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Expert Systems : AI Course Lecture 35 – 36, notes, slides

www.myreaders.info/ , RC Chakraborty, e-mail rcchak@gmail.com , June 01, 2010
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Expert Systems
Artificial Intelligence
Expert system, topics - Introduction, expert system components and human interfaces, expert system characteristics, expert

system features; Knowledge acquisition - issues and techniques; Knowledge IF-THEN Inference base representing and using frames; data domain Working driven knowledge, memory; approach,

rules, engine

semantic :

network,

Forward

chaining

Backward chaining - goal driven approach; Tree searches - DFS, BFS; Expert system shells Shell components and description;

Explanation - example, types of explanation; Application of expert systems.

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Expert System
Artificial Intelligence
Topics
(Lectures 35, 36, 2 hours) Slides 03-16

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1. Introduction

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Expert system components and human interfaces, expert system characteristics, expert system features.
2. Knowledge Acquisition
17-20

Issues and techniques.
3. Knowledge Base
21-25

Representing and using domain knowledge - IF-THEN rules, semantic network, frames.
4. Working Memory 5. Inference Engine
26 27-32

Forward chaining - data driven approach, driven approach, tree searches - DFS, BFS.
6. Expert System Shells

backward chaining - goal

33-34

Shell components and description.
7. Explanation
35

Example, types of explanation
8. Application of Expert Systems 9. References
02

36-37 38

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What is Expert System ?

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Expert System

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• An expert system, is an interactive computer-based decision tool that
uses both facts and heuristics to solve difficult decision making problems, based on knowledge acquired from an expert.

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• An expert system is a model and associated procedure that exhibits,
within a specific domain, a degree of expertise in problem solving that is comparable to that of a human expert.

• An expert system compared with traditional computer :
Inference engine + Knowledge = Expert system = Program in traditional computer )

( Algorithm + Data structures

• First expert system, called
Stanford University.
03

DENDRAL, was developed in the early 70's

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04 . 1.m 1. User Domain Expert Expertise User Interface System Engineer Knowledge Engineer Inference Engine Encoded Expertise Knowledge Base Working Storage Components of Expert System The individual components and their roles are explained in next slides.1 Expert System Components And Human Interfaces Expert systems have a number of major system components and interface with individuals who interact with the system in various roles. Introduction ty Expert yr ea AI – Expert system .de rs . real make financial planning decisions. expert systems are used in diagnostic applications. They also play chess.in fo . underwrite services which previously required human expertise. insurance configure policies. some For or ha kr ab non-algorithmic solving R C C example.Introduction systems are expertise computer for applications certain which types of embody problems. computers.w w w . and perform monitor many time systems. These are illustrated below.

‡ User : The individual who will be consulting with the system to get advice which would have been provided by the expert.m ■ Components and Interfaces ‡ Knowledge base : AI – Expert system . 05 . ‡ Inference engine : The code at the core of the system which derives recommendations from the knowledge base and problemspecific data in working storage.in fo ea . ‡ Knowledge engineer : The individual who encodes the expert's knowledge in a declarative form that can be used by the expert system.de rs . ■ Roles of Individuals who interact with the system ‡ Domain expert : The individuals who currently are experts in solving the problems. ha kr ab often in IF THEN rules .w w w . ‡ Working storage : R C C The data which is specific to a problem being solved.Introduction yr or ty A declarative representation of the expertise. ‡ User interface : The code that controls the dialog between the user and the system. here the system is intended to solve.

in fo ea .m ■ Expert System Shells AI – Expert system . A shell is a piece of software which contains the R C C user interface. the knowledge engineer and the system engineer might be the same person. ‡ System engineer : builds the user interface. The knowledge and system engineers uses these shells in making expert systems.Introduction yr or ty Many expert systems are built with products called expert ha kr ab system shells. ‡ Knowledge engineer : uses the shell to build a system for a particular problem domain. and implements the inference engine. designs the declarative format of the knowledge base. 06 . and an inference engine. a format for declarative knowledge in the knowledge base.w w w . Depending on the size of the system.de rs .

. learning all the words in a language. without knowing how to combine those words to form a meaningful sentence.Introduction Expert systems have many Characteristics : ■ Operates as an interactive system This means an expert system : ‡ Responds to questions ‡ Asks for clarifications ‡ Makes recommendations ‡ Aids the decision-making process. else it is useless. asks for clarifications. 07 . and generally R C C ha kr ab or ty yr ea AI – Expert system . e. ■ Tools have ability to sift (filter) knowledge ‡ Storage and retrieval of knowledge ‡ Mechanisms to expand and update knowledge base on a continuing basis.w w w .de rs . makes recommendations aids the decision-making process.2 Expert System Characteristics Expert system operates as an interactive system that responds to questions. ■ Make logical inferences based on knowledge stored ‡ Simple reasoning mechanisms is used ‡ Knowledge base must have means of exploiting the knowledge stored.in fo .m 1.g.

therefore user may ask ◊ for explanation of a recommendation ◊ factors considered in recommendation ‡ Enhances user confidence in recommendation and acceptance of expert system ■ Domain-Specific R C C ha kr ab or ty ‡ A particular system caters a narrow area of specialization.de rs .g. 08 . e.Introduction yr . ‡ Quality of advice offered by an expert system is dependent on the amount of knowledge stored..in fo ea w w . ■ Capability to assign Confidence Values ‡ Can deliver quantitative information ‡ Can interpret qualitatively derived values ‡ Can address imprecise and incomplete data through assignment of confidence values. a medical expert system cannot be used to find faults in an electrical circuit.w ‡ Remembers logical chain of reasoning.m ■ Ability to Explain Reasoning AI – Expert system .

w ‡ Best suited for those dealing with expert heuristics for solving problems. ■ Cost-Effective alternative to Human Expert R C C ha kr ab or w ‡ Expert systems have become increasingly popular because of their specialization.Introduction yr ty .de rs . albeit in a narrow field. ‡ Not a suitable choice for those problems that can be solved using purely numerical techniques.in fo ea w . ‡ Specialists in many areas are rare and the cost of consulting them is high. ‡ Encoding and storing the domain-specific knowledge is economic process due to small size.m ■ Applications AI – Expert system . an expert system of those areas can be useful and cost-effective alternative in the long run. 09 .

■ Data Representation The way in which the problem specific data in the system is stored and accessed. ■ Coping with Uncertainty C The ability of the system to reason with rules and data which are not precisely known. ■ User Interface That portion of the code which creates an easy to use system. ■ Data Driven Reasoning or Forward Chaining An inference technique which uses IF-THEN rules to deduce a problem solution from initial data.3 Expert System Features The features which commonly exist in expert systems are : ■ Goal Driven Reasoning or Backward Chaining C ha kr ab or ty ea AI – Expert system . However for completion or easy to recall these are mentioned briefly here. Each of these features were discussed in detail in previous lectures on AI.m yr 1.w w w .Introduction R An inference technique which uses IF-THEN rules to repetitively break a goal into smaller sub-goals which are easier to prove.de rs . 10 .in fo . ■ Explanations The ability of the system to explain the reasoning process that it used to reach a recommendation.

The knowledge is structured in rules which describe how each of the possibilities might be selected. is an efficient way to solve problems. if c = 3 then d = 4.de rs .Introduction Data a=1 b=2 Rules Conclusion d=4 if a = 1 & b = 2 then c = 3. adding new assertions found.in fo . R C C ha kr ab or ty ea AI – Expert system .m yr • Goal-Driven Reasoning Goal-driven reasoning. Example : KB contains Rule set : Rule 1: Rule 2: Rule 3: Rule 4: If A and C If A and E If B If G Then Then Then Then F G E D Problem : prove If A and B true 11 Then D is true . The rule breaks the problem into sub-problems. The algorithm proceeds from the desired goal.w w w . or backward chaining.

is known. To work in the real world.in fo .Introduction to associate a numeric value with each piece of the numeric value represents the certainty with which the information information in the system. 12 .w w w . one simple way is R C C ha kr ab or ty ea AI – Expert system .de rs . and how they are combined during the inference process.m yr • Uncertainty Often the Knowledge is imperfect which causes uncertainty. There are different ways in which these numbers can be defined. Expert systems must be able to deal with uncertainty.

in fo .Introduction Rules Conclusion d=4 if a = 1 & b = 2 then c = 3. Example : KB contains Rule set : Rule 1: Rule 2: Rule 3: Rule 4: If A and C If A and E If B If G Then Then Then Then F G E D Problem : prove If A and B true 13 Then D is true . Data a=1 b=2 R C C ha kr ab or ty ea AI – Expert system .de rs . The system keeps track of the current state of problem solution and looks for rules which will move that state closer to a final solution.w w w . if c = 3 then d = 4. the inference process is different. The rule breaks the problem into sub-problems. or Forward chaining. uses rules similar to those used for backward chaining.m yr • Data Driven Reasoning The data driven approach. The Algorithm proceeds from a given situation to a desired goal. The knowledge is structured in rules which describe how each of the possibilities might be selected. However. adding new assertions found.

The IF-THEN rules. and Frames commonly used representation schemes.de rs . The success of expert system depends on choosing knowledge encoding scheme best for the kind of knowledge the system is based on.m yr • Data Representation Expert system is built around a knowledge base module.Introduction R C C to computer.w w w . knows.in fo . knowledge acquisition is transferring knowledge from human expert Knowledge representation is faithful representation of what the expert ha kr ab or ty ea AI – Expert system . No single knowledge representation system is optimal for all applications. 14 are the most . Semantic networks.

Scrolling dialog interface : It is easiest to implement and communicate R C C ha kr ab or ty ea AI – Expert system . mice are more advanced interfaces and powerful tools for communicating with the user.de rs . 15 . Pop-up menus. they require graphics support.w w w .m yr • User Interface The acceptability of an expert system depends largely on the quality of the user interface.in fo .Introduction with the user. windows.

in fo . Given that the system knows which rules were used rules to during the R C C ha kr ab or ty ea AI – Expert system . This is very valuable diagnostic tool during development.m yr • Explanations An important features of expert systems is their ability to explain themselves.Introduction inference process.w w w . and how the rules and data are interacting.de rs . the knowledge engineer can see how the system is behaving. the system can provide as means for explaining the results. those the user By looking at explanations. 16 .

Knowledge Acquisition Knowledge acquisition includes the elicitation.in fo .w w w or ty C ha kr ab R C .m 2. collection.1 Issues in Knowledge Acquisition The important issues in knowledge acquisition are: ■ knowledge is in the head of experts ■ Experts have vast amounts of knowledge ■ Experts have a lot of tacit knowledge yr ea AI – Expert system . analysis. 2.Knowledge acquisition ‡ They do not know all that they know and use ‡ Tacit knowledge is hard (impossible) to describe ■ Experts are very busy and valuable people ■ One expert does not know everything ■ Knowledge has a "shelf life" 17 . modeling and validation of knowledge.de rs .

2 Techniques for Knowledge Acquisition The techniques for acquiring. Diagram-based techniques. analyzing and modeling knowledge are : Protocol-generation techniques. These act as a bridge between the use of protocol-based techniques and knowledge modeling techniques. reporting and observational techniques. ■ Protocol analysis techniques Used with transcripts of interviews or text-based information to identify basic knowledge objects within a protocol. 18 . Protocol analysis techniques.de rs . such as goals. ■ Protocol-generation techniques Include many types of interviews (unstructured. R C C ha kr ab or ty yr ea AI – Expert system . decisions. and Matrix-based techniques. Hierarchygeneration techniques.Knowledge acquisition Limited-information constrained-processing tasks. Each of these are briefly stated in next few slides.m 2. relationships and attributes.w w w .in fo . semi-structured and structured). Sorting techniques.

The elements within the matrix can contain: symbols (ticks. numbers .in fo ea . question marks ) . text. are used to build taxonomies or other hierarchical structures such as goal trees and decision networks. crosses. composition ladders. between concepts and properties (attributes and values) or between problems and solutions or between tasks and resources. etc. reviewing and modification of hierarchical knowledge. attribute ladder.m ■ Hierarchy-generation techniques AI – Expert system .Knowledge acquisition yr or ty Involve creation. ■ Matrix-based techniques R C C ha kr ab Involve the construction and filling-in a 2-D matrix (grid. Hierarchy-generation techniques. indicating such things. colors . as may be.de rs . The Ladders are of various forms like concept ladder. 19 .w w w . for example. table). such as laddering.

These are particularly why" of important capturing the "what. properties and priorities.Knowledge acquisition yr ty .in fo ea w . who and tasks and events.w Used for capturing the way people compare and order concepts. state transition networks. ■ Limited-information and constrained-processing tasks it R C C ha kr ab or w Techniques that either limit the time and/or information available to the expert when performing tasks. ■ Diagram-based techniques Include generation and use of concept maps.m ■ Sorting techniques AI – Expert system . event diagrams in and process maps. may reveal knowledge about classes. how. 20 . a twenty-questions technique provides an efficient way of accessing the key information in a domain in a prioritized order.de rs . For example. when.

Semantic networks and Frames.w w w . or data intrinsic to the domain. To incorporate these information into the system. 21 The frame based . Three common methods of knowledge representation evolved over the years are IF-THEN rules. The knowledge acquired from the human expert must be encoded in such a way that it remains a faithful representation of what the expert knows.Knowledge base is built around a knowledge base module. This information may be in the form of R C C problem-solving rules. Expert system by the domain or ha kr ab contains a formal representation of the information provided expert. it is necessary to make use of one or more knowledge representation methods. Knowledge Base (Representing and Using Domain Knowledge) ty Expert system yr ea AI – Expert system . Some of these methods are described here. procedures.de rs .in fo . Transferring knowledge from the human expert to a computer is often the most difficult part of building an expert system. The first two methods were illustrated in the earlier lecture slides on knowledge representation therefore just mentioned here. and it can be manipulated by a computer. representation is described more.m 3.

and each bi 22 is an action or a conclusion. .w w w .de rs . . . . . a 2 . . . .in fo . an b1 . .m 3. b2 . .Knowledge base are predominant form of encoding knowledge in R expert systems. bn where each ai is a condition or situation. These are of the form : If Then a1 . . . .1 IF-THEN rules Human experts usually tend to think along : condition ⇒ Rules "if-then" action or Situation ⇒ conclusion C C ha kr ab or ty yr ea AI – Expert system .

Example of Semantic Network The Fig. knowledge is represented in terms of objects and relationships between objects. the R C C ha kr ab or ty yr ea AI – Expert system .Knowledge base This kind of relationship establishes an inheritance hierarchy in network. below shows a car IS-A vehicle. Vehicle Is-A HAS HAS Wheels Engine CAR HAS Battery Is-A Is-A Honda Civic Nissan Sentra HAS Power Steering 23 . a vehicle HAS wheels.2 Semantic Networks In this scheme. The objects are denoted as nodes of a graph.in fo .de rs .w w w . The most common form of semantic networks uses the links between nodes to represent IS-A and HAS relationships between objects.m 3. with the objects lower down in the network inheriting properties from the objects higher up. The relationship between two objects are denoted as a link between the corresponding two nodes.

knowledge is decomposed into highly modular or ty yr ea AI – Expert system .m 3.w w w . and procedures to handle relationships as well as attribute values.Knowledge base ha kr ab pieces called frames. A frame-based representation is ideally suited for objected-oriented programming techniques. the relationships between concepts. strings. 24 . attributes of concepts. ‡ The frames may be linked to other frames. situations.in fo .numbers. Knowledge relationships consist of concepts. ‡ The contents of a slot may be of any data type . An example of Frame-based representation of knowledge is shown in next slide. and the procedures are allotted to slots in a frame. functions or procedures and so on. which are generalized record structures.3 Frames In this technique. providing the same kind of inheritance as that provided by a semantic network. ‡ Each concept may be represented as a separate frame.de rs . R C C between concepts. ‡ The attributes.

ha kr ab or ty Two frames.m Example : Frame-based Representation of Knowledge.w w w .Knowledge base . R C C Frame Inheritance Slot Car Is-A Frame Inheritance Slot Car Is-A Value Vehicle Engine Value Car Make Attribute Slot Attribute Slot Value Value Value Vehicle 1 Value Value Value Honda Attribute Slot Cylinders Attribute Slot Year Value Value Value 4 6 8 Doors Value Value Value 1989 Attribute Slot Attribute Slot Value Value Value 25 2 5 4 Value Value Value . their slots and the slots filled with data type are shown.in fo yr ea AI – Expert system .de rs .

changes with each problem situation.m 4. yr ea AI – Expert system .w w w or ty ha kr ab R C C .de rs . it is the most dynamic component of an expert system. ‡ Data specific to the problem needs to be input by the user at the time of using. ‡ ‡ Every problem in a domain has some unique data associated with it. The contents of the working memory. below shows how Working memory is closely related to user interface of the expert system. Consequently. assuming that it is kept current. Working Memory Working memory refers to task-specific data for a problem. its parameters and so on. The Working memory is related to user interface ‡ Fig.in fo . Data may consist of the set of conditions leading to the problem. means consulting the expert system.Working memory User User Interface Working Memory (Task specific data) Inference Engine Knowledge Base 26 .

m 5. ‡ ‡ Inference engine the other key component of all expert systems. Inference Engine ty The inference engine is yr ea AI – Expert system – Inference Engine a generic control mechanism for navigating through or ha kr ab and manipulating knowledge and deduce results in an organized manner. ‡ A knowledge base is usually very large.in fo . The inference engine's generic control mechanism applies the axiomatic (self-evident) knowledge present in the knowledge base to the task-specific data to arrive at some conclusion.w w w . These techniques were talked in the earlier lectures on Problem Solving : Search and Control Strategies. it is necessary to have inferencing mechanisms that search through the database and deduce results in an organized manner. The Forward chaining. However they are relooked in the context of expert system. and Knowledge Representation. Backward chaining and Tree searches are some of the techniques used for drawing inferences from the knowledge base. 27 .de rs . Just a knowledge base alone is not of much use if there are no facilities for navigating through and manipulating the knowledge to deduce R C C something from knowledge base.

m yr 5. Forward-chaining inference is often called data driven. ‡ A forward-chaining.1 Forward Chaining Algorithm Forward chaining is a techniques for drawing inferences from Rule or ty ea AI – Expert system – Inference Engine C ha kr base.in fo . then d = 4 Conclusion d=4 ‡ Example : Forward Channing ■ Given : A Rule base contains following Rule set Rule 1: If A and C Rule 2: If A and E Rule 3: If B Rule 4: If G Then Then Then Then F G E D ■ Problem : Prove If A and B true [Continued in next slide] 28 Then D is true . adding new assertions (facts) found. ‡ Data Driven R C ab Data a=1 b=2 Rules if a = 1 & b = 2 if c = 3 then c = 3. system compares data in the working memory against the conditions in the IF parts of the rules and determines which rule to fire.w w w . ‡ The algorithm proceeds from a given situation to a desired goal.de rs .

‡ Proved 29 .in fo yr ea AI – Expert system – Inference Engine [Continued from previous slide] w .w ■ Solution : (i) ‡ Start with input given A. ‡ go for second iteration C Second iteration : (v) ‡ Rule 2 fires : conclusion G is true ‡ new knowledge found (vi) ‡ Rule 4 fires : conclusion D is true ‡ Goal found. B is true and then ‡ start at Rule 1 and go forward/down till a rule C ha kr ab or w R “fires'' is found.m ty . First iteration : (ii) ‡ Rule 3 fires : conclusion E is true ‡ new knowledge found (iii) ‡ No other rule fires. ‡ end of first iteration.de rs . ‡ new knowledge found at (ii). (iv) ‡ Goal not found.

‡ The algorithm proceeds from desired goal.m yr 5. ‡ Goal Driven R C C ha kr ab or ty ea AI – Expert system – Inference Engine Data a=1 b=2 Rules if a = 1 & b = 2 if c = 3 then c = 3.2 Backward Chaining Algorithm Backward chaining is a techniques for drawing inferences from Rule base. ‡ A backward-chaining.de rs .w w w .in fo . then d = 4 Conclusion d=4 ‡ Example : Backward Channing ■ Given : Rule base contains following Rule set Rule 1: If A and C Rule 2: If A and E Rule 3: If B Rule 4: If G Then Then Then Then F G E D ■ Problem : Prove If A and B true [Continued in next slide] 30 Then D is true . system looks for the action in the THEN clause of the rules that matches the specified goal. Backward-chaining inference is often called goal driven. adding new assertions found.

(iv) ‡ no other rule fires. ‡ new sub goal found at (iii). end of first iteration.w ■ Solution : (i) ‡ Start with goal ie D is true ‡ go backward/up till a rule "fires'' is found. ‡ go for second iteration R Second iteration : (v) ‡ Rule 3 fires : ‡ conclusion B is true (2nd input found) ‡ both inputs A and B ascertained ‡ Proved 31 . conclusion: A is true ‡ new sub goal to prove E is true ‡ go backward.de rs .in fo yr ea AI – Expert system – Inference Engine [Continued from previous slide] w . C C ha kr ab or w First iteration : (ii) ‡ Rule 4 fires : ‡ new sub goal to prove G is true ‡ go backward (iii) ‡ Rule 2 "fires''.m ty .

w w w . 32 a solution is reached or the tree is .in fo . include node A on a list of sub-goals outstanding.m 5. and so on. Many tree searching algorithms exists but two basic approaches are depth-first search and breadth-first search. ■ Breadth-First Search ‡ Algorithm starts by expanding all the nodes one level below the initial node. ‡ Find the shortest path from initial assertion to a solution. ‡ Expand all nodes till completely expanded. Note : Here these two search are briefly mentioned since they were described with examples in the previous lectures. ‡ If no more lower level nodes. ‡ If not.3 Tree Searches Often a knowledge base is represented as a branching network or tree. ■ Depth-First Search R C C ha kr ab or ty yr ea AI – Expert system – Inference Engine ‡ Algorithm begins at initial node ‡ Check to see if the left-most below initial node (call node A) is a goal node.de rs . and goal node not reached. ‡ Then starts with node A and looks at the first node below it. then start from last node on outstanding list and follow next route of descent to the right.

w w w .1 Shell components and description The generic components of a shell : knowledge Base. prescribed method for building applications A shell is associated by configuring and R C C instantiating these components. the user the explanation and the interface are shown below.m 6. The knowledge base and reasoning engine Expert System Shell E x p e r t Knowledge Acquisition Subsystem Inference Mechanism Reasoning with Uncertainty Knowledge Base Facts. 6. Expert System Shells ty An yr ea AI – Expert system – Shells Expert system shell is a software development environment.in fo . the reasoning. the knowledge acquisition.de rs . are the core components. Heuristics Explanation Subsystem User Interface U s e r Knowledge Engineer All these components are described in the next slide. It or ha kr ab contains with a the basic components of expert systems. 33 .

collecting knowledge. Some tools use both Frames (objects) and IF-THEN rules. ■ Reasoning Engine C In PROLOG the Inference mechanisms for manipulating the symbolic information and knowledge in the knowledge base form a line of reasoning in solving simple a problem. The explanation can range from how the final or intermediate solutions were arrived at justifying the need for additional data.w ■ Knowledge Base w w ab or A store of factual and heuristic knowledge. The user interface is generally not a part of the expert system technology. needed to solve problems and build the knowledge base. ■ User Interface A means of communication with the user. ■ Knowledge Acquisition subsystem A subsystem to help experts in build knowledge bases. knowledge is represented as logical statements.m ty . However. ■ Explanation subsystem A subsystem that explains the system's actions. The inference mechanism chaining of can range from to modus ponens backward IF-THEN rules Case-Based reasoning. However. is the biggest bottleneck in building expert systems.de rs . 34 . provides one or more knowledge Expert system schemes tool for C ha representation kr R expressing knowledge about the application domain.in fo yr ea AI – Expert system – Shells [continuing from previous slide] . the user interface can make a critical difference in the perceived utility of an Expert system. It was not given much attention in the past.

m 7. . the system did not give any conclusion. and engine_turn_over.de rs . They The are rules codes typically of an reflect expert's empirical. Do you smell gas ? Yes Recommendation . the system is asking a question. not the expert's deeper understanding. The questions are answered by referring to the system goals. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 35 Rule trace reports on the progress of a consultation. Explanation Most expert systems have explanation facilities that allow the user to ask questions . Does the engine turn over ? Yes. the rules being used. solving.in fo . or and existing problem knowledge. Why ? I used the rule: If not start. yr ea AI – Expert system – Explanation "compiled" rules of thumb.why and how it reached some conclusion. but it does not contain the knowledge of what a flooded car is and why waiting will help. and knows the questions to be ask to determine if the car is flooded. System User System User System User System User System Does the car start ? No. Explanation of Explanation of Explanation of how why why the system reached to the given conclusion.w w w or ty ha kr ab R C C . Types of Explanation There are four types of explanations commonly used in expert systems. and smell_gas Then recommendation is 'Wait 5 minutes and try again' User Note : The rule gives the correct advice for a flooded car.Wait 5 minutes and try again. Example : Dialog with an expert system designed to give advice on car problems.

The applications of expert systems technology have widely proliferated to industrial and commercial problems. The main applications are stated in next few slides. However. the diagnosis of engineering systems quickly surpassed medical diagnosis. personnel. modular home building and manufacturing involving complex engineering design. For example. The Expert systems have been very useful to find solutions.w w w or ty ha kr ab R C C . and gates.de rs .m 8. Application of Expert Systems The Expert systems have found their way into most areas of knowledge work. the manufacturing process planning and job scheduling. and even helping NASA to plan the maintenance of a space shuttle for its next flight. ‡ Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Devices and Systems Medical diagnosis was one of the first knowledge areas to which Expert system technology was applied in 1976.in fo . 36 . ‡ Planning and Scheduling The Expert system's commercial potential in planning and scheduling has been recognized as very large. Examples are airlines scheduling yr ea AI – Expert system – Application their flights. ‡ Configuration of Manufactured Objects from sub-assemblies Configuration problems are synthesized from a given set of elements related by a set of constraints.

The two most widely known Expert systems are : one. ES are used in typical applications in the financial markets / foreign exchange trading. tactics.m ‡ Financial Decision Making The financial services are the vigorous user of expert system ty . ‡ Knowledge Publishing This is relatively new.w w kr ab techniques. and individual tax policy. looking for anomalies. Examples of real-time systems that actively monitor processes are found in the steel making and oil refining industries. ‡ Process Monitoring and Control Here Expert system does analysis of real-time data from physical devices. and the other. Here the primary function of the Expert system is to deliver knowledge that is relevant to the user's problem.de rs . an advisor on appropriate grammatical usage in a text. ranging from high-level conceptual design of abstract entities all the way to factory floor configuration of manufacturing processes.in fo yr ea AI – Expert system – Application w . predicting trends. ‡ Design and Manufacturing Here the Expert systems assist in the design of physical devices and processes. but also potentially explosive area. 37 . controlling optimality and failure correction. Advisory programs have been created to assist bankers in determining whether to make to loans assess to the businesses risk presented and by C C ha or individuals. Insurance companies R the customer and to determine a price for the insurance. is a tax advisor on tax strategy.

"Expert Systems: Introduction To First And Second Generation And Hybrid Knowledge Based Systems". 5. McGraw Hill companies Inc. by Chris Nikolopoulos. by Elaine Rich and Kevin Knight. Related documents from open source.. mainly internet. 4.References 1.m 9. page 1-293. page 1-325 . S. page 1-464. R C ha 3. CRC Press INC. by Dan W Patterson.in fo . page 547-557.w w w . References : Textbooks ty yr ea AI – Expert sytem . (2007). S. being prepared for inclusion at a later date. (1996). "Artificial intelligence and expert systems for engineers".de rs . Rajeev. (2006). kr ab or C 2. by C. "Artificial Intelligence". Mercell Dekker INC. "Introduction To Artificial Intelligence & Expert Systems". Krishnamoorthy. Prentice-hall. (1997). 38 An exhaustive list is . Chapter 20.