch S.. - . ... (a) Simulation (b) Experiment Fig... .v o w .7. -. 10 and Fig. the output voltage as function of output power is illustrated.. C : . .. is removed. 7. is removed... In Fig.5pH C. 2700pF Experimental voltages and current waveforms of switches S. is removed from the circuit... The two DC-DC converter circuits illustrated in Fig.. It can be verified that each active power switch turns on after its voltage falls down to zero. - . ID= 44A (Tc= 25"C). However voltage across C unbalanced when C . .= 480pF (at VDs=25V) D . . The design specifications and circuit parameters of this converter are as follows. L. . . .. . energy is stored in L.. . .: 2. = 50pH.. 14 the switch peak voltage characteristics for the same conditions are also shown. These results are depicted when input voltage.: 3OJL2C41.. the peak voltage across the active power switch is suppressed to value lower than the output voltage. capacitor C In the circuit illustrated in Fig. 11 Voltage and current waveforms of switch Sa L". 4. .-. V. ...022pF. . for three different duty cycle ( D = T. SJD. (in simulation.. 7 are illustrated.968) L. . ...: 2pF. . indicating that ZVS is achieved. and S. are respectively illustrated in Fig..... 0. Although C .5.. Their operating principle is similar to the DC-DC converter circuit in Fig.. output voltage and output power are respectively V. 46 . Mode 4 ( f3 t 4 ) - Mode 5 ( t4. ._i i _ . k = 0.3. changes according to each topology. . VmM = 600V. the clamp capacitor C . 12(a) and Fig. 12(b). .. .. = 340V.: L ... . From these results. is on and Sa is off.

VI. . Although duty cycle value in the soft switching circuit is higher than the hard switching circuit. It was proved on the basis of simulation and experimental evaluations that these two converter circuit topologies could efficiently work with high performances and keeping switch peak voltage suppressed lower than the comparatively high output voltage. the duty cycle D necessary to keep output voltage in V. 1 O D 0 Soft Switching O A m Hard Switchine 200 [/_.. 13 Output voltage vs. three modified topologies of the soft switching boost chopper circuit were 47 .1%.300 200 g] P 0 . In Fig.assisted two quadrant hard switching PWM chopper type DC-DC converter and the coupled inductor assisted soft switching PWM boost chopper type DC-DC converter. Besides..o ' 400 I ' 600 I ' 800 I ' 1000 I Output power POut[W] Fig. . 16. 4 O A O Soft Switching O A m Hard Switching I " 100 0 ~ I ~ ~ ' ~ ' 200 400 600 800 1000 Output power POut[W] [:. I . total efficiency in relation to output power is represented for each circuit topology. . 1 . (c) Fig. .. 15 Duty cycle vs. 15. 1 . output power for different constant duty cycle values 3 0 0 8 1 . . output power under conditions of V. = 340V Two advanced topologies of PWM chopper type DC-DC converters have been presented in this paper. . the coupled inductor . total actual efficiency can improve when soft switching technique is introduced. CONCLUSIONS 0 Soft Switching 0 Hard Switching 2. Maximum efficiency reached by the soft switching DC-DC power converter is 89. output power for different constant duty cycle values 0. Fig.. 12 Modified circuit topologies of soft switching boost chopper type DC-DC converter with coupled inductors 200 400 600 800 1000 Output power P. = 340V in relation to output power is depicted and in Fig.85 . I .. . 14 Switch peak voltage vs.[W] Fig. = 36V and Vou.

On Power Electronics. September 1997. Electronics.. M. Jain. Vol.Clamping DC-to-DC Boost Converters: Analysis. [2] C. Barbi. (i) In the circuit topology in Fig. improving its actual efficiency. = 36V and V. 16. operates as a snubber during turn off of S. “A New Family of ZVS-PWM Active: .November 2000. pp. Y. 58 1-593. September 2000. [5] T. Liu.L. output power under conditions of V. attenuating its voltage spike and although energy in C .. On Power Electronics. Chang. K. Hirachi. l ’ l ’ l ~ l ’ l ’ V. = 340V also introduced. is not discharged completely. “A Self Core reset and Zero Voltage Switching Forward Converter Topology” IEEE Trans. 84. 0 Soft Switching 0 Hard Switching 400 600 800 1000 Output power POut[W] Fig. 421-428. [3] W. even if an active voltage clamp cell is introduced. S. pp. 1998. Vol.Wu. 12. Duarte. [4] Y. Sakane. K. and Experimentation” IEEE Trans. Xi. September 200 1.= 36V (ii) In the circuit topology of Fig. REFERENCES [ I ] M. 16 Actual efficiency vs. The following features could be verified in the proposed two converter circuits. on Power Electronics. Y. Om. pp. its energy is effectively transferred to 48 . 2. pp.. “A ZVT quasi-resonant PWM converter for unity power factor application” IEE-UK Int. by using coupled inductors.. P. M. R. Cheng. Shi. C. 824-831. 632-637. Yamanaka. Liang. R. “A Systematic Approach to Developing Single -Stage Soft Switching PWM Converters” IEEE Trans. high output voltage conversion characteristics are: obtained.is off. 7. pp. 1192-1202.Boost Chopper Circuit” Proceedings of IEEE INTELEC. J. Vol. I. Vol. since D. it was verified that capacitor C. Design. 15. VII. F. “Practical Development of a High Performance UPS with a Novel Buck .